Political System Of Hungary 2


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Political System Of Hungary 2

  1. 1. The Political System of Hungary <ul><li>Institutions </li></ul>
  2. 2. What is a ”political system” <ul><li>A political system is a complete set of institutions , interest groups (such as political parties, trade unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions (constitution, election law). </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is an institution? <ul><li>” an organization founded and united for a specific purpose ” </li></ul><ul><li>a custom that for a long time has been an important feature of some group or society; &quot;the institution of marriage&quot;; &quot;the institution of slavery&quot;; &quot;he had become an institution in the theater„ </li></ul>
  4. 4. Most important political institutions in the Hungarian political system <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>President </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional Court </li></ul><ul><li>Ombudsman </li></ul><ul><li>Municipalities (local government) </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Government <ul><li>How do you become Prime Minister? </li></ul><ul><li>First step: you are the candidate of the political party that gets the most votes at the elections. </li></ul><ul><li>Second step: the President appoints you (this has been tradition since 1990) as Prime Minister * </li></ul><ul><li>Third step: you draw up your political programme as PM (a speech in Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth step: Parliament votes about you and your programme and elects you with a 50%+1 vote majority (194 votes). </li></ul><ul><li>* the President may appoint anybody s/he prefers, but this would go against tradition and Parliament could override him/her. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Government <ul><li>What do you do once you are the Prime Minister? </li></ul><ul><li>Step 1: You select your cabinet -> the Ministers in your government. (the President appoints them – pure formality) </li></ul><ul><li>Step 2 : You run the country -> you coordinate the executive branch of the political system </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Government <ul><li>What do you do as a government? </li></ul><ul><li>you are responsible for: </li></ul><ul><li>ensuring that the laws of the country are implemented </li></ul><ul><li>coordinating the ministries </li></ul><ul><li>controlling the functioning of the local governments </li></ul><ul><li>scientific and cultural development, </li></ul><ul><li>social care and health care systems </li></ul><ul><li>public order (coordination of armed forces and the police, taking action in the case of a natural disaster, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>foreign policy (international contracts, representing Hungary in the EU) </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Government <ul><li>When does a new government have to be formed? </li></ul><ul><li>After a new Parliament has been elected </li></ul><ul><li>If the Prime Minister dies </li></ul><ul><li>If the Prime Minister loses his right to vote (commits a crime, treason, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>If the Prime Minister resigns </li></ul><ul><li>If the parliament elects a new Prime Minsister through a constructive vote of no confidence </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Government <ul><li>What is a constructive vote of no confidene? </li></ul><ul><li>At least 20% of the MPs say they do not want George George as Prime Minister anymore -> they submit a constructive motion of no confidence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No confidence, because they have no confidence in George George </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive, because they have to name their own candidate for Prime Minister – Peter Peter. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Parliament votes -> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>if they accept the motion of no confidence (50%+1), then Peter Peter automatically becomes Prime Minister </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If they don’t, George George remains Prime Minister </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Parliament <ul><li>Roles of Parliament: </li></ul><ul><li>Making laws (including the Constitution) </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign policy: concluding the most important contracts (e.g.: contract about Hungary’s accession to the EU, deciding about starting a war or concluding a peace treaty.) </li></ul><ul><li>Controlling the Government (questioning, motions of no confidence, accepting the budget) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Parliament <ul><li>The structure of the Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Committees : not public, this is where proposals for laws are discussed. This is a professional forum helping legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>The plenary session : public, this is where the debates are held and the laws are accepted or rejected, this is where the government can be questioned. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Parliament <ul><li>Who can propose a law? </li></ul><ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>President </li></ul><ul><li>Any Member of Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Parliamentary Committes </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Parliament
  14. 14. The President <ul><li>Elected for 5 years! </li></ul><ul><li>Election process: </li></ul><ul><li>Round 1: In Parliament, with a two-thirds majority (66,66%) </li></ul><ul><li>Round 2: In Parliament, with a two-thirds majority (66,66%) </li></ul><ul><li>Round 3: In Parliament, with a 50%+1 majority. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: the political parties in government are usually able to elect the President -> s/he is not an indepenent person and has limited legitimacy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. The President <ul><li>The roles of the President: </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign policy (represents the country) </li></ul><ul><li>Setting the dates for elections </li></ul><ul><li>handing out awards and medals </li></ul><ul><li>+ s/he can propose a bill in Parliament and appoints the Prime Minister after an election. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Constitutional Court <ul><li>The Constitutional Court is responsible for making sure that the constitution of Hungary is not violated by a certain law or government action. </li></ul><ul><li>It has 11 members, elected by Parliament (two-thirds majority) for 9 years. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Ombudsman <ul><li>The word comes from Swedish, meaning: representative </li></ul><ul><li>The Ombudsman safeguards the rights of the citizens and assists them when the state make laws or steps that harm them. </li></ul><ul><li>There are currently 3 Ombudsman in Hungary: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ombudsman for Data Protection and Freedom of Information (-) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ombudsman for National and Ethnic Minorities’ Rights (Ernő Kállai) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ombudsman for Civil Rights (Máté Szabó) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ there will soon be an Ombudsman for the future generations </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Key data to remember <ul><li>Prime Minister of Hungary: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ferenc Gyurcsány </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>President of Hungary: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>László Sólyom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>