The 7-I Framework of Development: The Path to a Sustainable Economy
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The 7-I Framework posits a prescription for development of nations. This paper evaluates the framework, and lays down an empirical foundation for it.

The 7-I Framework posits a prescription for development of nations. This paper evaluates the framework, and lays down an empirical foundation for it.

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The 7-I Framework of Development: The Path to a Sustainable Economy The 7-I Framework of Development: The Path to a Sustainable Economy Document Transcript

  • The 7-I Frameworkof Development:The Path toa SustainableEconomyby Mohit Sauparn and Vivek PundirMBA Class of 2006Emory University for Prof. Jeff Rosensweig’s BUS503: Global Macroeconomic Perspectives
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirTerm Paper: The 7-I’s of DevelopmentSubmitted to: Prof. Jeff RosensweigGlobal Macroeconomic PerspectivesINTRODUCTIONDevelopment is an issue that has bewildered economists for a long time. In fact, evendefining the term is so hairy that they haven’t been able to agree even on that.Some early economic thought equated development with industrialization andmechanization. Over time this has given way to talk about sustainable development.The government of British Columbia, Canada thinks it means “the advancement of themanagement and use of natural resources to satisfy human needs and improve thequality of human life. For development to be sustainable it must take account of socialand ecological factors, as well as economic ones, of the living and non-living resourcebase, and of the long-term and short-term advantages and disadvantages of alternativeactions.”"In an international context", says InterEnvironment, "(development) refers toimproving the economic and social conditions of poorer countries."The United Nations Strategy for Disaster Reduction accepts the definition provided bythe 1987 Brundtland Commission: "Development that meets the needs of the presentwithout compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Itcontains within it two key concepts: the concept of "needs", in particular the essentialneeds of the worlds poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and the idea oflimitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on theenvironments ability to meet present and the future needs." Page 1 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirWe like the definition used by “Botany from Vermont” website in the context of thedevelopment of biological organisms, “Growth and maturation of an organism or somepart of it.” If one replaces “organism” by “nation”, this definition probably conveys, toa large extent, the concept of development. Admittedly, though, this definition is rathervague, and does not do much to further the operational understanding of the term.Having said that, we think that it does give a flavor of the meaning in a “The Fortune atthe Bottom of the Pyramid” sense. Thus, while a society or nation is clearlyunderdeveloped if it is severely impaired by economic constraints, economic wealth, ofand by itself, is not a guarantee of development. Wealth is a necessary, but notsufficient condition, when it comes to development. If the wealth is distributedextremely unevenly so that while the nation is rich overall, the average citizen liesunder the poverty level, or if the wealth does not translate into health, well-being,political and civil liberties etc., it is effectively meaningless.In this context, Prof. Jeff Rosensweig of Emory University has proposed a 7 I’sframework of development. According to this framework, there are seven essentialcomponents/ pre-requisites of development:1. Investment – Investment is the first prerequisite for development, and the only way to grow the economy. While a consumption binge can inflate growth figures for a short while, no development or growth can be sustained without judicious investment into productive assets/ capital.2. Intellectual capital (investment in broad-based education) – While economists have gone to great length discussing capital investments, not many (with the exception of developmental economists like Nobel-laureate Amartya Sen) have done significant work that indicates intellectual capital is often as important as, if not more important than, physical capital in the development of a nation.3. Incentives – While there may be many pieces of the puzzle in place, a nation will not develop unless its incentive structure encourages people to work hard, to save, to invest etc. Page 2 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek Pundir4. Incorrupt society – Corruption can be a huge bugbear for development, and according to Prof. Rosensweig, an incorrupt society is an absolute must-have for development.5. Infrastructure – Good infrastructure is absolutely essential for the holistic economic development of a nation.6. Information – Information wants to be free. And how freely information can flow in the country, in view of legal, regulatory, technical and cultural framework, is an indicator of development as well.7. Internationalization – How integrated the country’s economy is with the rest of the world is another factor that affects its stage of development. The higher the internationalization, the quicker will the nation develop.While this framework has sound theoretical basis, and provides a solid prescriptiveformula for nations aspiring to achieve economic growth for the millions mired inpoverty, we are not aware of any empirical study validating it. This paper attempts a“first cut” empirical study of the framework.METHODO LOGYOur methodology is relatively simple. We sought to test a causal relationship betweendevelopment and the 7I’s using multivariate regression.The challenge was to operationalize the 7 I’s so as to be able to devise some sort ofmeasures for them. While some of these I’s initially appear to be rather touchy-feely,we believe that it is possible to use hard variables as proxies for these.While development was a contentious issue, both of us agreed that the best way to thinkabout sustainable development is to think of purchasing power parity adjusted per capitagross domestic product as it gives a very good sense of the average standard of living inthe country. Page 3 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirInvestment was relatively simple, as there are already several measures of investment.Our task was simply to choose the one that provided the best explanation of varianceand “goodness of fit”.For broad-based intellectual development, we thought of several candidates, includingpublic spending in education as a percentage of GDP, research and developmentspending as a percentage of GDP, enrolment in primary schools, etc.Incentives were the toughest ones to find a proxy for. The only direct way to somehowmeasure incentives is to conduct a comprehensive study of all countries, with thebenefit of local knowledge, and then to assign subjective ratings to the incentivestructure using some sort of a composite scale. We simplified that. Incentives are onlyas good as their effect. So, we decided to measure incentives in terms of their efficacy –if a nation saves more, we assume that it incentivizes saving. Similarly, if a nationworks more hours per week then it incentivizes hard-work.To measure corruption, we turned to the Transparency International’s world corruptionperception index, and used that as a reliable measure of incorrupt society.Infrastructure was another relatively simple one – roads, rails, airports etc. were allindicators of the country’s infrastructure. To adjust for sizes, we used density, ratherthan absolute numbers.Information dissemination was a sticky one. We turned to the Freedom House’s reportto figure out how the countries rate on civil liberties (speech, media etc). We also usedthe penetration of communication methods like cellphones and landlines as candidates.For measuring internationalization we simply picked up various measures ofinternational trade as they relate to the GDP, with the intention of using the one withmost explanatory power in the model.While we were armed with hard data on these factors, we were aware that our resultswould be ballpark results, not the exact numbers since the data were not available forthe same recent period for all parameters, and some data were unavailable for somenations. Page 4 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirAN AL YSI SAfter trying several different models, we decided on this model, which we are quitehappy with as it explains over 85% of the variance in PPP-adjusted GDP per capita.Goodness of fit statistics:Observations 208.000Sum of weights 208.000DF 198.000R² 0.859Adjusted R² 0.852MSE 12801210.958RMSE 3577.878MAPE 64.820DW 2.005Cp 10.000AIC 3413.682SBC 3447.057PC 0.156The equation for this regression line is as follows:GDPPCPPP = -8204.53112615424 +61.9373042307306*BAL+2387.32901048343*CORRUPTION +880.87796966936*R&D%+30.8696289658526*ENROLGIRLS -56.8623451913472*INFO+7.83828124045985*CELL -4.17308720949926*SAVING%+89.0292019987179*FDI% +0.60806418126927*AIRDENSOne variable that we really wanted in the model was the number of work hours perweek, but couldn’t do so as the ILO data that we were able to retrieve had too few data-points. Page 5 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek Pundir GDPPCPPP / Standardized coefficients (95% conf. interval) CORRUPTION 0.7 0.6 0.5 Standardized coefficients CELL 0.4 FDI% 0.3 ENROLGIRLS 0.2 AIRDENS R&D% BAL 0.1 0 SAVING% INFO -0.1 -0.2 VariableThe most amazing thing is that as it turns out, a corruption free society (as indicated bycorruption above) is paramount for economic growth followed closely by free flow ofinformation (as indicated by cell and negative of info above). The next good thing agovernment can do is make the economic climate conducive to foreign directinvestment.Model parameters: Source Value Standard error t Pr > |t| Lower bound (95%) Upper bound (95%)Intercept -8204.531 2166.061 -3.788 0.000 -12476.041 -3933.022BAL 61.937 33.176 1.867 0.063 -3.486 127.360CORRUPTION 2387.329 219.421 10.880 < 0.0001 1954.627 2820.031R&D% 880.878 520.037 1.694 0.092 -144.644 1906.400ENROLGIRLS 30.870 16.008 1.928 0.055 -0.699 62.439INFO -56.862 185.242 -0.307 0.759 -422.163 308.438CELL 7.838 0.943 8.310 < 0.0001 5.978 9.698SAVING% -4.173 32.954 -0.127 0.899 -69.159 60.813FDI% 89.029 13.152 6.769 < 0.0001 63.093 114.966AIRDENS 0.608 1.505 0.404 0.687 -2.359 3.575The model is overall quite good. However, as we observe from the T and p valuesabove, civic liberties, savings as a % of GDP and air flights per sq. km of land aren’tstatistically significant in the model. We believe that a major reason is the lack of gooddata on these factors. A dataset that has more data on these should validate the positivecoefficients (we asked our statistical software to estimate missing values – whichexplains the low significance). Page 6 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirStandardized coefficients: Source Value Standard error t Pr > |t| Lower bound (95%) Upper bound (95%)BAL 0.086 0.046 1.867 0.063 -0.005 0.177CORRUPTION 0.486 0.045 10.880 < 0.0001 0.398 0.574R&D% 0.052 0.031 1.694 0.092 -0.009 0.113ENROLGIRLS 0.054 0.028 1.928 0.055 -0.001 0.110INFO -0.011 0.035 -0.307 0.759 -0.079 0.058CELL 0.352 0.042 8.310 < 0.0001 0.268 0.435SAVING% -0.006 0.046 -0.127 0.899 -0.096 0.084FDI% 0.236 0.035 6.769 < 0.0001 0.167 0.305AIRDENS 0.014 0.034 0.404 0.687 -0.053 0.081Even in terms of standardized coefficients (real coefficients, stripped of units),corruption-freeness, information flow, and FDI turn out to be the most influentialfactors, and these should be the priorities of any developing nation. GDPPCPPP / Standardized residuals 4 3 Standardized residuals 2 1 0 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 -1 -2 -3 GDPPCPPP Page 7 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek Pundir Pred(GDPPCPPP) / Standardized residuals 4 3Standardized residuals 2 1 0 -10000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 -1 -2 -3 Pred(GDPPCPPP) Pred(GDPPCPPP) / GDPPCPPP 70000 60000 50000 40000GDPPCPPP 30000 20000 10000 0 -10000 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 -10000 Pred(GDPPCPPP) Page 8 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek Pundir Standardized residuals / GDPPCPPP Obs196 Obs181 Obs166 Obs151 Obs136 Observations Obs121 Obs106 Obs91 Obs76 Obs61 Obs46 Obs31 Obs16 Obs1 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 Standardized residualsThe residual charts above further strengthen our belief in a good fit, and validate themodel further.Having said that, we believe that if more data is available, it would be worthwhile toconduct a factor analysis, and then run an explanatory multivariate regression. Thecleaner data, with more data points, combined with this analysis could lead to the 7I’sexplaining up to 92% of the variance in the standards of living in different countries.Having gone over the statistical relationship of development and the 7 I’s, we decidedto have a quick look at how GDP growth relates to the PPP-adjusted GDP per-capita.In the chart below, the bars represent the PPP-adjusted GDP per-capita, and are scaledto the left y-axis. The line with rhombus data-points represents the GDP growth %, andis measured on the right y-axis. The data are arranged in descending order of PPP-adjusted GDP per-capita. The smooth, thick line is a trend-line for GDP growth. Whilethere are wild variations in GDP growth, the trend-line is unequivocal about therelationship. There is a clear, non-linear relation between GDP growth and PPP-adjusted GDP per-capita, and growth peaks around the middle values of PPP-adjustedGDP per-capita. While the developed nations are slow to grow (matured?), the“emerging economies” are really driving growth. Page 9 of 46
  • 0 10000 20000 30000 40000 50000 60000 70000 Luxembourg Ireland United States Norway Switzerland Netherlands Austria Iceland Denmark Canada United Kingdom Belgium Australia Sweden France Japan Finland Hong Kong, China Italy Germany Singapore Spain Israel New Zealand Cyprus CONCLUSIONS Greece Slovenia Korea, Rep. Bahrain Portugal Czech Republic Kuwait Malta Seychelles Barbados Hungary Oman Saudi Arabia Slovak Republic Estonia St. Kitts and Nevis Poland Lithuania Croatia Argentina Mauritius Trinidad and Latvia South Africa Antigua and Chile Costa Rica Malaysia Mexico Russian Federation Botswana Uruguay Grenada Brazil Romania Thailand Bulgaria Tunisia Dominican Republic Turkey Tonga Iran, Islamic Rep. Panama GDPPCPPP Colombia Kazakhstan Bosnia and Belize Gabon Macedonia, FYR St. Vincent and the Algeria Namibia Belarus Turkmenistan St. Lucia Fiji Ukraine Cape Verde Dominica Samoa GDPGRTH Peru Venezuela, RB Lebanon El Salvador China Swaziland Paraguay Albania Jordan Philippines Guyana Guatemala Morocco Egypt, Arab Rep. Jamaica Sri Lanka Syrian Arab Armenia Ecuador Azerbaijan Indonesia Nicaragua India Vanuatu Poly. (GDPGRTH) Honduras Georgia Papua New Guinea Bolivia Lesotho Vietnam Ghana Cambodia Angola Guinea Pakistan Cameroon Djibouti Mauritania Sudan Gambia, The Mongolia Comoros Lao PDR Bangladesh Kyrgyz Republic Rosensweig. The model developed by us has good explanatory power. Haiti Solomon Islands Uzbekistan Togo Senegal Moldova Cote dIvoire Uganda Nepal Rwanda operationalized by us does, in fact, depend on the 7 I’s propounded by Prof. Chad Burkina Faso Mozambique Central African Benin Tajikistan Nigeria Eritrea Kenya Mali Congo, Rep. much more powerful in explaining growth rather than development as status quo. Zambia Yemen, Rep. Niger Madagascar Sierra Leone of the issues with data availability. However, we also believe that incentives will be Ethiopia Guinea-Bissau Congo, Dem. Rep. flow freely in terms of technology as well as civic-liberties. The third most important Burundi Tanzania The incentives do not seem to have as much explanatory power. Part of this is because for developing nations: work on the 7 I’s, but start with eradicating corruption, for that Malawi aspect is to create an economic environment that encourages foreign direct investment. would yield the biggest returns. Also create a more open society where information can 0 5 -5 10 15 20 On the basis of our preliminary analysis, it certainly seems that development as defined/ -10 In addition, looking at the strength of association, we can lay out the simple prescriptionPage 10 of 46 Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek Pundir
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirL I M I T AT I O N S O F T H I S S T U D YWhile we believe our study is a good first estimation of the global environment, it is byno means perfect, exhaustive or definitive. We have presented this study as a first-cutanalysis, and expect improvements in several areas.For one, we believe that the credibility of the study can be greatly enhanced byanalyzing not just the status quo, but also the trends over time. We believe that trendsadd much more richness to the analysis.We were also constrained by the periodicity of available reports. Not all reports arereleased at the same time or even with the same periodicity – some are annual, othersbiennial, while others may even be updated quarterly. Ambivalent for a while betweenusing the latest possible data, and using data for the same time period across thedifferent attributes, we ended up going with the former strategy, as we wanted to becurrent and relevant. However, we do recognize that this is far from perfect, andmatching the release dates of all reports is clearly a good alternative strategy.Another constraint was the survey sample. Not all our references reported on allcountries. Therefore, we had to opt for the lowest common denominator in terms of thesample of nations included in the analysis. Ideally, of course, we would like to see theanalysis include all countries of the world.Lastly, we have used several proxies for the 7 I’s propounded in the frameworkdeveloped by Prof. Rosensweig. While we attempted to be judicious about the choice ofthese proxies, and even tested out several before settling for the set used, we do concedethe possibility of another set of proxies being more appropriate to the model.B I B L I O G R AP H Y• Rosensweig, Jeff. “The 7 I’s of Development Framework” (as discussed in BUS503 class). Emory University• Anonymous. “Freedom in the World 2005 Report”. Freedom House, 2005• Anonymous. “Global Corruption Barometer 2005 Report”. Transparency International, 2005 Page 11 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek Pundir• Anonymous. “Human Development Report 2004”. United Nations Development Programme, 2004• Anonymous. “International Financial Statistics”. International Monetary Fund Statistics Website, http://www.imfstatistics.org, April 2006• Anonymous. “World Development Indicators Online”. The World Bank, http://devdata.worldbank.org/data-query/, 2003• Anonymous. “Labour Statistics Database”. International Labour Organization, 2003• Anonymous. “Terminology of disaster risk reduction”. United Nations Internationa Strategy for Disaster Reduction Website, http://www.unisdr.org/eng/library/lib- terminology-eng%20home.htm, April 2006• Anonymous. “Glossary”. InterEnvironment Website, http://www.interenvironment.org/wd1intro/glossary.htm, April 2006• Anonymous. “Forestry Glossary of Terms”. Government of British Columbia, Canada, 2006• Anonymous. “Dictionary”. Botany from Vermont Website, http://www.botanyvt.com/pages/dictionary.shtml, April 2006 Page 12 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirAPPENDIXWe collected several candidate proxies for each of the I’s and ultimately based our analysis andconclusions on the principle of “goodness of fit”. Here we are including, for the record, all the datacollected.Vital StatisticsCOUNTRY_NAME GDP growth GDP per GDP, PPP GNI per Surface Land area Population Population, PPP (annual %) capita, PPP (current capita, PPP area (sq km) (sq km) density total conversion (current in international (current in (people per factor to officiCNTRY GDPGRTH GDPPCPPP GDPPPP GNIPCPPP AREA LAND DENSITY POP PPPAfghanistan 15.7 652090 652090 44.11349Albania 5.996418 4574.737 14497640000 4710 28750 27400 115.6593 3169064 0.3934311Algeria 6.8 6174.575 1.96553E+11 5930 2381740 2381740 13.36528 31832610 0.3460577American Samoa 200 200 285 57000Andorra 468 468 141.0256 66000Angola 3.449817 2140.519 28944330000 1850 1246700 1246700 10.84632 13522110 0.4776423Antigua and Barbuda 4.9 10494.09 824625500 9930 440 440 178.5909 78580 0.9207321Argentina 8.837044 11559.71 4.37763E+11 11310 2780400 2736690 13.83779 37869730 0.296041Armenia 13.90584 3670.99 11217190000 3790 29800 28200 108.3557 3055630 0.2500482Aruba 190 190 521.0526 99000Australia 3.8 28939.46 5.75346E+11 28110 7741220 7682300 2.587897 19881000 0.9079288Austria 0.7489597 30938.32 2.50291E+11 30570 83860 82730 97.78799 8090000 1.011288Azerbaijan 11.2 3617.448 29782450000 3390 86600 82600 99.67313 8233000 0.2396762Bahamas, The 13880 10010 31.70963 317413.4Bahrain 6.78 19108.85 13599040000 18070 710 710 1002.341 711661.8 0.7064016Bangladesh 5.255901 1770.178 2.44402E+11 1870 144000 130170 1060.662 138066400 0.2114976Barbados 1.322917 15720.15 4253621000 15060 430 430 629.2651 270584 0.6210404Belarus 6.999999 6064.852 59926580000 6060 207600 207480 47.62369 9880963 0.2974546Belgium 1.109868 29331.19 3.0434E+11 29940 30510 30230 343.2352 10376000 0.9919304Belize 9.4 6470.949 1771099000 6320 22960 22800 12.00439 273700 0.5778192Benin 3.89996 1104.704 7423884000 1100 112620 110620 60.75076 6720250 0.4791456Bermuda 50 50 1280 64000Bhutan 6.7 47000 47000 18.58857 873662.6Bolivia 2.783846 2594.489 22868230000 2500 1098580 1084380 8.128293 8814158 0.3537433Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.7 6646.352 25468820000 6960 51210 51200 74.84375 3832000 0.2737967Botswana 5.413103 8714.1 15009760000 8370 581730 566730 3.03931 1722468 0.5016921Brazil 0.54 7838.44 1.38424E+12 7560 8514880 8459420 20.87569 176596300 0.3653503Brunei 5770 5270 67.63699 356446.9Bulgaria 4.45 7500.868 58679290000 7260 110990 110630 70.71319 7823000 0.3397795Burkina Faso 6.5 1173.807 14213900000 1170 274000 273600 44.25888 12109230 0.2942094Burundi -1.2 646.7047 4660142000 620 27830 25680 280.6068 7205982 0.1277858Cambodia 5.34595 2144.506 28744190000 2050 181040 176520 75.93272 13403640 0.1440444Cameroon 4.5 2076.755 33409740000 1990 475440 465400 34.56698 16087470 0.3738692Canada 2 30064.84 9.50951E+11 29440 9970610 9220970 3.430225 31630000 0.9007326Cape Verde 5 5456.396 2562763000 5380 4030 4030 116.546 469680.5 0.3111152Cayman Islands 260 260 165.3846 43000Central African Republic -5.435137 1105.222 4289195000 1100 622980 622980 6.229488 3880847 0.2804739Chad 11.3 1215.063 10427350000 1090 1284000 1259200 6.815233 8581741 0.2496543Channel Islands 200 200 745 149000 Page 13 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirChile 3.299662 10274.32 1.62067E+11 9810 756630 748800 21.0657 15774000 0.4468022China 9.3 5003.37 6.44634E+12 4980 9598050 9327420 138.1304 1288400000 0.2197514Colombia 4.015658 6818.958 3.04016E+11 6530 1138910 1038700 42.92289 44584000 0.2630047Comoros 2.09528 1820.867 1092779000 1810 2230 2230 269.1219 600141.8 0.2918825Congo, Dem. Rep. 5.6 664.8524 35339140000 640 2344860 2267050 23.44605 53153360 0.1604748Congo, Rep. 0.7999998 964.6696 3624517000 730 342000 341500 11.00223 3757263 0.9833993Costa Rica 6.530561 9550.188 38245450000 9090 51100 51060 78.43087 4004680 0.4571908Cote dIvoire -2.1 1499.753 25248970000 1420 322460 318000 52.94156 16835420 0.5530673Croatia 4.273853 11670.74 51872400000 11180 56540 55920 79.48235 4444653 0.5552227Cuba 110860 109820 103.1324 11326000Cyprus 1.9 21895.95 16858870000 21250 9250 9240 83.32835 769954 0.7800874Czech Republic 3.716696 18153.53 1.85202E+11 17290 78870 77280 132.0135 10202000 0.4882413Denmark 0.4326775 30646.37 1.65098E+11 30240 43090 42430 126.9668 5387200 1.283411Djibouti 3.531 2057.611 1451603000 2190 23200 23180 30.43486 705480 0.4305366Dominica 0 5425.246 386347100 5060 750 750 94.95044 71212.83 0.6682726Dominican Republic -0.4 7107.836 62112820000 6570 48730 48380 180.625 8738639 0.2663033Ecuador 2.660036 3641.01 47362040000 3440 283560 276840 46.98722 13007940 0.5743198Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.200215 3949.929 2.66853E+11 3940 1001450 995450 67.86784 67559040 0.2657997El Salvador 1.812233 5028.241 32850580000 4890 21040 20720 315.3096 6533215 0.4547957Equatorial Guinea 14.69752 6750 28050 28050 17.61141 494000Eritrea 3.002681 1041.107 4569940000 1030 117600 101000 43.4604 4389500 0.1642449Estonia 5.144473 12912.62 17470770000 12100 45230 42390 31.91791 1353000 0.5197908Ethiopia -3.690855 715.527 49094790000 710 1104300 1000000 68.61347 68613470 0.1351902Faeroe Islands 1400 1400 34.28571 48000Fiji 3 5764.53 4813383000 5530 18270 18270 45.70334 835000 0.4659133Finland 1.876273 28105.5 1.46486E+11 27940 338150 304590 17.11153 5212000 1.105019France 0.4674933 28231.2 1.68715E+12 28190 551500 550100 108.6384 59762000 1.041722French Polynesia 4000 3660 66.38795 242979.9Gabon 2.8 6396.99 8600326000 5500 267670 257670 5.217655 1344433 0.7043096Gambia, The 6.7 1854.524 2635084000 1760 11300 10000 142.0895 1420895 0.1390625Georgia 11.08652 2666.207 12179230000 2620 69700 69490 65.73608 4568000 0.3281193Germany -0.1005159 27124.01 2.23884E+12 26980 357030 348950 236.541 82541000 1.073353Ghana 5.2 2205.567 45587440000 2160 238540 227540 90.83792 20669260 0.1672435Greece 4.282783 20818 2.29685E+11 20760 131960 128900 85.59348 11033000 0.7497073Greenland 410450 410450 0.138872 57000Grenada 5.7 8018.152 838698800 7130 340 340 307.6471 104600 0.5215222Guam 550 550 293.9098 161650.4Guatemala 2.115436 4109.3 50573530000 4050 108890 108430 113.5026 12307090 0.4890386Guinea 1.2 2096.656 16582250000 2080 245860 245720 32.18665 7908905 0.2190524Guinea-Bissau 0.6 700.6367 1043394000 670 36120 28120 52.95905 1489209 0.228719Guyana -0.6499 4267.105 3280926000 3980 214970 196850 3.905959 768888 0.2260649Haiti 0.3899678 1749.677 14766930000 1740 27750 27560 306.2336 8439799 0.1889753Honduras 3.482653 2708.844 18876610000 2600 112090 111890 62.28003 6968512 0.3679216Hong Kong, China 3.147053 27880.79 1.90035E+11 28670 1092 1042 6541.267 6816000 0.8162839Hungary 3.049427 15405.36 1.56026E+11 14630 93030 92100 109.9674 10128000 0.5305592Iceland 4.024502 30906.39 8931946000 30240 103000 100250 2.882793 289000 1.177007India 8.606651 2892.958 3.07926E+12 2880 3287260 2973190 357.9988 1064399000 0.1924139Indonesia 4.875726 3400.84 7.30072E+11 3270 1904570 1811570 118.5017 214674200 0.326713Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.60507 6994.732 4.64394E+11 7000 1648200 1636200 40.57696 66392020 0.2953174Iraq 438320 437370 56.47288Ireland 3.7 38058.73 1.52007E+11 31170 70270 68890 57.97648 3994000 1.011226Isle of Man 572 572 134.6154 77000Israel 1.292734 23132.22 1.54708E+11 22450 22140 21710 308.0608 6688000 0.7124766 Page 14 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirItaly 0.2571851 27227.61 1.56957E+12 26930 301340 294110 196.0024 57646270 0.9354518Jamaica 2.1 3788.543 10011710000 3510 10990 10830 244.01 2642628 0.7552066Japan 2.658877 28220.27 3.60015E+12 28700 377890 364500 349.9945 127573000 1.194635Jordan 3.979093 4282.484 22730980000 4340 89210 88930 59.68621 5307895 0.4375705Kazakhstan 9.3 6662.697 99128270000 6290 2724900 2699700 5.51102 14878100 0.3110484Kenya 1.8 1040.711 33215170000 1030 580370 569140 56.07733 31915850 0.4328105Kiribati 2.5 730 730 132.0233 96377.02Korea, Dem. Rep. 120540 120410 187.794 22612280Korea, Rep. 3.097123 19168.26 9.18385E+11 19190 99260 98730 485.2803 47911730 0.6621906Kuwait 9.900001 18072.62 43309530000 19510 17820 17820 134.479 2396417 0.9639151Kyrgyz Republic 7.030296 1755.158 8867057000 1700 199900 191800 26.33994 5052000 0.2167042Lao PDR 5.344516 1818.216 10290800000 1750 236800 230800 24.52267 5659834 0.2029085Latvia 7.455705 10634.87 24683530000 10610 64600 62050 37.40532 2321000 0.4482116Lebanon 4.912116 5034.25 22642390000 5020 10400 10230 439.6548 4497669 0.8786408Lesotho 3.281445 2504.849 4490552000 3080 30350 30350 59.069 1792744 0.2397357Liberia -31 111370 96320 35.02432 3373542Libya 9.136853 1759540 1759540 3.159513 5559289Liechtenstein 160 160 212.5 34000Lithuania 9.694645 11845.5 40914370000 11530 65300 62680 55.1053 3454000 0.4485951Luxembourg 2.128222 64710.16 28990150000 57650 2586 2586 173.2405 448000 0.913936Macao, China 21 21 21142.86 444000Macedonia, FYR 3.228809 6275.489 12858480000 6230 25710 25430 80.57413 2049000 0.3629097Madagascar 9.790657 809.1084 13669000000 800 587040 581540 29.05029 16893900 0.4004795Malawi 4.367608 608.834 6674046000 590 118480 94080 116.518 10962010 0.2548961Malaysia 5.312108 9512.396 2.35663E+11 8970 329750 328550 75.40482 24774250 0.4401924Maldives 8.398895 300 300 976.9333 293080Mali 7.441395 1002.493 11680550000 970 1240190 1220190 9.548924 11651500 0.3720723Malta -1.745 18016.78 7188696000 18170 320 320 1246.875 399000 0.6623756Marshall Islands 2 181.3 181.3 314.396 57000Mauritania 8.3 1958.418 5577318000 1920 1025520 1025220 2.777813 2847869 0.2120045Mauritius 3.10035 11275.81 13781170000 11270 2040 2030 602.0632 1222188 0.3893113Mayotte 374 374 443.8503 166000Mexico 1.407212 9312.976 9.52633E+11 9140 1958200 1908690 53.59225 102291000 0.6708509Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 5.1 702 702 177.4355 124559.8Moldova 6.288659 1511.773 6406288000 1760 33840 32880 128.8808 4237600 0.3091512Monaco 1.95 1.95 16923.08 33000Mongolia 5.648252 1834.674 4549200000 1820 1566500 1566500 1.582872 2479568 0.2801401Morocco 5.241969 4009.918 1.20749E+11 3940 446550 446300 67.47176 30112640 0.3621273Mozambique 7.1 1120.018 21046740000 1070 801590 784090 23.9659 18791420 0.2052851Myanmar 676580 657550 75.07034 49362500Namibia 3.735251 6132.048 12353290000 6600 824290 823290 2.446945 2014546 0.3457373Nepal 3.086405 1419.9 35014680000 1420 147180 143000 172.4473 24659960 0.1706389Netherlands -0.9 31072.75 5.04056E+11 30220 41530 33880 478.8017 16221800 1.014733Netherlands Antilles 800 800 275.245 220196New Caledonia 18580 18280 12.2814 224504New Zealand 3.6 22257 89232780000 21040 270530 267990 14.96026 4009200 0.8921496Nicaragua 2.3 3271.161 17925960000 3190 130000 121400 45.14003 5480000 0.2306721Niger 5.324123 836.6006 9840306000 830 1267000 1266700 9.285744 11762250 0.2775743Nigeria 10.69472 1044.79 1.42573E+11 900 923770 910770 149.8303 136461000 0.4041548Northern Mariana Islands 477 477 161.4256 77000Norway 0.4182483 36632.75 1.67119E+11 36870 323760 306250 14.89633 4562000 1.321536Oman 2.47 13795.12 35851200000 13250 309500 309500 8.396872 2598832 0.6052325Pakistan 4.95056 2093.062 3.10692E+11 2040 796100 770880 192.5576 148438800 0.268786 Page 15 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirPalau 1.5 460 460 42.82609 19700Panama 1.965538 6868.458 20495630000 6430 75520 74430 40.09165 2984022 0.6275485Papua New Guinea 2.7 2599.638 14302870000 2240 462840 452860 12.14916 5501871 0.2394462Paraguay 2.550545 4745.764 26780810000 4750 406750 397300 14.20362 5643097 0.2255494Peru 3.76169 5259.731 1.42791E+11 5080 1285220 1280000 21.20938 27148000 0.4242991Philippines 4.697915 4277.837 3.48655E+11 4590 300000 298170 273.3428 81502620 0.2275306Poland 3.748006 11924.32 4.55461E+11 11750 312690 306290 124.7054 38196000 0.4600642Portugal -1.2 19096.63 1.99445E+11 18660 91980 91500 114.1421 10444000 0.7415239Puerto Rico 8950 8870 439.5088 3898443Qatar 11000 11000 56.70028 623703.1Romania 4.9 7595.84 1.65164E+11 7450 238390 229870 94.5926 21744000 0.3448152Russian Federation 7.348879 9033.229 1.29559E+12 8760 17075400 16888500 8.492465 143425000 0.3319837Rwanda 0.9556487 1257.376 10555680000 1230 26340 24670 340.2918 8395000 0.1595146Samoa -1.008663 5416.149 964074600 5410 2840 2830 62.89753 178000 0.3295292San Marino 60.5 60.5 462.8099 28000Sao Tome and Principe 4.5 960 960 163.9583 157400Saudi Arabia 7.659075 13520.06 3.04584E+11 13440 2149690 2149690 10.47979 22528300 0.6979397Senegal 6.452147 1647.945 16874710000 1620 196720 192530 53.18573 10239850 0.3842768Serbia and Montenegro 2.65087 102170 102000 79.76471 8136000Seychelles -6.300004 16772.07 1402799000 15780 450 450 185.8644 83639 0.5010594Sierra Leone 9.2 758.406 4047285000 740 71740 71620 74.51226 5336568 0.2445913Singapore 2.460398 24894.29 1.05801E+11 24510 680 670 6343.284 4250000 0.8730481Slovak Republic 4.467262 13399.52 72223400000 13350 48845 48800 110.4508 5390000 0.452282Slovenia 2.524441 19555.41 39013040000 19420 20250 20120 99.15507 1995000 0.7112712Solomon Islands 5.1 1747.277 797885000 1710 28900 27990 16.31457 456644.9 0.2958817Somalia 637660 627340 15.34402 9625918South Africa 2.807761 10594.44 4.8553E+11 10300 1219090 1214470 37.73555 45828700 0.3407293Spain 2.425683 24187.89 9.94157E+11 23930 505990 499440 82.29504 41101430 0.8435491Sri Lanka 5.903705 3750.842 72135290000 3740 65610 64630 297.5671 19231760 0.2529471St. Kitts and Nevis 0.55 12034.86 562148200 10610 360 360 129.75 46710 0.6565423St. Lucia 3 5766.178 925978900 5360 620 610 263.259 160588 0.7491531St. Vincent and the Grenadines 3.6 6226.535 679713400 5840 390 390 279.9077 109164 0.5536102Sudan 6.000003 1922.034 64476030000 1770 2505810 2376000 14.11857 33545730 0.2759286Suriname 5.296089 163270 156000 2.808359 438104Swaziland 2.4 4855.663 5368056000 4830 17360 17200 64.2747 1105525 0.3546346Sweden 1.577855 28289.44 2.5336E+11 28240 449960 411620 21.75793 8956000 1.190422Switzerland -0.4 32450.73 2.38513E+11 34220 41290 39550 185.8407 7350000 1.342191Syrian Arab Republic 2.499974 3720.849 64685080000 3430 185180 183780 94.59404 17384490 1.48144Tajikistan 10.2 1090.793 6937443000 1030 143100 140600 45.23471 6360000 0.2240224Tanzania 7.099329 621.357 22299860000 620 945090 883590 40.61721 35888960 0.4617439Thailand 6.871998 7594.897 4.70992E+11 7450 513120 510890 121.3847 62014220 0.3035156Timor-Leste -6.166376 14870 14870 58.97781 877000Togo 2.7 1699.008 8259717000 1640 56790 54390 89.38211 4861493 0.2129548Tonga 2.9 7048.375 715579800 6980 750 720 141.0057 101524.1 0.2355012Trinidad and Tobago 13.18177 10765.79 14131870000 10390 5130 5130 255.8799 1312664 0.7437854Tunisia 5.568687 7161.333 70862840000 6850 163610 155360 63.69208 9895201 0.3533325Turkey 5.794419 7067.904 4.99786E+11 7010 774820 769630 91.87791 70712000 479606.6Turkmenistan 16.91899 5943.079 28904170000 5860 488100 469930 10.34941 4863500Uganda 4.725238 1478.472 37375770000 1450 241040 197100 128.2598 25280000 0.1615779Ukraine 9.4 5490.483 2.65496E+11 5430 603700 579350 83.46544 48355700 0.1888278United Arab Emirates 83600 83600 48.2177 4031000United Kingdom 2.218502 29345.28 1.74103E+12 29930 242910 240880 246.3011 59329000 1.030977United States 3.1 37424.69 1.08835E+13 37610 9629090 9158960 31.75142 290810000 1.005979 Page 16 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirUruguay 2.174946 8336.157 28177690000 7960 176220 175020 19.31309 3380177 0.3971548Uzbekistan 4.2 1737.307 44457690000 1720 447400 414240 61.77578 25590000Vanuatu 2.401511 2836.525 596134600 2720 12190 12190 17.24067 210163.7 0.4630347Venezuela, RB -7.716884 5042.73 1.29467E+11 4900 912050 882050 29.10719 25674000 0.6451247Vietnam 7.244804 2490.358 2.02502E+11 2490 331690 325490 249.821 81314240 0.1928179Virgin Islands (U.S.) 340 340 328.1886 111584.1West Bank and Gaza -1.668582 6220 6220 541.2704 3366702Yemen, Rep. 3.143976 868.5441 16652730000 800 527970 527970 36.31487 19173160 0.6606656Zambia 5.1 876.7109 9120388000 850 752610 743390 13.99395 10402960 0.4753381Zimbabwe 390760 386850 33.86779 13101750Investment Fixed Foreign Capital direct Formation investment, (% of COUNTRY_NAME net GDP) CNTRY FDI% INV Afghanistan Albania 3.120729 25.02218 Algeria 0.9318039 23.41052 American Samoa Andorra Angola 10.23288 12.784 Antigua and Barbuda Argentina 0.7873892 15.13751 Armenia 4.309464 24.15373 Aruba Australia 1.34621 Austria 2.874609 22.64809 Azerbaijan 46.02443 50.80663 Bahamas, The 2.787833 Bahrain 5.378575 19.35216 Bangladesh 0.1973893 23.40531 Barbados 2.217503 Belarus 0.9749404 23.20469 Belgium 19.47884 Belize 3.908636 Benin 1.446253 18.62726 Bermuda Bhutan 0.03357938 Bolivia 2.062431 12.865 Bosnia and Herzegovina 5.475349 19.89065 Botswana 1.146057 23.7275 Brazil 2.005654 16.36584 Brunei Bulgaria 7.118794 19.48987 Burkina Faso 0.2674405 18.71138 Burundi 0.00083963 11.5723 Cambodia 2.103832 22.76409 Cameroon 1.721833 16.9828 Canada 0.7324062 Page 17 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirCape Verde 1.854225 20.2Cayman IslandsCentral African Republic 0.3040712 6.006967Chad 32.07612 55Channel IslandsChile 4.118164 22.8China 3.777021 44.24824Colombia 2.18394 13.95493Comoros 0.3135158 9.962631Congo, Dem. Rep. 2.786085 13.65315Congo, Rep. 5.630761 22.86156Costa Rica 3.298448 19.66092Cote dIvoire 1.288156 9.799042Croatia 6.935687 27.53863CubaCyprus 7.782296Czech Republic 2.780732 26.57841Denmark 0.5591754 19.73645Djibouti 1.824092Dominica 0 14.4Dominican Republic 1.873544 22.78314Ecuador 5.715744 22.76468Egypt, Arab Rep. 0.288012 16.40964El Salvador 0.5958381 16.23208Equatorial Guinea 49.08501Eritrea 2.931031 22.4363Estonia 9.808082 28.41064Ethiopia 0.902021 20.45455Faeroe IslandsFiji 0.8918264Finland 2.122887 18.02094France 2.450345French PolynesiaGabon 0.8757869 23.89661Gambia, The 16.36204 19.2Georgia 8.45527 23.36862Germany 1.063924 17.82547Ghana 1.792975 22.9Greece 0.4163041 26.06114GreenlandGrenada 0 40GuamGuatemala 0.4684216 16.70663Guinea 2.175117 9.859957Guinea-Bissau 0.8653049 12.4Guyana 3.520233Haiti 0.2671956 31.0451Honduras 2.883511 23.96Hong Kong, China 8.782998 21.63824Hungary 3.027325 22.30299Iceland 3.284082 21.64388 Page 18 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirIndia 0.7107449 22.72831Indonesia -0.2502563 18.87814Iran, Islamic Rep. 0.08749944 29.38575IraqIreland 17.30372Isle of ManIsrael 3.519833 17.62706Italy 1.126312 19.12251Jamaica 9.591076 32.16563Japan 0.1450482 23.88858Jordan 3.78201 21.24971Kazakhstan 6.773189 23.0321Kenya 0.5685807 12.51025KiribatiKorea, Dem. Rep.Korea, Rep. 0.5298258 29.50891Kuwait -0.1607526 8.648823Kyrgyz Republic 2.373356 14.97014Lao PDR 0.9331713 22Latvia 2.708584 24.16432Lebanon 1.79949 20.31896Lesotho 3.892206 43.68968Liberia 0.00226142 8.696581LibyaLiechtensteinLithuania 0.9759865 20.59378Luxembourg 350.6105 20.5081Macao, ChinaMacedonia, FYR 2.026373 17Madagascar 0.2325329 17.89299Malawi 1.351996 10.29011Malaysia 2.384069 22.09259Maldives 1.955033Mali 2.969229 23.85697Malta 6.409791 20.22491Marshall IslandsMauritania 18.10699Mauritius 1.194916 22.35197MayotteMexico 1.687345 18.92512Micronesia, Fed. Sts.Moldova 2.950775 16.90299MonacoMongolia 10.31809 34.11515Morocco 5.212546 23.49893Mozambique 7.792922 26.88598MyanmarNamibia 22.00935Nepal 0.25258 19.11548Netherlands 3.068373Netherlands Antilles Page 19 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirNew CaledoniaNew Zealand 3.062362Nicaragua 4.867983 31.28315Niger 1.146474 13.99685Nigeria 2.082548 23.08778Northern Mariana IslandsNorway 0.9305577 16.71055Oman 0.6341508Pakistan 0.6484522 14.80163PalauPanama 6.153786 24.05492Papua New Guinea 2.960824Paraguay 1.505848 19.00138Peru 2.273548 17.91105Philippines 0.4021192 16.63387Poland 1.967541 18.40167Portugal 4.469148Puerto RicoQatarRomania 3.237869 22.526Russian Federation 1.850206 18.31438Rwanda 0.280322 18.42483Samoa -0.0431232San MarinoSao Tome and Principe 16.77602 30.1Saudi Arabia -0.2758975 17.94952Senegal 1.207268 19.73708Serbia and Montenegro 6.581074 15.80424Seychelles 8.251673 8.998743Sierra Leone 0.3166885 14.28059Singapore 12.37512 24.2425Slovak Republic 1.747164 25.67433Slovenia 1.214609 23.896Solomon Islands -0.8598745SomaliaSouth Africa 0.4954134 16.0044Spain 3.042131 25.55131Sri Lanka 1.253507 21.95262St. Kitts and Nevis 14.27383 47.9St. Lucia 4.619864 28.78285St. Vincent and theGrenadines 10.00595 33.7Sudan 7.583303 18.16244Suriname 33.88536Swaziland 2.287203 17.98764Sweden 1.083508 15.71287Switzerland 5.481517Syrian Arab Republic 0.6986415 23.66347Tajikistan 2.038167 10.80422Tanzania 2.408513 18.46219Thailand 1.363573 24.03342Timor-Leste Page 20 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek Pundir Togo 1.124934 20.9 Tonga 1.596236 Trinidad and Tobago 5.855726 19.38989 Tunisia 2.160602 23.31017 Turkey 0.6498157 15.45972 Turkmenistan 1.713081 27.10513 Uganda 3.08417 20.29412 Ukraine 2.840447 19.65745 United Arab Emirates United Kingdom 1.15307 16.15208 United States 0.3643315 Uruguay 2.453806 9.675152 Uzbekistan 0.6911455 21.70973 Vanuatu 6.883286 Venezuela, RB 3.020287 15.60427 Vietnam 3.702422 32.97632 Virgin Islands (U.S.) West Bank and Gaza 2.503783 Yemen, Rep. -0.8099232 16.13556 Zambia 2.306676 24.81308 ZimbabweIntellectual Capital Research Literacy Public and Researchers School School rate, adult spending on development in R&D (per enrollment, enrollment,COUNTRY_NAME total (% o education, t expend million primary (% g primary girlCNTRY LITERACY EDUSPEND% R&D% RESPC PRIMENROL ENROLGIRLSAfghanistan 92.28303 62.82797Albania 103.5242 102.4118Algeria 108.7436 104.4628American SamoaAndorra 101.0244 100.5661AngolaAntigua and Barbuda 3.835189Argentina 4.017341 0.3888603 714.99 119.3926 119.2645Armenia 3.172302 0.2525484 1605.93 98.50989 97.3737Aruba 5.09672 115.0948 111.5574Australia 4.85072 103.6273 103.5775Austria 5.73465 2.192845 103.2481 103.0533Azerbaijan 3.154478 0.3015509 1247.55 92.25049 90.77773Bahamas, The 92.18763 92.81157Bahrain 97.11572 97.00163Bangladesh 2.380554 95.86009 97.69486Barbados 7.611423 108.7422 108.0471Belarus 0.6208954 1869.72 101.8805 101.1101Belgium 6.291689 2.235909 3179.68 105.2971 104.755Belize 5.243665 0.275968 122.0059 120.9241Benin 3.256055 109.2836 91.59306 Page 21 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirBermudaBhutanBolivia 6.313758 118.06 115.3255 114.7093Bosnia and HerzegovinaBotswana 103.3027 103.4037Brazil 88.44476 146.9576 142.9985Brunei 282 106.1166 106.1425Bulgaria 0.4896446 1157.94 100.3103 99.14882Burkina Faso 46.18073 39.16547Burundi 3.948836 77.30342 68.95431Cambodia 1.832821 123.7964 117.412Cameroon 3.805723 107.5876 98.98124Canada 1.908026Cape Verde 7.937703 0.04432133 131 120.5696 117.5416Cayman IslandsCentral African Republic 65.53095 53.3423Chad 78.34077 61.35387Channel IslandsChile 4.224854 100.0233 98.78359China 1.224277 633.02 115.2322 115.0098Colombia 94.16634 5.204009 0.09968221 80.92 110.2913 109.7822Comoros 3.872802 89.61681 80.67265Congo, Dem. Rep.Congo, Rep. 3.21122 80.38582 77.46935Costa Rica 5.077182 107.6205 106.7138Cote dIvoire 77.59372 68.79436Croatia 4.49467 1.118405 1919.82 96.53196 96.15504Cuba 537.78 97.82175 95.83285Cyprus 6.296657 0.3051819 568.63 97.61051 97.78993Czech Republic 4.411785 1.223861 1466.6 101.9786 101.1099Denmark 8.512175 2.521404 4821.73 103.8931 103.901Djibouti 40.26581 34.75471Dominica 88.21793 85.0244Dominican Republic 2.27382 124.3308 125.4763Ecuador 116.916 116.7572Egypt, Arab Rep. 97.39571 94.72403El Salvador 2.869495 112.5113 109.4167Equatorial Guinea 0.6112804Eritrea 4.074016 63.41854 56.78751Estonia 5.692699 0.7457067 2252.58 100.73 98.84402Ethiopia 65.96291 55.44501Faeroe IslandsFijiFinland 6.390421 3.455097 7430.73 102.0008 101.6463France 5.631409 2.261382 3133.9 104.3152 103.7593French PolynesiaGabon 132.1732 131.7538Gambia, The 2.790299 85.21352 84.39799Georgia 2.235158 0.2880844 2317.37 90.49635 89.59897 Page 22 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirGermany 2.528608 3222.16 99.41439 99.24591Ghana 78.65919 76.64196Greece 91.04025 3.960405 100.7944 100.6814GreenlandGrenada 5.1232 119.608 118.5943GuamGuatemala 106.1284 102.4185Guinea 81.4806 70.58733Guinea-BissauGuyana 8.408047 124.805 123.4172HaitiHondurasHong Kong, China 4.374767 0.604476 1567.56 106.9101 106.335Hungary 5.508517 1.024288 1473.08 100.2612 99.61568Iceland 7.580472 3.095447 99.74327 99.31583India 107.5194 104.2365Indonesia 1.226639 111.6852 110.5946Iran, Islamic Rep. 4.93478 91.90887 90.41329Iraq 110.1383 99.77269Ireland 4.316403 105.6064 105.6714Isle of ManIsrael 96.94363 7.516199 5.080139 112.1758 112.0615Italy 4.748306 101.124 100.7249Jamaica 4.900321 99.75162 99.4696Japan 3.122154 5084.92 100.406 100.4918Jordan 89.89233 99.06624 99.45004Kazakhstan 3.029703 101.5404 101.1239Kenya 6.984613 92.40018 89.66625Kiribati 110.9008 119.6915Korea, Dem. Rep. 4.223143Korea, Rep. 2.531931 2978.95 103.8578 103.6551Kuwait 0.1951548 72.59 93.56574 93.73028Kyrgyz Republic 3.088094 0.1980981 412.67 100.9126 99.58389Lao PDR 2.773185 116.3896 108.1427Latvia 5.816109 0.4240313 1476.05 93.98409 92.73032Lebanon 2.676965 103.384 101.6977Lesotho 42.21 126.3716 127.2852LiberiaLibya 114.1474 114.0568LiechtensteinLithuania 5.888648 0.6674683 1823.58 98.11407 97.54826Luxembourg 99.17358 98.88604Macao, China 2.755333 104.0356 99.93891Macedonia, FYR 3.497791 0.2592614 499.51 96.5138 96.61594Madagascar 119.5862 117.138Malawi 5.977999 140.055 137.3482Malaysia 8.115111 0.6914917 294.47 93.10755 93.0849Maldives 118.0331 116.971Mali 58.3852 50.48029 Page 23 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirMalta 4.575311 104.4398 103.6906Marshall Islands 11.21154Mauritania 88.14612 86.92361Mauritius 4.678821 103.8031 104.1698MayotteMexico 5.30443 110.3913 110.0266Micronesia, Fed. Sts.Moldova 4.9189 171.33 85.97562 85.65816MonacoMongolia 9.011298 0.2839086 709.68 100.8203 101.9302Morocco 6.492099 109.6124 103.6948Mozambique 103.3593 92.69593Myanmar 91.89554 92.30015Namibia 7.220185 105.0211 105.5352Nepal 3.388263 0.6646917 62.18 119.2762 112.0188Netherlands 5.085809 107.9158 106.5858Netherlands Antilles 104.2976 104.4305New CaledoniaNew Zealand 6.715838 101.6912 101.3425Nicaragua 3.117393 108.4971 107.9959Niger 2.333488 43.5024 35.5345Nigeria 119.3989 106.7841Northern Mariana IslandsNorway 7.627108 1.671292 101.3401 101.3681Oman 4.636524 80.79337 80.2362Pakistan 0.2223112 88.47 68.48344 56.63547PalauPanama 4.458848 111.9911 110.1836Papua New Guinea 74.66648 69.6292Paraguay 4.383764 0.09638641 82.58 110.1155 108.1033Peru 2.989774 0.1029563 118.4384 118.1631Philippines 3.127946 112.4643 111.6581Poland 5.606619 0.5866889 1468.57 99.49052 99.19995Portugal 5.786296 0.9283966 115.2736 112.4354Puerto RicoQatar 105.6687 104.276Romania 3.528369 0.3798205 909.69 98.99863 97.8951Russian Federation 3.751241 1.248019 3414.59 118.2218 118.2741Rwanda 122.0415 122.19Samoa 105.3617 103.6575San MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi Arabia 66.64891 65.42339Senegal 3.592023 79.87579 76.59368Serbia and Montenegro 1330.27Seychelles 91.86205 5.183165 0.1065302 452.38 114.3146 113.7772Sierra LeoneSingapore 2.154001 4351.64Slovak Republic 4.354607 0.576461 1706.82 100.7271 99.95724 Page 24 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirSlovenia 6.067766 1.532513 2363.54 107.8265 107.3922Solomon Islands 71.62004SomaliaSouth Africa 5.287962 0.6427836 192.02 105.6459 103.7406Spain 4.451366 1.03324 2036.27 107.589 106.5787Sri Lanka 112.4294 111.6965St. Kitts and Nevis 3.223516 0.1538462 111.7688 114.9396St. Lucia 7.706209 111.7564 111.4948St. Vincent and the Grenadines 9.979226 179 107.347 105.8624Sudan 60.15191 55.8336Suriname 125.7712 124.7641Swaziland 7.060817 98.19337 94.40821Sweden 7.664566 110.5186 111.9917Switzerland 5.836057 107.6794 107.2277Syrian Arab Republic 114.8992 111.6057Tajikistan 2.800933 110.6317 107.7145Tanzania 84.16191 82.71184Thailand 0.243553 96.34131 94.20783Timor-LesteTogo 2.630991 121.2038 110.0187Tonga 4.876775 112.3334 110.6947Trinidad and Tobago 4.309896 100.0859 98.70702Tunisia 6.373348 0.6289708 1013.19 110.6901 108.6308Turkey 88.34413 0.6640707 344.63 91.41206 88.17358TurkmenistanUganda 140.7204 139.4588Ukraine 5.433329 1.156593 1749.1 92.65123 92.66541United Arab Emirates 1.592868 96.84627 95.35825United Kingdom 1.875576 100.0826 100.0408United States 2.657013 98.10268 98.26359Uruguay 2.573728 369.53 109.2968 108.1171Uzbekistan 102.6911 102.3442Vanuatu 11.03653 112.6985 112.6887Venezuela, RB 222.4 103.8588 102.7626Vietnam 101.0468 97.39419Virgin Islands (U.S.) 109.09West Bank and Gaza 91.8736 98.7504 98.95516Yemen, Rep. 83.45956 67.9506Zambia 82.18466 79.26376Zimbabwe 93.89698 92.95079Incentives Gross Gross Gross domestic domestic Gross national Gross national national Hours savings savings savings, savings, savings, per COUNTRY_NAME (% of GD (current includi inclu_1 inclu_2 week CNTRY SAVING% SAVING NATSAVING% NATSAV%GNI NATSAVNG HRS Afghanistan Albania 2.213477 12390810 17.9142 17.40324 1021996000 Page 25 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirAlgeria 44.76122 29779700000American SamoaAndorraAngola 36.70669 2782813000 7.388448 8.569776 1021456000Antigua and BarbudaArgentina 25.89095 33574510000 24.16994 24.70948 31323220000Armenia 6.755052 189465900 17.78998 17.23076 498974100 45ArubaAustralia 38.6Austria 24.53314 62099780000 22.42367 22.69352 56760160000 36.9Azerbaijan 25.12743 1793473000 20.80908 22.18392 1485250000Bahamas, TheBahrain 3880688000 21.02037 22.22645 2019351000Bangladesh 17.58383 9128411000 30.02296 28.45319 15586020000BarbadosBelarus 20.17393 3493267000 21.0219 21.03197 3704394000Belgium 22.40841 67650110000Belize 6.775308 74123290 9.237424 9.460207 94533490Benin 5.465346 251720600 10.89633 10.97703 387595800Bermuda 29BhutanBolivia 9.763246 990910500 13.97057 14.51196 1130146000Bosnia and Herzegovina -14.03514 -978641600 13.87861 13.25062 967727200Botswana 38.06878 2866643000Brazil 21.5092 1.05898E+11 17.98495 18.64128 90958280000 44.2BruneiBulgaria 11.97377 2378019000 12.18883 12.59267 2430325000 33Burkina Faso 3.891293 162728600 6.626417 6.631928 277107800Burundi 4.258353 25358490 21.6265 22.39364 128785800Cambodia 12.97483 549246200 20.33694 21.27955 840628400Cameroon 17.10401 2136441000Canada 38.9Cape Verde -16.04775 -114379300 10.49784 10.65292 83700780Cayman IslandsCentral African Republic 11.93264 46541640Chad 21.03065 575504200Channel IslandsChile 27.28519 19757820000 23.58336 24.70228 17077240000China 46.95245 6.6312E+11 47.50241 47.76671 6.72916E+11Colombia 14.09865 11088710000 13.72716 14.34549 10975940000 41.6Comoros 0.6494259 -5481031Congo, Dem. Rep.Congo, Rep. 47.40297 1689608000 22.41461 29.79792 798935000Costa Rica 18.23238 3177395000 14.53435 15.27573 2541400000 49Cote dIvoire 22.83957 3146249000 13.9226 14.69405 1944206000Croatia 20.65708 5951303000 21.33245 22.27002 6145879000Cuba 40Cyprus 40.1Czech Republic 25.37763 22678930000 20.94037 21.98196 18935000000 40.7Denmark 26.19687 55507990000 23.21136 23.52104 49182070000Djibouti Page 26 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirDominica 5578666 1.575756 1.688224 4068369Dominican Republic 20.55315 3399666000 27.15438 29.36192 4491566000Ecuador 22.58988 6144664000 23.71917 25.06891 6451841000Egypt, Arab Rep. 15.22614 12550470000 20.0964 20.13735 16564880000 -El Salvador 0.1200692 -17865020 11.30295 11.62005 1688695000 48Equatorial GuineaEritrea -62.94568 -472463400 -16.93437 -17.05022 -127107500Estonia 23.10356 2098282000 17.96658 19.17608 1631737000 33.7Ethiopia 1.04682 69631670 18.25247 18.40354 1214105000Faeroe IslandsFijiFinland 25.53234 41330700000 24.3476 24.48795 39412880000 37.5France 36.15French PolynesiaGabon 45.30605 2744321000Gambia, The 14.63697 36816340Georgia 9.743797 389385700 12.52832 12.73738 500662000Germany 22.10267 5.31163E+11 20.23363 20.33918 4.86247E+11Ghana 11.32087 840253100 27.21034 27.8118 2074570000Greece 17.99609 30989840000 20.19304 20.25051 34773050000 42GreenlandGrenada 51360000 6.731595 7.569151 29444000GuamGuatemala 5.129537 1268525000 13.75349 13.93893 3401219000Guinea 7.364319 267356200 10.21008 10.29999 370669300Guinea-Bissau -1.065613 2827876GuyanaHaiti 6864198 32.16873 32.3507 939072800Honduras 11.91165 823527200 22.05949 22.94816 1515049000Hong Kong, China 32.32333 48656880000 33.00913 32.10176 51204710000 45.4Hungary 17503040000 16.91978 17.81564 14006320000Iceland 18.08894 1901684000 15.78768 16.13528 1659754000India 22.29687 1.32318E+11 25.31497 25.44475 1.52051E+11Indonesia 21.5 60173470000 22.1186 23.01437 52758420000Iran, Islamic Rep. 43.42699 59557390000IraqIreland 39.2Isle of Man 38.6Israel 9.323685 12075490000 13.76707 14.18829 15175000000 41.9Italy 20.08631 2.9493E+11 18.45531 18.65652 2.70982E+11 39.2Jamaica 11.48135 929666800 20.87421 22.49976 1568546000Japan 25.57301 1.09986E+12 27.10921 26.65321 1.16593E+12 43.1Jordan -2.806861 -276759500 29.68622 29.32445 2952633000Kazakhstan 32.84886 9772338000 25.51362 27.04033 7866783000Kenya 8.255989 1112931000 12.26461 12.40795 1763136000KiribatiKorea, Dem. Rep.Korea, Rep. 31.909 1.93155E+11 31.40076 31.36849 1.90956E+11Kuwait 10231540000 26.77556 24.79982 11178350000Kyrgyz Republic 11.9686 228444400 14.5639 15.03792 279483100Lao PDR 20.54374 340051200 Page 27 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirLatvia 20.67519 1786201000 20.73384 20.77464 2295785000Lebanon -8.983601 54301930 5.804166 5.817015 1154711000Lesotho -24.06466 -131103800Liberia -13034610 0.5345598 0.6253502 2363824LibyaLiechtensteinLithuania 15.48408 2989934000 15.22615 15.64211 2795489000 38.84Luxembourg 38.89357 10305300000 25.95783 29.13913 6877830000Macao, China 47.2Macedonia, FYR 3.436274 239864500 17.47371 17.59559 815404600Madagascar 7.815804 488058300 12.91321 13.10445 706877200Malawi -5.00206 -84350080 -6.195256 -6.346727 -105393000Malaysia 42.34373 43926050000 34.26994 36.34703 35550550000Maldives 51.41481Mali 18.94357 651872300 16.12121 16.73207 700629600Malta 727103800 14.9636 14.83641 713541800 38.7Marshall IslandsMauritania 3.195728Mauritius 25.32695 1323074000 26.2433 26.25347 1375531000MayotteMexico 18.15954 1.21238E+11 19.23662 19.60975 1.22937E+11 44.4Micronesia, Fed. Sts.Moldova -12.25531 -241970500 19.46297 16.73351 385529400 29.7MonacoMongolia 18.11276 285317200Morocco 19.7174 8621749000 27.29329 27.79515 11934430000Mozambique 11.28303 440192700 11.32625 11.85627 489359300MyanmarNamibia 15.38581 657105100 33.96349 31.53962 1450531000Nepal 13.70547 801882800 31.51859 31.55953 1844096000Netherlands 38.5Netherlands AntillesNew CaledoniaNew Zealand 38Nicaragua 10.94082 446729300 20.74315 21.29882 857767200Niger 5.026772 137302100Nigeria 31.80091 17710990000Northern Mariana IslandsNorway 31.24208 68999320000 30.53773 30.34476 67443730000 36.3Oman 7381015000 22.33222 23.25722 4845714000Pakistan 15.56435 14271150000 22.10859 22.71833 18206410000PalauPanama 26.92376 3469800000 22.47862 24.0091 2891200000Papua New Guinea 891988200Paraguay 5.363831 323429700 8.221326 8.210433 495731700Peru 18.87405 11433330000 17.4527 18.07374 10572320000 48.99Philippines 16.24911 11131680000 22.2079 20.67692 17617460000Poland 13.50595 34260180000 16.88646 17.1409 35385720000Portugal 37.93Puerto RicoQatar Page 28 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirRomania 15.30916 9568495000 18.1643 18.51699 10344760000Russian Federation 31.21881 1.38557E+11 29.06218 29.98024 1.25001E+11Rwanda 1.10191 -14135320 10.63593 10.83214 179085400SamoaSan Marino 38.4Sao Tome and Principe -14.40378 -5223288Saudi Arabia 42.22501 88400000000 33.97134 34.18036 72216720000Senegal 8.049505 521974900 16.20589 16.43955 1050880000Serbia and Montenegro -5.198054 -1215882000Seychelles 19.37742 91010010 8.146691 8.660428 57262100Sierra Leone -11.52129 -69697480 6.649519 6.836678 65825690Singapore 46.693 43236550000 44.01558 44.71039 40656820000 49Slovak Republic 23.76118 7833033000 24.34195 24.43153 7958110000Slovenia 25.2057 7016469000 24.9975 25.16774 6936520000 36.7Solomon IslandsSomaliaSouth Africa 18.56929 31323710000 15.66139 16.10892 25909280000Spain 24.13955 2.02447E+11 23.09442 23.3452 1.93682E+11 36Sri Lanka 15.74272 2900892000 22.31678 22.3941 4072009000St. Kitts and Nevis 28.90452 111152200 24.63207 27.94453 90910580St. Lucia 15.24191 105592600St. Vincent and theGrenadines 16.24825 61981850Sudan 24.65978 2477663000 9.842157 10.71218 1751076000Suriname -22155390 -7.489187 -7.871543 -76429920Swaziland 9.203387 170852600Sweden 22.68453 68417820000 23.09918 23.13607 69668440000 37.5Switzerland 41.2Syrian Arab Republic 30.88888 6640809000 -Tajikistan 0.2692572 66689730 19.6488 20.86193 305119600Tanzania 9.538809 982193200 9.316656 9.364251 959318500Thailand 31.96182 45426210000 30.56298 31.14609 43690780000 50.5Timor-LesteTogo 5.332554 93796800TongaTrinidad and Tobago 27.83707 2925977000 25.0229 25.91593 2630177000Tunisia 21.021 5263097000 21.86692 22.86715 5474893000Turkey 19.68446 46843530000 18.63093 18.79192 44784260000 52.2Turkmenistan 2065245000Uganda 6.637097 417911900 16.06659 16.40705 1011650000Ukraine 23.98909 11395540000 25.92813 26.23214 12998540000United Arab EmiratesUnited Kingdom 13.36538 2.39892E+11 14.45711 14.17508 2.59488E+11United States 40.4Uruguay 15.43494 1726006000 11.52069 12.06893 1289255000Uzbekistan 24.32044 2656452000VanuatuVenezuela, RB 24.78219 27007660000 29.50369 30.38161 24616630000Vietnam 27.11357 10618640000Virgin Islands (U.S.)West Bank and Gaza -36.51653 -1261446000 44.2Yemen, Rep. 12.44078 1347407000 17.28311 18.66216 1901472000 Page 29 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirZambia 18.741 812467600ZimbabweIncorrupt Society CorruptionCOUNTRY_NAME IndexCNTRY CORRUPTIONAfghanistan 2.5Albania 2.4Algeria 2.8American SamoaAndorraAngola 2Antigua and BarbudaArgentina 2.8Armenia 2.9ArubaAustralia 8.8Austria 8.7Azerbaijan 2.2Bahamas, TheBahrain 5.8Bangladesh 1.7Barbados 6.9Belarus 2.6Belgium 7.4Belize 3.7Benin 2.9BermudaBhutanBolivia 2.5Bosnia and Herzegovina 2.9Botswana 5.9Brazil 3.7BruneiBulgaria 4Burkina Faso 3.4Burundi 2.3Cambodia 2.3Cameroon 2.2Canada 8.4Cape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChad 1.7Channel IslandsChile 7.3China 3.2 Page 30 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirColombia 4ComorosCongo, Dem. Rep. 2.1Congo, Rep. 2.3Costa Rica 4.2Cote dIvoire 1.9Croatia 3.4Cuba 3.8Cyprus 5.7Czech Republic 4.3Denmark 9.5DjiboutiDominicaDominican Republic 3Ecuador 2.5Egypt, Arab Rep. 3.4El Salvador 4.2Equatorial Guinea 1.9Eritrea 2.6Estonia 6.4Ethiopia 2.2Faeroe IslandsFiji 4Finland 9.6France 7.5French PolynesiaGabon 2.9Gambia, The 2.7Georgia 2.3Germany 8.2Ghana 3.5Greece 4.3GreenlandGrenadaGuamGuatemala 2.5GuineaGuinea-BissauGuyana 2.5Haiti 1.8Honduras 2.6Hong Kong, China 8.3Hungary 5Iceland 9.7India 2.9Indonesia 2.2Iran, Islamic Rep. 2.9Iraq 2.2Ireland 7.4Isle of ManIsrael 6.3 Page 31 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirItaly 5Jamaica 3.6Japan 7.3Jordan 5.7Kazakhstan 2.6Kenya 2.1KiribatiKorea, Dem. Rep.Korea, Rep. 5Kuwait 4.7Kyrgyz Republic 2.3Lao PDR 3.3Latvia 4.2Lebanon 3.1Lesotho 3.4Liberia 2.2Libya 2.5LiechtensteinLithuania 4.8Luxembourg 8.5Macao, ChinaMacedonia, FYR 2.7Madagascar 2.8Malawi 2.8Malaysia 5.1MaldivesMali 2.9Malta 6.6Marshall IslandsMauritaniaMauritius 4.2MayotteMexico 3.5Micronesia, Fed. Sts.Moldova 2.9MonacoMongolia 3Morocco 3.2Mozambique 2.8Myanmar 1.8Namibia 4.3Nepal 2.5Netherlands 8.6Netherlands AntillesNew CaledoniaNew Zealand 9.6Nicaragua 2.6Niger 2.4Nigeria 1.9Northern Mariana IslandsNorway 8.9 Page 32 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirOman 6.3Pakistan 2.1PalauPanama 3.5Papua New Guinea 2.3Paraguay 2.1Peru 3.5Philippines 2.5Poland 3.4Portugal 6.5Puerto RicoQatar 5.9Romania 3Russian Federation 2.4Rwanda 3.1SamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi Arabia 3.4Senegal 3.2Serbia and Montenegro 2.8Seychelles 4Sierra Leone 2.4Singapore 9.4Slovak Republic 4.3Slovenia 6.1Solomon IslandsSomalia 2.1South Africa 4.5Spain 7Sri Lanka 3.2St. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and theGrenadinesSudan 2.1Suriname 3.2Swaziland 2.7Sweden 9.2Switzerland 9.1Syrian Arab Republic 3.4Tajikistan 2.1Tanzania 2.9Thailand 3.8Timor-LesteTogoTongaTrinidad and Tobago 3.8Tunisia 4.9Turkey 3.5Turkmenistan 1.8Uganda 2.5 Page 33 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirUkraine 2.6United Arab Emirates 6.2United Kingdom 8.6United States 7.6Uruguay 5.9Uzbekistan 2.2VanuatuVenezuela, RB 2.3Vietnam 2.6Virgin Islands (U.S.)West Bank and GazaYemen, Rep. 2.7Zambia 2.6Zimbabwe 2.6Infrastructure Roads Air Air Roads, Density transport, transport, Air Density Rail lines total (Total freight passengers Aircraft (Departures/ (total network Roads/COUNTRY_NAME (million carri departures Land Area) route-km) (km) - 200 Land Area)CNTRY AIRFRT AIRPAS AIRDEP AIRDENS RAILKM ROAD ROADENSAfghanistanAlbania 0.1 158900 3800 0.00159547 18000 0.65693431Algeria 19.1 3292800 44300 221.5American SamoaAndorraAngola 56.5 198300 4600 10.4545455 2761Antigua and Barbuda 0.2 1428500 67200 0.02455521Argentina 113.4 6030100 91800 3.25531915Armenia 5 366600 3800 20 8431 0.29897163ArubaAustralia 1355.4 41386400 529600 6.4015472 41286Austria 430.7 6902800 128400 1.55447942 200000 2.41750272Azerbaijan 67.1 683700 9200 0.91908092 2122 28030 0.33934625Bahamas, The 1.6 1601300 24500 34.5070423Bahrain 341.2 1850500 28500 0.21894446 3459 4.87183099Bangladesh 179 1579000 7200 16.744186Barbados 1600 3.72093023Belarus 1.1 234300 6000 0.19847833 79990 0.38553114Belgium 604.6 2904100 132800 5.8245614 149028 4.92980483BelizeBenin 438BermudaBhutan 0.2 36400 1900 0.00175215 4007.09 0.08525723Bolivia 24.5 1768300 28900 0.56445313 60282 0.05559121Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.5 72900 4600 0.00811674Botswana 0.3 183200 7500 0.00088659 888Brazil 1478.4 32372000 486800 92.3719165Brunei 148.7 955100 11800 0.10666185Bulgaria 0 75400 1400 0.00511696 37077.3 0.33514689 Page 34 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirBurkina Faso 0 54500 1300 0.05062305BurundiCambodia 2.6 116300 3600 0.00773528Cameroon 20.3 315100 9500 0.00103026Canada 1496.3 35884400 1036100 257.096774 49422 1408800 0.15278219Cape Verde 0.4 252800 9400 36.1538462Cayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChannel IslandsChile 1130.2 5246800 82800 0.00887705China 5650.6 86040600 946400 0.91113892 1765222 0.18925083Colombia 645.8 9142600 171900 77.0852018ComorosCongo, Dem. Rep.Congo, Rep. 0 52300 4800 0.09400705Costa Rica 9.7 780500 34500 0.10849057 35302.59 0.69139424Cote dIvoireCroatia 2.6 1266600 19800 0.18029503 28344 0.50686695Cuba 40.6 611000 9000 0.97402597Cyprus 44.2 1883000 16900 0.2186853 11593 1.25465368Czech Republic 36.2 3391500 52100 1.22790478 127204 1.64601449Denmark 171 5886000 90600 3.90854185 71847 1.69330662DjiboutiDominicaDominican Republic 1743Ecuador 7.9 1123300 13200 0.01326034 966 43197 0.15603598Egypt, Arab Rep. 228.5 4172000 42100 2.03185328El Salvador 3 2966400 25100 0.89483066 283Equatorial GuineaEritrea 306Estonia 1.5 395300 8400 0.0084 55944 1.31974522Ethiopia 93.5 1147300 27200 19.4285714 681 33297 0.033297Faeroe IslandsFiji 68 972000 38700 0.12705604Finland 255.7 6183900 107000 0.19451009 78650 0.25821596France 5067.3 47258800 695900 190.136612 893100 1.623523French PolynesiaGabon 54.3 385500 8000 0.8Gambia, TheGeorgia 2.1 124200 2000 0.00573148 20229 0.29110663Germany 7297.6 72693100 844800 3.7127538Ghana 16.6 241100 3300 0.02560124 977Greece 62.7 7518900 114100 0.27798758GreenlandGrenadaGuamGuatemala 886Guinea 837Guinea-BissauGuyana Page 35 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirHaitiHonduras 699Hong Kong, China 5780.8 13024800 87100 0.94571118Hungary 28 2369100 34600 0.34513716 159568 1.73255157Iceland 75.4 1133800 9800 0.00329612 12978 0.12945636India 580 19456100 263900 0.14567475 3315231 1.11504176Indonesia 424.4 12221100 155600 0.0950984 6458 368362 0.20333854Iran, Islamic Rep. 80 9554300 85100 0.1945721IraqIreland 121.8 28863700 231300 404.370629 95736 1.38969372Isle of ManIsrael 1394.4 3672000 35800 0.12172317 16903 0.7785813Italy 1358.8 34953200 327900 30.2770083Jamaica 48.9 1838000 24000 0.06584362 272Japan 7985.4 103606100 638500 7.17980434Jordan 190.3 1353400 15400 0.00570434 7301 0.08209828Kazakhstan 20.8 1009700 19600 0.03443792 82980 0.03073675Kenya 141.5 1678200 27100 37.1232877KiribatiKorea, Dem. Rep. 1.8 75000 1400 0.01418009Korea, Rep. 8311.8 33334000 239900 13.4624018 3129Kuwait 219.4 2198400 18000 0.09384776Kyrgyz Republic 4.8 205600 4800 0.02079723Lao PDR 1.9 218700 7100 0.11442385Latvia 0.5 339700 10400 1.01661779 60472 0.9745689Lebanon 75.1 935200 10800 0.35584844 401LesothoLiberia 490Libya 0.3 626500 6400 40 2757LiechtensteinLithuania 1.3 329300 9800 3.7896365 77148 1.23082323Luxembourg 4347.8 853900 40800 1942.85714Macao, China 46 1211800 14400 0.56626032 341 16.2380952Macedonia, FYR 0.1 201000 2300 0.00395502Madagascar 9.6 403700 9400 0.09991497Malawi 1.2 108900 4900 0.01491402 797Malaysia 2175.7 15214400 152000 506.666667Maldives 0 60200 3500 0.00286841MaliMalta 12 1309100 14400 79.4263651 2222 6.94375Marshall Islands 0.3 27500 3900 0.00380406Mauritania 0.1 116100 1600 0.78817734 717Mauritius 194.5 1035100 14500 38.7700535 2000 0.98522168MayotteMexico 349.6 20687800 287100 408.974359Micronesia, Fed. Sts.Moldova 0.5 179100 4300 2205.12821 12719 0.3868309Monaco 0 94600 14000 0.00893712Mongolia 7.6 294900 7400 0.01658078 49250 0.03143952Morocco 50.7 2565100 34800 0.04438266 57694 0.12927179Mozambique 6.6 280500 7700 0.01171014 Page 36 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirMyanmar 2.1 1117200 20600 0.02502156 3955Namibia 45.7 265700 6000 0.04195804 2382 42237 0.0513027Nepal 18.9 625400 13000 0.3837072 59 15308 0.10704895Netherlands 4330.7 23454900 248200 310.25Netherlands AntillesNew CaledoniaNew Zealand 800.5 12259400 247400 2.03789127 3898 92382 0.34472182Nicaragua 6 18712 0.15413509NigerNigeria 10 520300 9000 18.8679245Northern Mariana IslandsNorway 174.6 12779300 248800 0.80387722 91852 0.2999249Oman 190 2777400 27800 0.03606268Pakistan 351 4477300 44700 97.173913PalauPanama 20.2 1264300 25700 0.05675043 355Papua New Guinea 17.1 690500 17700 0.04455072Paraguay 0 313000 10800 0.0084375 441Peru 114.3 2232700 36300 0.12174263Philippines 273.6 6466800 56100 0.18315975 429 202124 0.67788175Poland 70.9 3252200 73100 0.7989071Portugal 205.7 7590300 117400 13.2356257Puerto Rico 96Qatar 276.4 3184100 23800 0.10353678Romania 6.8 1250800 26600 0.00157504 198755 0.86464088Russian Federation 1113.4 22723100 351000 14.2278071RwandaSamoa 1.5 198100 9000 148.760331San MarinoSao Tome and Principe 0.1 35700 1200 0.00055822Saudi Arabia 852.4 13821700 108300 0.56250974Senegal 0 130000 2400 0.02352941Serbia and Montenegro 47.3 1298300 22200 49.3333333Seychelles 21.3 413100 18600 0.25970399Sierra Leone 6.7 13600 100 0.14925373 11300 0.15777716Singapore 6683.1 14736900 63900 1.30942623 3130.33 4.67213433Slovak Republic 0.4 208400 6800 0.33797217 42970 0.88053279Slovenia 3.6 758400 16400 0.58592354 20250 1.00646123Solomon Islands 0.7 68100 9700 0.01546211SomaliaSouth Africa 891.3 9481300 146800 0.2939292 275971 0.22723575Spain 876.1 42506800 518800 8.02723194Sri Lanka 238 1957600 12600 35 1449St. Kitts and NevisSt. LuciaSt. Vincent and theGrenadines 829 2.12564103Sudan 36.3 420500 7800 0.05Suriname 24.3 258300 4400 0.25581395 4492 0.02879487Swaziland 301Sweden 252.9 11586000 183500 4.63969659 213237 0.51804334Switzerland 1247.6 10588700 189100 1.02894766 71212 1.80055626 Page 37 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek Pundir Syrian Arab Republic 16.1 907900 7100 0.05049787 64697 0.35203504 Tajikistan 6.8 412700 7200 0.00814858 Tanzania 1.8 149600 6000 0.01174421 Thailand 1764.1 16622500 93600 6.29455279 4071 Timor-Leste Togo 568 Tonga 0 60800 4500 0.87719298 Trinidad and Tobago 34.3 1084200 17700 0.11392894 Tunisia 19.2 1719500 18700 0.02429739 Turkey 378.5 10701000 103600 0.22045837 354421 0.4605083 Turkmenistan 13.6 1411900 24500 0.12430239 Uganda 23.4 39700 300 0.00051782 Ukraine 17.7 1477300 32900 0.39354067 169679 0.29287823 United Arab Emirates 2686.1 11384000 69800 0.28977084 United Kingdom 5250.5 76376800 891200 0.09730362 United States 34205.6 588997100 7789100 44.5040567 141961 Uruguay 23.2 463900 7000 0.01689842 Uzbekistan 71 1465800 22300 1.82936834 Vanuatu 1.5 83200 1200 0.00136047 Venezuela, RB 2 3823700 105800 0.32504839 Vietnam 164.5 4552800 47600 140 Virgin Islands (U.S.) West Bank and Gaza Yemen, Rep. 48.7 844300 14700 0.01977428 Zambia 0 51000 5200 0.0134419 1273 Zimbabwe 18.5 200900 4000 19.2307692 3077InformationCOUNTRY_NAME Civil Liberties Fixed line Telephone Personal Information Information Index and mobile mainlines computers and and phone sub (per 1,000 (per 1,000 p communicati communicati on t on_1CNTRY INFO CELL PHONE PC TECH% TECHAfghanistan 6 11.80198 1.829878Albania 3 440.9659 82.9862Algeria 5 114.8269 69.26218American SamoaAndorra 1Angola 5 6.707062Antigua and Barbuda 2Argentina 2 5.678041 194.3109Armenia 4 178.3894 148.2975ArubaAustralia 1 1261.803 542.3418 5.937009 1559.962Austria 1 1359.532 480.7383 5.317864 1663.894Azerbaijan 5 242.451 114.3253Bahamas, The 1 781.9268 415.2696Bahrain 5 906.015 267.6214Bangladesh 4 15.59411 5.491843 7.770974 2.653637 9.97781Barbados 1 1015.944 496.8484Belarus 6 424.3145 311.0787 Page 38 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirBelgium 1 1281.955 489.1897 318.1499 5.502852 1601.089Belize 2 317.3476 112.7303Benin 2 43.08698 9.467758 3.676157BermudaBhutan 5 45.19705 34.30563 13.61767Bolivia 3 224.4003 72.30489 5.649312 51.8484Bosnia and Herzegovina 3 518.7806 244.7794Botswana 2 371.9398 74.87159Brazil 3 486.46 222.9089 6.726868 192.6479Brunei 5Bulgaria 2 846.8568 380.4846 3.909935 99.65486Burkina Faso 5 23.85414 5.335618 2.121064Burundi 5 12.34897 3.357171 1.826458Cambodia 5 37.82098 2.571558 2.263259Cameroon 6 4.896375 38.01716Canada 1 1045.785 628.9612 5.814708 1574.591Cape Verde 1 272.6072 156.3298Cayman IslandsCentral African Republic 5Chad 5Channel IslandsChile 1 732.3965 221.0459 6.671247 306.2508China 6 423.802 209.0345 5.279675 58.04991Colombia 4 320.5816 179.2876 8.85692 158.8417Comoros 4 19.0801 16.57697 5.757196Congo, Dem. Rep. 4Congo, Rep. 6 96.28571 2 4.285714Costa Rica 1 7.465628 325.9686Cote dIvoire 6 91.31169 14.30976Croatia 2Cuba 7Cyprus 1 1315.879 571.877Czech Republic 1 1324.939 360.3018 6.499976 576.1125Denmark 1 1552.549 669.3338 5.654735 2224.105Djibouti 5 49.65419 15.22305 21.70659Dominica 1Dominican Republic 2 386.785 115.4122Ecuador 3 311.6437 122.4198 3.655754 76.4456Egypt, Arab Rep. 5 211.7058 127.2528 21.8506 1.218288 14.86404El Salvador 3 291.986 115.5161Equatorial Guinea 6 94.10681 17.67956Eritrea 6 9.173211 2.89087Estonia 1 1118.609 341.2287 440.4145Ethiopia 5 7.681718 6.271355 2.162536Faeroe IslandsFiji 3 256.5911 123.5374Finland 1 1401.555 491.9701 6.881755 2137.356France 1 1261.906 566.0315 5.870366 1726.487French Polynesia 214.072Gabon 4 253.1152 28.73224 22.4383Gambia, The 4Georgia 4 239.7041 132.9532Germany 1 1442.477 657.3234 484.6624 5.657247 1647.093 Page 39 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirGhana 2 49.10715 13.46854Greece 2 1356.158 453.8991 4.261827 665.1863GreenlandGrenada 2 666.6993 290.427GuamGuatemala 4Guinea 5 17.76093 3.375694 5.547671Guinea-Bissau 4 9.244532 8.248438Guyana 2Haiti 6 55.24862 16.8148Honduras 3 4.61123 45.44729Hong Kong, China 2 1638.103 558.941 8.440212 1920.877Hungary 1 1117.406 348.6396 6.110238 499.4174Iceland 1 1625.585 659.9446India 3 71.03042 46.28387 3.743906 21.12677Indonesia 4 126.8158 39.41102 2.954993 32.83302Iran, Islamic Rep. 6 270.5847 219.6792 90.45791 2.238528 46.2405Iraq 5Ireland 1 1370.982 491.3418 3.87389 1490.961Isle of ManIsrael 3 1418.922 458.1935 7.875669 1298.011Italy 1 1501.576 483.9895 4.142848 1055.229Jamaica 3 12.42036 353.1712Japan 2 1150.875 471.8615 7.383346 2489.141Jordan 4 355.5833 113.6495 44.72435 8.737057 163.7184Kazakhstan 5Kenya 3 60.52551 10.35568 3.112176 14.01811Kiribati 1Korea, Dem. Rep. 7 40.98652Korea, Rep. 2 1239.264 538.3449 557.9723 6.636652 842.3637Kuwait 5 776.2687 198.2105 162.8333 1.74522 304.0373Kyrgyz Republic 5 102.6519 76.0925Lao PDR 6 32.04695 12.2757 3.521933Latvia 2 811.2293 285.3799 187.9959Lebanon 5Lesotho 3Liberia 4Libya 7 158.5895 135.6239Liechtenstein 1Lithuania 2 868.9337 239.2022Luxembourg 1 1991.298 797.5Macao, China 1201.008 389.3445 260.8696Macedonia, FYR 3Madagascar 3 21.00759 3.647368 4.895961Malawi 4 20.98722 8.104501 1.506484Malaysia 4 623.5766 181.6245 166.8627 6.90796 289.256Maldives 5Mali 2Malta 1 1245.657 520.6775Marshall Islands 1 93.75463 82.67235Mauritania 5 141.3997 13.87282Mauritius 1 552.2261 285.2047Mayotte Page 40 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirMexico 2 448.7904 157.7346 3.057762 191.0374Micronesia, Fed. Sts. 1 157.6738 103.2808Moldova 4 351.3011 219.3443Monaco 1Mongolia 2 186.0322 56.21495 77.32063Morocco 4 283.892 40.47314 19.91767 5.616488 81.55711Mozambique 4Myanmar 7 8.070143 6.820293 5.636979Namibia 3 182.4589 66.20582 99.32433Nepal 5 17.82973 15.70262Netherlands 1 1381.868 614.3001 6.372682 2009.419Netherlands AntillesNew Caledonia 650.834 226.7598New Zealand 1 1096.728 448.4685 9.989328 1983.538Nicaragua 3 122.5234 37.3938Niger 3Nigeria 4 32.45803 6.917763Northern Mariana IslandsNorway 1 1622.372 713.4557 5.121986 2479.636Oman 5Pakistan 5 44.17529 26.62707 7.277115 40.37153Palau 1Panama 2 389.5464 121.98 9.170424 395.2719Papua New Guinea 3Paraguay 3 344.5737 46.06842Peru 3 173.1488 67.07043 6.869439 153.282Philippines 3 310.7275 41.18372 5.903589 57.46196Poland 1 769.6494 318.7437 142.0094 4.529687 248.5077Portugal 1 1309.635 411.1482 134.3557 4.246883 601.4075Puerto RicoQatar 5 794.3409 261.2318Romania 2 523.6089 199.3897 96.62478 2.811363 73.63411Russian Federation 5 3.684849 110.5044Rwanda 5Samoa 2 130.5493 72.92255San Marino 1Sao Tome and Principe 2 77.55921 45.85526Saudi Arabia 7 476.5473 155.4037 2.530608 238.7929Senegal 3 77.68713 22.09132 21.23757 7.462343 47.25656Serbia and Montenegro 2 580.5085 242.7224Seychelles 3 850.6783 255.9887Sierra Leone 3Singapore 4 1302.752 450.2562 10.37143 2254.118Slovak Republic 1 924.9483 240.7798 5.263821 319.2764Slovenia 1 1277.651 406.7711Solomon Islands 3 16.19707 13.07757Somalia 7South Africa 2 7.771068 280.5229Spain 1 1342.93 433.7894 3.78605 772.5229Sri Lanka 3 121.7069 48.99829 5.729897 54.3632St. Kitts and Nevis 2St. Lucia 2St. Vincent and the Grenadines 1 Page 41 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirSudan 7 46.56612 27.03839Suriname 2 472.0338 151.7107Swaziland 5 128.5431 44.25191 28.73563Sweden 1 7.021453 2364.571Switzerland 1 7.231797 3149.701Syrian Arab Republic 7Tajikistan 5 44.75628 37.47795Tanzania 3 29.45898 4.222524 5.663637Thailand 3 499.0733 104.9054 3.535701 81.50389Timor-Leste 3Togo 5 56.1284 12.1284 32Tonga 3Trinidad and Tobago 3Tunisia 5 309.7845 117.6794 40.48251 5.235782 132.4784Turkey 3 661.8998 267.5178 7.348326 249.7964Turkmenistan 7Uganda 4 32.703 2.38271 4.004063Ukraine 3 7.044867 73.03793United Arab Emirates 6 1016.778 281.1073United Kingdom 1 7.347044 2222.699United States 1 1164.29 621.2793 8.789998 3309.298Uruguay 1 7.064746 233.8931Uzbekistan 6 79.56098 67.03605Vanuatu 2 69.04189 31.48772Venezuela, RB 4 383.6291 110.6178 5.316184 172.7662Vietnam 6 87.78872 54.09378Virgin Islands (U.S.)West Bank and Gaza 219.9386 87.28333Yemen, Rep. 5Zambia 4 29.42617 7.898705 8.485931Zimbabwe 6 57.80349 25.57765 52.69868 92.13271Internationalization Export of goods External and Balance Trade (% services on Goods COUNTRY_NAME of GDP) (% and s CNTRY TRADE% EXP BAL Afghanistan Albania 61.27856 19.0564 -24.80499 Algeria 63.32757 39.0476 14.44447 American Samoa Andorra Angola 138.1198 71.32356 7.344789 Antigua and Barbuda Argentina 39.1405 24.95217 10.76959 Armenia 81.6707 31.87389 -17.92292 Aruba Australia Austria 102.0674 51.79567 1.523924 Azerbaijan 109.6055 42.80757 -23.99035 Page 42 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirBahamas, TheBahrain 17.8876Bangladesh 34.24911 14.21382 -5.821476Barbados -5.110403Belarus 136.7542 66.39317 -3.899034Belgium 161.8057 82.16764 2.529535Belize 120.8057 53.5405 -13.25698Benin 40.80198 14.04951 -11.55074BermudaBhutanBolivia 48.77253 23.71004 1.439925Bosnia and Herzegovina 84.40972 25.24197 -33.92578Botswana 78.38142 44.48193 10.58243Brazil 29.98106 16.85795 3.635822BruneiBulgaria 116.1957 53.22141 -9.714365Burkina Faso 31.88433 8.532125 -14.82008Burundi 24.69839 6.828378 -11.04163Cambodia 133.2799 62.01329 -9.476426Cameroon 50.93324 25.52723 0.1212171CanadaCape Verde 100.1964 31.97433 -34.54557Cayman IslandsCentral African Republic 54.99713 24.42562 -2.138194Chad 73.21802 20.58094 -32.93457Channel IslandsChile 68.29369 35.69949 3.105276China 66.1268 34.34069 2.546884Colombia 43.8581 21.38433 -1.07163Comoros 37.02177 12.51372 -13.47911Congo, Dem. Rep.Congo, Rep. 130.6623 77.60185 24.54142Costa Rica 95.38154 46.69864 -1.97765Cote dIvoire 80.4941 46.68888 12.8547Croatia 103.9266 47.09608 -9.734445CubaCyprusCzech Republic 127.8293 62.80586 -2.201663Denmark 80.36478 43.46844 6.572106DjiboutiDominica 115.312 53.76488 -12.23928Dominican Republic 106.3369 51.90933 -2.518207Ecuador 52.56478 23.75199 -5.060796Egypt, Arab Rep. 45.26855 21.69313 -1.882289El Salvador 70.00481 26.79285 -16.35165Equatorial GuineaEritrea 112.7748 13.69641 -85.38199Estonia 157.9864 74.97952 -8.027364Ethiopia 53.6725 17.13239 -19.40773Faeroe IslandsFiji Page 43 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirFinland 66.97857 37.00548 7.032394France 50.37582 25.80679 1.237763French PolynesiaGabon 103.4231 62.41627 21.40944Gambia, The 85.92757 40.68228 -9.152959Georgia 78.15901 31.7751 -14.60881Germany 67.71793 35.95388 4.189837Ghana 92.54701 40.33394 -11.87913Greece 47.84364 19.83654 -8.170568GreenlandGrenada -28.25789GuamGuatemala 44.16239 16.29263 -11.5771Guinea 46.58214 22.01725 -2.547635Guinea-Bissau 73.4057 29.67004 -11.21502GuyanaHaiti -30.80996Honduras 90.22947 36.47608 -17.39204Hong Kong, China 330.5964 169.9999 8.974148Hungary -4.150203Iceland 73.91519 35.27322 -3.36876India 30.47005 14.48041 -1.002602Indonesia 56.94 31.24 7.628459Iran, Islamic Rep. 48.20639 25.32261 2.438824IraqIrelandIsle of ManIsrael 81.39085 37.31425 -5.941225Italy 50.23501 25.38209 0.5291693Jamaica 99.93383 40.70079 -19.96986Japan 22.01148 11.80656 1.601641Jordan 114.6044 44.54996 -25.28384Kazakhstan 94.54241 50.38888 6.016084Kenya 54.24396 24.78472 -5.18881KiribatiKorea, Dem. Rep.Korea, Rep. 73.8112 38.16702 2.51125Kuwait 15.85885Kyrgyz Republic 80.27292 38.03177 -4.186757Lao PDR 50.76085 25.48861 -5.710165Latvia 103.9908 47.04117 -12.71224Lebanon 52.40373 13.36694 -20.04601Lesotho 136.5704 41.37027 -56.51784Liberia -11.64425LibyaLiechtensteinLithuania 113.7824 53.91043 -5.459682Luxembourg 262.7413 140.1323 17.5233Macao, ChinaMacedonia, FYR 88.62152 35.23087 -16.55983Madagascar 53.06196 21.49239 -8.97716 Page 44 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirMalawi 68.10201 27.49257 -16.18886Malaysia 207.6388 114.3054 20.9721Maldives 151.275 85.17479Mali 57.20373 26.36624 -8.857643Malta -5.444525Marshall IslandsMauritania 109.3529 33.87431Mauritius 116.9703 59.69096 2.403538MayotteMexico 58.53442 28.43253 -1.621341Micronesia, Fed. Sts.Moldova 141.282 53.67648 -33.63732MonacoMongolia 147.8923 67.63182 -15.66153Morocco 68.73055 32.33819 -4.054172Mozambique 62.14272 22.76288 -16.69769MyanmarNamibia 86.05342 39.35436 -7.344703Nepal 45.43089 16.65381 -12.12327NetherlandsNetherlands AntillesNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaragua 75.51143 24.4273 -26.32137Niger 41.22205 16.0315 -9.159055Nigeria 90.88999 49.97894 7.648865Northern Mariana IslandsNorway 69.0631 41.34038 13.61767Oman 18.35071Pakistan 40.84105 20.47681 0.5999367PalauPanama 116.7426 59.03317 1.326388Papua New Guinea 11.04556Paraguay 78.99892 32.27388 -14.45117Peru 35.31059 17.68471 0.0588Philippines 99.00641 48.26715 -2.603158Poland 47.31328 20.96223 -2.490483PortugalPuerto RicoQatarRomania 71.55761 33.03003 -7.84358Russian Federation 52.56905 31.73287 11.47783Rwanda 36.2267 8.565359 -19.26433SamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and Principe 120.5996 37.89793 -38.8626Saudi Arabia 70.98512 46.89915 22.20954Senegal 68.8888 28.43855 -12.01169Serbia and Montenegro 67.50778 22.23605 -22.02095Seychelles 154.4338 77.38863 3.949272Sierra Leone 71.91402 22.44635 -21.32122 Page 45 of 46
  • Term Paper: The 7-I’s of Development Mohit Sauparn, Vivek PundirSingapore 31.96416Slovak Republic 157.5796 78.04195 -1.481851Slovenia 119.3231 59.65366 -0.0319Solomon IslandsSomaliaSouth Africa 54.5946 28.19048 1.763928Spain 57.68418 27.94336 -1.797466Sri Lanka 78.12485 35.77249 -6.175472St. Kitts and Nevis 92.78004 36.89228 -17.7835St. Lucia 125.0147 55.71772 -13.5612St. Vincent and theGrenadines 112.2829 47.41555 -17.22845Sudan 28.35569 16.25774 -4.236394Suriname -36.05632Swaziland 177.2344 83.53774 -9.012568Sweden 80.78622 43.72198 6.657744SwitzerlandSyrian Arab Republic 73.22239 40.23975 7.266831Tajikistan 139.3375 60.0341 -13.69451Tanzania 45.6176 18.26528 -9.08703Thailand 124.577 65.64988 6.766771Timor-LesteTogo 81.1797 33.80612 -13.56745TongaTrinidad and Tobago 90.86311 49.65514 8.447181Tunisia 90.30582 43.12784 -4.050142Turkey 58.63309 27.65467 -3.290508Turkmenistan 8.274179Uganda 38.74324 12.34832 -14.0466Ukraine 101.2167 52.94684 2.569349United Arab EmiratesUnited Kingdom 53.15987 25.10627 -2.947343United StatesUruguay 48.75928 25.56851 2.375969Uzbekistan 66.29385 36.73784 6.704112VanuatuVenezuela, RB 45.63225 30.59802 16.80879Vietnam 127.3024 59.66301 -7.976407Virgin Islands (U.S.)West Bank and Gaza 58.99344 9.986567 -39.02031Yemen, Rep. 67.12008 31.21 -4.62689Zambia 48.51 20.56 -7.39Zimbabwe Page 46 of 46