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Political System Of Hungary 2


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  • 1. The Political System of Hungary
    • Institutions
  • 2. What is a ”political system”
    • A political system is a complete set of institutions , interest groups (such as political parties, trade unions, lobby groups), the relationships between those institutions and the political norms and rules that govern their functions (constitution, election law).
  • 3. What is an institution?
    • ” an organization founded and united for a specific purpose ”
    • a custom that for a long time has been an important feature of some group or society; "the institution of marriage"; "the institution of slavery"; "he had become an institution in the theater„
  • 4. Most important political institutions in the Hungarian political system
    • Government
    • Parliament
    • President
    • Constitutional Court
    • Ombudsman
    • Municipalities (local government)
    • Political parties
  • 5. The Government
    • How do you become Prime Minister?
    • First step: you are the candidate of the political party that gets the most votes at the elections.
    • Second step: the President appoints you (this has been tradition since 1990) as Prime Minister *
    • Third step: you draw up your political programme as PM (a speech in Parliament
    • Fourth step: Parliament votes about you and your programme and elects you with a 50%+1 vote majority (194 votes).
    • * the President may appoint anybody s/he prefers, but this would go against tradition and Parliament could override him/her.
  • 6. The Government
    • What do you do once you are the Prime Minister?
    • Step 1: You select your cabinet -> the Ministers in your government. (the President appoints them – pure formality)
    • Step 2 : You run the country -> you coordinate the executive branch of the political system
  • 7. The Government
    • What do you do as a government?
    • you are responsible for:
    • ensuring that the laws of the country are implemented
    • coordinating the ministries
    • controlling the functioning of the local governments
    • scientific and cultural development,
    • social care and health care systems
    • public order (coordination of armed forces and the police, taking action in the case of a natural disaster, etc.)
    • foreign policy (international contracts, representing Hungary in the EU)
  • 8. The Government
    • When does a new government have to be formed?
    • After a new Parliament has been elected
    • If the Prime Minister dies
    • If the Prime Minister loses his right to vote (commits a crime, treason, etc.)
    • If the Prime Minister resigns
    • If the parliament elects a new Prime Minsister through a constructive vote of no confidence
  • 9. The Government
    • What is a constructive vote of no confidene?
    • At least 20% of the MPs say they do not want George George as Prime Minister anymore -> they submit a constructive motion of no confidence:
      • No confidence, because they have no confidence in George George
      • Constructive, because they have to name their own candidate for Prime Minister – Peter Peter.
    • The Parliament votes ->
      • if they accept the motion of no confidence (50%+1), then Peter Peter automatically becomes Prime Minister
      • If they don’t, George George remains Prime Minister
  • 10. The Parliament
    • Roles of Parliament:
    • Making laws (including the Constitution)
    • Foreign policy: concluding the most important contracts (e.g.: contract about Hungary’s accession to the EU, deciding about starting a war or concluding a peace treaty.)
    • Controlling the Government (questioning, motions of no confidence, accepting the budget)
  • 11. The Parliament
    • The structure of the Parliament
    • Committees : not public, this is where proposals for laws are discussed. This is a professional forum helping legislation.
    • The plenary session : public, this is where the debates are held and the laws are accepted or rejected, this is where the government can be questioned.
  • 12. The Parliament
    • Who can propose a law?
    • Government
    • President
    • Any Member of Parliament
    • Parliamentary Committes
  • 13. The Parliament
  • 14. The President
    • Elected for 5 years!
    • Election process:
    • Round 1: In Parliament, with a two-thirds majority (66,66%)
    • Round 2: In Parliament, with a two-thirds majority (66,66%)
    • Round 3: In Parliament, with a 50%+1 majority.
    • Result: the political parties in government are usually able to elect the President -> s/he is not an indepenent person and has limited legitimacy.
  • 15. The President
    • The roles of the President:
    • Foreign policy (represents the country)
    • Setting the dates for elections
    • handing out awards and medals
    • + s/he can propose a bill in Parliament and appoints the Prime Minister after an election.
  • 16. The Constitutional Court
    • The Constitutional Court is responsible for making sure that the constitution of Hungary is not violated by a certain law or government action.
    • It has 11 members, elected by Parliament (two-thirds majority) for 9 years.
  • 17. The Ombudsman
    • The word comes from Swedish, meaning: representative
    • The Ombudsman safeguards the rights of the citizens and assists them when the state make laws or steps that harm them.
    • There are currently 3 Ombudsman in Hungary:
      • Ombudsman for Data Protection and Freedom of Information (-)
      • Ombudsman for National and Ethnic Minorities’ Rights (Ernő Kállai)
      • Ombudsman for Civil Rights (Máté Szabó)
      • + there will soon be an Ombudsman for the future generations
  • 18. Key data to remember
    • Prime Minister of Hungary:
            • Ferenc Gyurcsány
    • President of Hungary:
            • László Sólyom