RECENT ADVANCES ON
MOTION ANALYSIS IN
WHAT IS MOTION ANALYSIS?
Modern human movement analysis is the interpretation of
computerized data that documents an individual’s upper and lower
extremities, pelvis, and trunk motion during movement.
The beginning of dynamic calculations of human movement began with
Giovanni Borelli during Renaissance.
• In the past 25 years, the development and subsequent improvement of electronic
technology and computer science has made it easier to analyze human movement.
• Sports performance is directly linked to human motion and performance.
• So, movement analysis is automatically a part of human performance assessment and
• Today in many sports, sports scientists use movement analysis as a tool to enhance
techniques, correct movement errors, assess metabolic costs related to a variety of
movements, and aid in rehabilitation.
• Modern computerized systems of movement analysis generally consist of
placing special markers on the subject that will transmit informative data
from their position in space to receiver device or force platforms.
• Computer software programs are used to evaluate the collected data and
• Movement researchers can determine:
measure deviations from a desired pattern, and
assess a variety of biomechanical errors made by an athlete.
TYPES OF ANALYSIS:
• Temporal (repetitions, timing)
• Kinematic (positions, motion)
• Kinetic (forces, moments of force)
• Electromyography (muscle activation)
• Quantifies durations of performances in whole (race time) or in part (split
times, stride times, stroke rates, etc.)
• Instruments include:
• stop watches, electronic timers
• timing gates
• frame-by-frame video analysis
Donovan Bailey sets world
record (9.835) despite
slowest reaction time
(0.174) of finalists
• Position, velocity & acceleration
• Angular position, velocity & acceleration
• Distance travelled
• tape measures, electronic sensors.
• Linear displacement
• point-to-point linear distance and direction
• Angular displacement
• changes in joint angular orientations from
• Instrumentation includes:
• tape measures, electrogoniometers
• speed guns, accelerometers
• motion capture from video or other imaging devices
(cinefilm, TV, infrared, ultrasonic, etc.)
• GPS, gyroscopes, wireless sensors
• Cheap to very expensive range.
• Cheap yields low information
• e.g., stride length, range of motion, distance jumped or speed of object
thrown or batted
• Expensive yields over-abundance of data
• e.g., marker trajectories and their kinematics, segment, joint, and total
body linear and angular kinematics, in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions
Gait Characteristics - Walking
one gait cycle
Cheap: Gait Characteristics of Running or Sprinting
Cheap: Gait Characteristics of Running or Sprinting
one gait cycle
Notice that running foot- prints are
typically on the midline unlike walking
when they are on either side
Stride velocity = stride length / stride time
Stride rate = 1 / stride time
Cheap: video analysis of sprinting
• Hip locations of last 60 meters of 100-m race
• Male 10.03 s
• accelerated to
60 m before
of 12 m/s
• Female 11.06 s
• accelerated to
70 m before
of 10 m/s
male: 12 m/s
female: 10 m/s
Race time (s)
• Direct measures such as electro goniometry (for joint angles) or accelerometry are
relatively inexpensive but can yield real-time information of selected parts of the
• Accelerometry is particularly useful for evaluating impacts to the body.
form is a 3D
er and 3
Expensive: Gait and Movement Analysis Laboratory
• Multiple infrared cameras or infrared markers
• Motion capture system
• Usually multiple force platforms
Subject has 42 reflective
markers for 3D tracking of all
major body segments and
• Forces or moments of force (torques)
• Impulse and momentum (linear and angular)
• Mechanical energy (potential and kinetic)
• Work (of forces and moments)
• Power (of forces and moments)
• Two ways of obtaining kinetics:
• Direct dynamometry
• Use of instruments to directly
measure external and internal
• Indirect dynamometry via inverse dynamics
• Indirectly estimate internal forces
and moments of force from directly
measured kinematics, body segment
parameters and externally measured
Gait laboratory with 10
Motion Analysis cameras and
walkway with five force
Instron compression tester for force and
deformation measures of
bones, muscles, ligaments, etc., under
• Measurement of force, moment of force, or power
• Instrumentation includes:
• Force transducers
• Pressure mapping sensors
• Force platforms
• concentric, eccentric, isotonic
• process of measuring the electrical discharges due to muscle recruitment
• only quantifies the active component of muscle, passive component is
• levels are relative to a particular muscle and a particular person therefore
need a method to compare muscle/muscle or person/person
• not all subjects can perform maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) to
• effective way to identify patterns of muscle recruitment
• surface (safest, painless, best for sports)
• fine wire (better for detecting which part of muscle is active)
• needle (best for medical)
• identifies whether a particular muscle is active or inactive
• can help to identify pre-fatigue and
• encumbers the subject
• difficult to interpret
• cannot identify contribution muscle is
making (concentric, eccentric, isometric)
• should be recorded with kinematics
MOTION ANALYSIS METHODOLGY
• Export motion analysis positional data into a numeric computational
software such as:
Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) or
symbolic manipulation software such as Maple (MapleSoft, Inc.) or
Mathematica (WolframResearch, Inc.).
• An algorithm is used to automatically do the calculations.
software is used to calculate inverse dynamics( computes the net turning
effect of all the anatomical structures across a joint) such as
KinTools RT (MotionAnalysis),
Vicon BodyBuilder (Vicon),
Mathematical Mechanical Systems Pack (Wolfram Research, Inc.), etc
SPORTS BIOMECHANICS ANALYSIS
PLANES OF MOTION
• In sports, body segments are invariably forced to move in different planes of
• To gain an accurate assessment of global and relative planes of motion, threedimensional angular rotation and velocity vectors have to be calculated.
• This is particularly important for sports such as golf, which place a coaching
emphasis on shoulder, hip, arm and shaft planes.
• Angular velocity vectors are calculated to determine the segmental
sequencing patterns in athletic motion.
• A general adherence to the proximal to distal sequencing scheme
promotes effective performance in most sports that produce high-end
effector velocities, such as in the golf swing, cricket bowling and baseball
• Sequencing patterns are particular to each sport, and may also
differentiate between elite and amateur athletes.
SUMMATION OF SEGMENTAL VELOCITIES
• In the classic kinetic link principle, each succeeding distal segment is
activated after the corresponding proximal segment has reached its
maximum linear or angular velocity.
• the maximum velocity of the proximal segment or joint is added to its
corresponding distal segment throughout the kinematic chain.
STRETCH-SHORTENING CYCLE ACTIVATION
• pre- stretching of muscles increases the strength of the subsequent concentric
• Stretch shortening cycles are activated at various times in sports.
• However, there is a distinct phase known as the transition phase in which the
stretch shortening cycles of the major power actuating muscles are most
strongly activated during eccentric contractions.
• Motion analysis techniques need to identify the various stretch shortening cycles
that occur in movement patterns.
• Activation of stretch shortening cycle in terms of thigh flexion, knee
flexion, time occurrence of maximum knee flexion and knee flexion
• Segmental sequencing in maximal velocity in step kicking.
• Causal mechanisms of proximal to distal sequencing in kicking.
• Identification of swing plane.
• Activation of static stretch shortening cycle.
• Major segment velocity contributions in the golf swing.
• Segmental sequencing of elite fast bowlers
• Forward solution model to reduce shoulder counter-rotation in bowlers
• Spinal kinetics and lumbar injury in fast bowlers
• Bowling legality analysis.
• Identification of violations in segmental sequencing of the tennis serve.
• Major segment velocity contributions in serving.
Automatic Detection and Analysis of Player Action in Moving Background Sports Video Sequences
Haojie Li, Jinhui Tang,, Si Wu, Yongdong Zhang, and Shouxun Lin
• This study presents a system for automatically detecting and analyzing
complex player actions in moving back- ground sports video
sequences, aiming at action-based sports videos indexing and providing
kinematic measurements for coach assistance and performance
• Two visual analyzing tools:
motion panorama (360 degrees view)
overlay composition (help capture images for a specific layout or design).
• Real diving and jump game videos are used to test the proposed system
and algorithms, and to show their effectiveness.
Activity Recognition Using Inertial Sensing for Healthcare, Wellbeing and
Sports Applications: A Survey
Akin Avci, Stephan Bosch, Mihai Marin-Perianu, Raluca Marin-Perianu, Paul Havinga
• Traditionally, researchers used vision sensors for activity recognition.
• With the advancements in micro sensor technology, low-powerwire- less
communication and wireless sensor networks(WSNs), inertial sensor
systems provide a low-cost, effective and privacy-aware alternative for
• The most widely used inertial sensors are accelerometers and
• A gyroscope sensor measures the angular velocity by using the tendency
of vibration in the same plane as an object vibrates.
• SPORTS AND LEISURE APPLICATIONS:
• Body-worn WSNs can also be used for recognition of sportive and leisure
activities in order increase the lifestyle quality of people.
• Used in cycling, playing football, exercising with a rowing machine, and
running both for supervised and unsupervised data.
• Besides, Long et al. present a system for computing daily energy
expenditure for daily activities and sportive activities such as soccer,
volley- ball, badminton, table tennis, etc.
• Detection of motion sequences in martial arts is also another application
ﬁeld for WSNs.
• Heinz et al. used body-worn accelerometers and gyroscopes for motion
sequences in order to increase interaction in videogames of martialarts.
• They surveyed the different approaches for activity recognition using
inertial sensors, with a focus on applications from health care, well-being
• As a general observation, they noted that in almost all cases results
reported in the literature are obtained by ﬁrst gathering the sensory
information on a central computer and then processing the data offline.
• Performing activity recognition online and in a distributed manner (i.e.
with each sensor having just a partial view of the overall situation)
remains therefore an open research question.
Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non- contact anterior cruciate
ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are
combined components of the injury mechanism
• T E Hewett, J S Torg, B P Boden
• Background: The combined positioning of the trunk and knee in the
coronal and sagittal planes during non-contact anterior cruciate ligament
(ACL) injury has not been previously reported.
• Hypothesis: During ACL injury female athletes demonstrate greater lateral
trunk and knee abduction angles than ACL-injured male athletes and
uninjured female athletes.
• Design: Cross-section control-cohort design.
• Methods: Analyses of still captures from 23 coronal (10 female and 7
male ACL-injured players and 6 female controls) or 28 sagittal plane
videos performing similar landing and cutting tasks.
• Conclusion: Female athletes landed with greater lateral trunk motion and
knee abduction during ACL injury than did male athletes or control
females during similar landing and cutting tasks.
• Clinical relevance: Lateral trunk and knee abduction motion are
important components of the ACL injury mechanism in female athletes
as observed from video evidence of ACL injury.
Visual Analysis of Time-Motion in Basketball Games
Roberto Thero´n and Laura Casares
• One of the main features of a basketball coach is the visual memory.
• The study aims to facilitate the work of coaches and advance the study of
basketball, offering a chance to see and analyze the movements that the players
have previously made in the ﬁeld of play, and their implications.
• Other aim was to provide both statistical and kinematic analysis of the data
collected for each of players to facilitate monitoring over several physical
• The main data sources are individual wearable Global Positioning System (GPS)
devices, that enable the collection of real time data related to the position of
each player in the court during the whole match or training exercise.
• Time-motion analysis (TMA) is a standard analytical procedure to
determine the time and energy invested in an activity for a period of time.
• Through this process the various patterns of movement involved in sport
situations, such as speeds, durations or distances are collected and
• They obtained valuable information on the use of energy systems, and on
speciﬁc movement patterns of each sport.
• In particular, TMA has been used in rugby, football, hockey and
Methods for Time-Motion Analysis
There are basically two ways to get data from TMA:
• Video systems and GPS devices.
• GPS technology has been adapted in recent years to serve as a training
tool, improving portability and generating useful data for the athlete
(distance travelled, speed, etc.).
• Generally it has been used in sports’ training covering long
distances, such as walking or cycling.
• Athlete’s heart rate can also be monitored.
• There are some basic applications of data visualization that are supplied
with TMA technologies for different sports.
• Example: RealTrack (www.realtrackfootball.com) offers four modules
1) the basic plot of heart rate,
2) kinematic data monitoring,
3) calculation of positional relationships between players and their graphic
4) video module that allows browsing the data collected over time.
• Especially in football, many similar systems to RealTrack have been
developed in the last three or four years.
• An approach based on visual analysis would improve the cognitive ability
of the athlete or coach to make decisions.
Measurement of Normal Lumbar Spine Range of Motion in the
College-Aged Turkish Population Using a 3D Ultrasound-Based
Motion Analysis System
• Christopher Carling , Jonathan Bloomfield, Lee Nelson ,Thomas Reilly
• Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine range of motion values of
lumbar spine in Turkish people by using 3D motion analysis method.
• Patients and Methods: The study included 100 subjects (50 males, 50 females;
range 18 to 22 years).
• The Zebris® 3D Motion Analysis System was used for the measurement. Lateral
bending, flexion, extension, pelvic tilt were evaluated in the measurements.
The normal values of movements of lumbar spine in Turkish people have
been determined with 3D motion analysis system.
Key words: Range of motion; pelvic tilt; lumbar spine; Turkey.
MARKERLESS VISUAL TRACKING AND MOTION ANALYSIS FOR SPORTS MONITORING
• In the past decade, detailed biomechanical motion analysis has become
an important part of athletic training and performance evaluation.
• However, most commercially available systems are obtrusive and require
complicated experimental setup and dedicated laboratory settings.
• This thesis presents a robust real-time vision-based tracking system
based on a miniaturized, low-power, autonomous Visual Sensor Network
• The system is able to provide real-time motion monitoring with on-node
• The proposed method is applied to motion tracking of indoor tennis
training and performance evaluation.
Recent Developments in Human Motion Analysis
Liang Wang, Weiming Hu, Tieniu Tan
• Visual analysis of human motion is currently one of the most active
research topics in computer vision.
• Human motion analysis concerns the detection, tracking and recognition
of people, and more generally, the understanding of human
behaviors, from image sequences involving humans.
• This study provides a comprehensive survey of research on computer
vision based human motion analysis.
• The emphasis is on three major issues involved in a general human
motion analysis system, namely human detection, tracking and activity
• Keywords: Human motion analysis; Detection; Tracking; Behavior
understanding; Semantic description
AN ANALYSIS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS' MOVEMENTS IN THE SLOVENIAN
BASKETBALL LEAGUE PLAY-OFFS USING THE SAGIT TRACKING SYSTEM
• Frane Erčulj, Brane Dežman, Goran Vučković, Janez Perš, Matej
Perše, Matej Kristan
• The main aim of the study was to present the SAGIT measuring system
and to establish the covered distance and the average velocity of
basketball players' movements by using the aforementioned system.
• The SAGIT system is a relatively new technology which is based on
computer-vision methods and enables an automated acquisition of data
from the video recordings of games.
• The system was used to track the movements of 23 basketball players
from two teams during three games of the play- offs of the Slovenian
National Championship for men.
• It was established that during the 40 minutes of the active phase of the
game the players covered a distance of 4,404 m on average and that
during the passive phase, they covered an additional 1,831 meters.
• The players' average velocity of movement during the active phase of the
game was 1.86 m/s.
• Although the players from one of the teams moved slightly faster and
covered a greater distance, the differences between the teams in terms
of the average velocity and covered distance were not statistically
• Key words: basketball player tracking, computer vision
• ADVANCED APPLICATIONS OF MOTION ANALYSIS IN SPORTS
BIOMECHANICS René E.D. Ferdinands
• Automatic Detection and Analysis of Player Action in Moving Background
Sports Video Sequences, Haojie Li, Jinhui Tang, Si Wu, Yongdong
Zhang, and Shouxun Lin 2010.
• Activity Recognition Using Inertial Sensing for Healthcare, Wellbeing and
Sports Applications: A Survey
Akin Avci, Stephan Bosch, Mihai Marin-Perianu, Raluca Marin-Perianu, Paul
Havinga University of Twente, The Netherlands
• MOVEMENT ANALYSIS IN SPORTS AND BASKETBALL, Ilker Yücesir
• Video analysis of trunk and knee motion during non- contact anterior
cruciate ligament injury in female athletes: lateral trunk and knee
abduction motion are combined components of the injury mechanism
T E Hewett,J S Torg, B P Boden
• Visual Analysis of Time-Motion in Basketball Games, Roberto Thero´n and
• Measurement of Normal Lumbar Spine Range of Motion in the CollegeAged Turkish Population Using a 3D Ultrasound-Based Motion Analysis
• Markerless Visual Tracking and Motion Analysis for Sports
Monitoring, Julien Pansiot
• Recent Developments in Human Motion Analysis ,Liang Wang, Weiming
Hu, Tieniu Tan
• AN ANALYSIS OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS' MOVEMENTS IN THE SLOVENIAN
BASKETBALL LEAGUE PLAY-OFFS USING THE SAGIT TRACKING SYSTEM.