ICT & Digital Divide by John JacobPresentation Transcript
ICT & DIGITAL DIVIDE John Jacob II - M.A. Mass Communication Department of Electronic Media & Mass Communication Submitted to: M. Shuaib Mohamed Haneef Assistant Professor
Defining the ICT
Information And Communication(s) Technology stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications, computers, middleware as well as necessary software, storage and audio-visual systems, which enable users to create, access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.
The expression was first used in 1997 in a report by Dennis Stevenson to the United Kingdom government and Promoted by the new national Curriculum documents for the UK 2000.
Defining the digital divide
The term digital divide refers to the increasing access gap between those who have and those who do not have:
access to information and communication technologies;
access to content that benefits them socially and economically;
skills to take advantage of ICT services;
the ability to afford to pay for digital services.
Debate on the priority of ICTs for development – against
ICTs are a waste of money
Funding should be directed to more important areas of impact and real need
There is the risk of disillusionment
ICTs will not necessarily provide benefits and may infact open people up to new forms of harm
Debate on the priority of ICTs for development – pro
The digital divide will become perilously wider if ICTs are not promoted
ICTs can support other social and economic goals to improve peoples lives
Access to ICTs and participation in the Information Society will have far reaching benefits
United Nations Millennium Development Goals
Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development.
Target 18: In cooperation with the private sector make available the benefits of new technologies, specifically information and communications.
Indicator 47: Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population.
Indicator 48: Personal computers in use per 100 population and Internet users per 100 population.
ICTs and development goals (education & health)
ICTs as a subject: information literacy, programming and other related skills.
Computer - based training and distance education
Access to learning communities
Access to increased and up-to-date information
Telemedicine: broadband applications – from health clinic to hospital
Telehealth: phone and computer support for clinic management and information flows
Information sharing: information and exchange on health priorities, e.g. HIV / AIDS, TB, cholera
Epidemiology: statistics and information to support knowledge and disease management
ICTs and development goals (SMMEs & governance)
ICTs can support routine business operations: accounts, letters, plans
ICTs can be an opportunity themselves: training, support, sale, program, web
Linking suppliers directly to markets: reducing role of intermediaries
Info for tenders, linking SMMEs, support & funding, supply and sales chain
Access to government information, services and processes
Transparency of governance
Mitigation of corruption
Access to representatives: constituents direct link to members of Parliament
Dimensions of gap
High vs Degraded quality of access
Low performance computers
Low performance connections
High price connections
Internet access through Internet café or at home
Different levels of skills
Ability to operate the technology
Ability to actually use the technology for some purpose
Need for reading and writing skills
Different levels of training capabilities
Importance of “closing” gap
Important, possibly vital information may be accessed/provided through Internet
Raise educational level of disfavoured socio-economic children
Eg. To allow girls to access information
Increased information / Increased participation to elections, etc.
Exploitation of latest technologies provide competitive advantage
Economic benefit further provided to highly educated population
“ Global” digital divide
Widening of gap: the economic issue
Wide Internet access => high economics advances
Poor Internet access => low economics result
Importance of technology, in particular information and communication technology (ICT) for economic development
Difficult to connect both
How to close the gap?
Make access easier and wider
Make content more useful and relevant
Promote entrepreneurial efforts
Change laws and policies at national level
foster information creation and knowledge sharing
adjust technology to human beings and their needs
provide ICT-enabled solutions to help the poor:
using new technology to provide clean drinking water
improve (rural) health care services
extend quality of education
advantages and prospect of ICT
How to close the gap?
Investment in human resources
Investment in high quality education
Define strategy for
Combining openness to trade, education, government regulations
THANK YOU John Jacob II - M.A. Mass Communication Department of Electronic Media & Mass Communication Submitted to: M. Shuaib Mohamed Haneef Assistant Professor