FUNCTIONS OF KIDNEY- Fluid balance. Removal of waste products from the blood. Maintaining normal blood pressure by balancing electrolyte such as Na & K. Regulating bone mineralization. Production of RBC’s.
FILTERATION MEMBRANE-Nephrons The functional unit of the kidney is the nephrons. Each kidney consist of thousands of nephrons. Nephrons contains a filtration membrane which removes excess body water and waste products.
HOW DOES KIDNEY FAIL? When the kidney not able to clean waste product from the blood. Production of hormones go abnormal resulting in anaemia. The capacity of kidney also decline with the age. FAILURE ARE OF TWO TYPES: Acute Kidney failure -patient treated with dialysis for certain period until their kidney recovers. ESRD – loss of kidney function is permanent.
SYMPTOMS OF KIDNEY FAILURE NAUSEA AND VOMMITING LOSS OF APPETITE ITCHINESS HIGH B.P TIREDNESS SWOLLEN ANKLES BAD TASTE IN THE MOUTH
COMMON CAUSES FOR KIDNEYFAILURE- DIABETES MELLITUS HYPERTENSION GLOMERULONEPHRITIS VASCULAR DISEASE POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASE
WHAT HAPPEN IF KIDNEY FAILUREOCCURS?End Stage Renal Disease These are the successful treatment which can be done:- PERITONEAL DIALYSIS HAEMODIALYIS TRANSPLANTATIONThese treatments can help you to stay healthy and continue your daily activities.
HOW DOES DIALYSIS WORK?1. DIFFUSION: MOVEMENT OF SOLUTES FROM HIGHER CONC. TO LOWER UNTIL THE EQUILIBRIUM STAGE MAINLY SMALL MOLECULES ARE REMOVED BY DIALYSIS. BOTH PD AND HAEMODIALYSIS BASED ON THIS.
2.OSMOSIS:-Movement of solute from low conc. to higher until equilibrium is achieved.-Solute- osmotic agenet normally glucose.3.ULTRAFILTRATION:-Done by using dialysis fluid with an increased conc. Of glucose or sugar.-higher the glucose content the more excess fluid will b removed.4.CONVECTION:- Concomitant of ultrafiltration- In this the fluid drags the solute with it.
P.D CARRIED OUT IN TWO WAYS Manually(CAPD) Automatically(APD)Three steps for manual treatment:- INFLOW(fresh pd fluid) CYCLER- DWELL(dialysis takes place)- OUTFLOW (Effluent)
PRECAUTIONS: STERILE-(equipment free of micro-organism) CLEAN-(hand wash for 60 secs) Do not perform bag exchange where there is lot of movement. Pets should not be in the room. Avoid distraction. Proper medication. Visit regularly to the dialysis centre.
SUGGESTIONS Hydrate yourself. Avoid unnecessary medication. Avoid overloading of a kidney with protein(only 2 ounces) Keep cholesterol in good level. Keep blood pressure in good control.
The kidney plays a vital role in sustaining life.