Instead of buying gold itself, investors can buy the companies that produce the gold as shares in gold mining companies. If the gold price rises, the profits of the gold mining company could be expected to rise and the worth of the company will rise and presumably the share price will also rise.
1: From 1970 to 1980 there has been a decline and then a stagnation in the world gold production resulting in a higher gold price (positive divergence). The price was too low for several decades, forcing some gold mines to close as production costs were above the selling price.Then from 1980 to 2001, for 20 years, the gold world production has increased resulting this time in a decrease of the gold price (negative divergence). Gold mines were producing more in order to compensate for the price decline from $850 to less than 250 dollars an ounce ...2: From 2001 to 2008, we had a decline in gold production and higher prices from 2008 to 2010 (positive divergence). Gold production decreased by 340 tonnes while the gold price has tripled. The prices were too low to encourage the opening of new gold mines as well as exploration.CME-during September 2011 the CME decided to raise margins on gold and silver contracts; the market’s reaction was very quick and bullion rates tumbled down. This is a type of market intervention. If the CME will raise margins due to another heat up in precious metals market, then prices are likely to tumble down;
Central banks keep ignot reserves as a hedge against inflation.
Investing in gold a study
Investing in Gold-A studyPuneet Arora-75141Shantanu Vashishth-75150Teacher-Ms. Vibhuti VashishthBFIA 2B
Contents• Investment Channels• Factors affecting Gold prices in India• Evaluating performance of Gold
Gold bars & coins most traditional way of investing in gold is by buying bulliongold bars these can easily be bought or sold at the major banks orfrom bullion dealers gold bars carry lower premium over spot price than goldcoins. larger bars carry an increased risk of forgery. The Krugerrand is the most widely-held gold bullion coin,with 46,000,000 troy ounces (1,400 tonnes) in circulation.
AccountsGold bullion banks offer two types of gold accounts -allocated and unallocated:1. Allocated account2. Unallocated accountOther opportunities for smaller investors include:1. Gold pool accounts2. Electronic currencies
Exchange Traded Productsinclude ETFs, ETNs, and CEFs which are traded like shareson the major stock exchanges.Gold ETPs represent an easy way to gain exposure to thegold price, without the inconvenience of storing physical bars.Typically a small commission is charged for trading in goldETPs and a small annual storage fee is charged.The annual expenses of the fund such as storage,insurance, and management fees are charged by selling asmall amount of gold represented by each certificate, so theamount of gold in each certificate will gradually decline overtime.
CertificatesGold certificates allow gold investors to avoid the risks andcosts associated with the transfer and storage of physicalbullion (such as theft, large bid-offer spread, and metallurgicalassay costs)It entails taking on a different set of risks and costs associatedwith the certificate itself (such as commissions, storage fees,and various types of credit risk).
Evaluating performance ofGold3-year weekly return correlation on key commodities andgold1-year annualised daily return volatility on key commoditiesand gold22-day rolling annualised daily return volatility on gold andS&P GSPerformance of gold v/s other metalsPerformance of gold v/s other commoditiesGold and S&P(% year charts)Gold & Trade-weighted US dollarGold v/s Sensex
0.470.530.450.15-0.010.210.350.450.470.660.480.73-0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0R/J CRB Commodity IndexDJ UBS Commodity IndexS&P GS Commodity IndexDJ UBS Softs IndexDJ UBS Livestock IndexDJ UBS Grains IndexDJ UBS Energy IndexBrent crude oil (US$/bbl)DJ UBS Industrial IndexPlatinum (US$/oz)Palladium (US$/oz)Silver (US$/oz)CorrelationNotes: Data ending 28 September 2012Source: Bloomberg, LBMA, LME, World Gold CouncilChart: 3-year weekly return correlation on key commodities and gold
0510152025303540DJUBSLivestockIndexGold(US$/oz)R/JCRBCommodityIndexDJUBSCommodityIndexS&PGSCommodityIndexPlatinum(US$/oz)DJUBSSoftsIndexCopperLME(US$/t)AluminumLME(US$/t)ZincLME(US$/t)NickelLME(US$/t)Brentcrudeoil(US$/bbl)Palladium(US$/oz)LeadLME(US$/t)DJUBSEnergyIndexSilver(US$/oz)DJUBSGrainsIndexTinLME(US$/t)%Notes: Data ending 28 September 2012Source:Bloomberg, LBMA, LME, World Gold CouncilChart: 1-year annualised daily return volatility on key commodities and gold (US$)
0102030405060708010/2002 04/2004 10/2005 04/2007 10/2008 04/2010 10/2011%Gold (US$/oz) S&P GS Commodity IndexNotes: Data ending 30 September 2012Source:Bloomberg, World Gold CouncilChart: 22-day rolling anualized daily return volatility on gold and S&P GS
010020030040050060070010/2002 10/2004 10/2006 10/2008 10/2010Index levelGold (US$/oz) S&P 500Notes: Data ending 30 September 2012Source:Bloomberg, World Gold CouncilChart 5: Gold and S&P 500 in US$ (2 Sep 2002=100)
010020030040050060070010/2002 10/2004 10/2006 10/2008 10/2010Index levelGold (US$/oz) Trade-weighted US$Notes: Data ending 30 September 2012Source:Bloomberg, World Gold CouncilChart 6: Gold (US$/oz) and the trade-weighted US dollar
010203040506070809010010/2002 04/2004 10/2005 04/2007 10/2008 04/2010 10/2011%Gold (US$/oz) S&P 500Chart 4: 22-day rolling anualized daily return volatility on gold and S&P 500 (US$)Notes: Data ending 30 September 2012Source:Bloomberg, World Gold Council