Ctizen journalism
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Ctizen journalism

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This ppt looks at the history and evolution of Citizen Journalism with few examples.

This ppt looks at the history and evolution of Citizen Journalism with few examples.

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Ctizen journalism Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Citizen Journalism T.Sandesh Alexander M.A. Mass Communication 2 nd Yr
  • 2. A most useful definition Jay Rosen, 2008
  • 3.
    • “ When the people formerly known as the audience employ the press tools they have in their possession to inform one another, that’s citizen journalism.”
  • 4.
    • “ When the people formerly known as the audience employ the press tools they have in their possession to inform one another, that’s citizen journalism.”
  • 5.
    • “ When the people formerly known as the audience employ the press tools they have in their possession to inform one another, that’s citizen journalism.”
  • 6.
    • “ When the people formerly known as the audience employ the press tools they have in their possession to inform one another, that’s citizen journalism.”
  • 7.
    • “ When the people formerly known as the audience employ the press tools they have in their possession to inform one another , that’s citizen journalism.”
  • 8.
    • “ When the people formerly known as the audience employ the press tools they have in their possession to inform one another, that’s citizen journalism .”
  • 9. Some key features of citizen-J
    • Absence of a “middle man” in doing news
    • Interpersonal form of newsflow (a “ person talking ,” like a blog)
    • The act of citizens “playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information” ( Bowman and Willis )
  • 10. Doing citizen journalism
  • 11. How does this work in practice?
    • You write about a city council meeting on your blog
    • Capture eyewitness moment with your digital camera and post to a news site
    • Grab video of something newsy and post to YouTube
    • In other words …
      • Create , augment , or fact-check media on their own or in collaboration with others
  • 12.  
  • 13. How online news sites use citizen-J Pros in charge Amateur control Opening up to comments Add-on reporter Citizen bloghouse Stand-alone citizen site; minimal editing Hybrid: pro + citizen Wiki-style
  • 14. 11 Layers of Citizen Journalism Pros in charge Amateur control Opening up to comments Add-on reporter Citizen bloghouse Stand-alone citizen site; minimal editing Hybrid: pro + citizen Wiki-style
  • 15. Layer 1: Opening up to comment
    • Letting readers comment on news site
    • Most basic form of participation
    • Only comments on stories? …
      • Why not classifieds, obituaries, letters to editor?
    • But, how do you handle the toxic stuff?
      • Require users to register (name/e-mail)
      • “ Moderation a virtue? ”
  • 16.  
  • 17. Layer 2: Citizen add-on reporter
    • Solicit info/experiences from community
    • Example
      • say there’s an issue piece on car thefts; “tell us your own experience”; submit photos, etc.
  • 18. Layer 3: Open-source reporting
    • Collaboration between pro journalist and readers on a story
      • “ expert readers” add knowledge, ask questions
      • Sometimes even do actual reporting
    • Examples
      • “ We’re doing an interview with X; what do you want us to ask?”
      • Circulate a draft version of report to bloggers, etc.
      • Highlight reader tips in pop-up boxes online?
  • 19.  
  • 20. Layer 4: Citizen bloghouse
    • Invite anyone to blog on your site
    • … or invite selected people to blog
    • Aggregate local blogs (like Greensboro101 )
    • Examples
      • Austin American-Statesman’s reader blogs
      • Bluffton Today’s community blogs
  • 21.  
  • 22. Layer 5: ‘Transparency’ blogs
    • Invite panel of readers to critique your work
    • Think of it as “citizen ombudsmen”
    • Milder form: the editor’s blog pulling back the curtaining on the newsroom
  • 23.  
  • 24. Layer 6: Stand-alone citizen site
    • Now we’re really getting serious …
    • Users submit whatever they want
    • Think lots of submitted photos
    • Editors’ job?
      • Ensure minimum level of quality (line-editing)
      • Modest monitoring of content
    • Essence: citizens’ more or less “own” the site
  • 25.  
  • 26.  
  • 27. Layer 7: Citizen site … unedited
    • Costs less, and fits better in the spirit of citizen journalism
    • On safer legal ground?
    • Regulate content through “report misconduct” buttons?
    • Not a lot of success stories so far?
  • 28. Layer 9: Pro + citizen hybrid
  • 29. Layer 10: pro + am under one roof
    • Only nice in theory? …
  • 30. Layer 11: wiki journalism
  • 31. 90-9-1 Principle
  • 32. Or, Jay Rosen’s 1% doctrine
    • Of citizen-generated news …
      • 1% is high quality
      • 10% is … well, OK
      • The rest is garbage
  • 33. Definitions
    • Traditional Journalism
      • Written or oral assembly “characterized by a direct presentation of facts or description of events without an attempt at interpretation.”
    • Citizen Journalism
      • “… when the people formerly known as the audience employ the press tools they have in their possession to inform one another.”
      • State of Play
  • 34. Journalism & Citizen Journalism
  • 35. Evolution of Citizen Journalism
    • Cavemen painting events on rock walls
    • Bible brought to the masses by Gutenberg’s printing press (1400s)
      • The people could analyze and interpret without the “gatekeepers at the pulpit”
      • Led to differing public opinions/writings—Protestantism
    • The Federalist Papers (1787-1788)
      • Hamilton, Madison, Jay
      • 85 essays published in newspapers
  • 36. Evolution of Citizen Journalism
    • Newspapers and news networks allow readers to write/phone/send in film footage and other information for public viewing.
      • Blogs, video (YouTube), cell phones, radio, etc.
    • Newspapers and broadcast news networks shift to the Internet.
  • 37. Change in Traditional Journalism
    • News Networks (broadcast)
      • Increasingly visual/audio society
      • Increasingly fast-paced
        • Stories and footage available on-demand online
      • Fleeting era of trusted anchor
    • Newspapers (print)
      • Shifting to the Internet to stay alive
        • Brings in youth audience
        • Internet is less expensive than printing methods
          • American Newspapers Visual
  • 38. Citizen Journalism (in essence)
    • Citizen journalism has been around since communication began
    • Technologies have and will continue to allow citizen journalism to develop and become even more prevalent in society
      • Issues of credibility and mediation remain unsolved
    • Citizen Journalism vs. Traditional Journalism
      • Which do you prefer?
  • 39. Analyzing few forms of Citizen Journalism….!!!
  • 40. Twitter & Citizen Journalism by Eduardo Collado
    • Domingo’s proposal talked about “citizen media”, “citizens blogs”, “citizen stories”, “content hierarchy”, “social networking”, collective interviews”, “comments”, “forums”, “journalists blogs” and “pools” locating Twitter in the phase of information distribution.
    • The following article attempts to demonstrate content located on Twitter can be considered widely, reaching more phases in the process defined by Domingo.
    • Citizen journalism, participatory journalism or user generated content it is defined as “the act of a citizen, or group of citizens, playing an active role in the process of collecting, reporting, analyzing and disseminating news and information”
  • 41.
    • So, Twitter could be a tool for citizen journalism?, why?
    • First step is to define stages in the news production process: -
    • Access/Observation: The initial informationgathering stage at which source material for a story is generated, such as eyewitness accounts and audio-visual contributions.
    • Selection/Filtering: The “gatekeeping” stage when decisions are made about what should be reported or published.
    • Processing/Editing: The stage at which a story is created, including the writing and editing of an item for publication.
    • Distribution: The stage at which a story is disseminated or made available for reading and, potentially, discussion.
    • Interpretation: The stage at which a story that has been produced and published is opened up to comment and discussion.
  • 42.  
  • 43. Citizen Journalism and Rural Empowerment by Marco A Figueiredo Mauro A Câmara Paola Prado Ana M Albuquerque
  • 44.
    • Once acquainted with the modern information and communication tools made available with the advent of the Internet, five Brazilian rural communities participating in a pilot project to develop a self-sustaining telecenter model, engaged in citizen journalism using inexpensive digital video cameras.
    • Community members used Web 2.0 collaborative tools to post short videos on the telecenter portal. The 95 video blogs published between September 2006 and May 2008 recorded various aspects of community life, including religious celebrations, oral history arts and crafts traditions, folklore, and environmental concerns.
  • 45.
    • The Gems of the Earth Video Blogging Project was launched during the Second Meeting of the Gems of the Earth Volunteers, which occurred on September 2-3, 2006, in the village of Tombadouro, in the northern part of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The first video produced by the project depicted the meeting of the volunteers from the community telecenters of all five villages that compose the Gems of the Earth Rural Telecenter Pilot Project.
    • In order to assess the impact of the video blog project, researchers visited the community of Tombadouro in August of 2008 to interview the video bloggers and the villagers who participated in the project.
    • The interviews were recorded and later organized sequentially and by themes, as described elsewhere in this article.
  • 46.
    • A few weeks later, the video blogging instructors spent an entire week with four volunteers they met at the local telecenter. The instructors trained the volunteers through presentations and practice exercises.
    • After the training, the local volunteers set out to produce videos without the instructors, picking up new skills on their own and developing their video production technique. The impetus to acquire new knowledge, seeded by the experience with the instructors, prompted the local volunteers to experiment and to create their first independent production, showcasing the work of the rural workers’ cooperative
    • Once they became aware of the potential presented by video reporting, the video bloggers of Tombadouro began to document certain topics with the goal of mobilizing the community to action.
  • 47. Conclusions
    • This study found evidence that video blogging tools empowered the community as a whole, and young video reporters in particular.
    • This study concludes with an analysis of the overall impact of Web 2.0 technologies for social and economic development, and identifies the strengths and shortcomings derived from the application of these digital tools.
    • The Gems of the Earth Video Blog project set out to empower rural telecenter users in the community with video editing and publishing capabilities. One of the most noticeable impacts of the project is the villagers’ increased awareness of the community telecenter.
    • The few volunteers who were trained in the use of video blogs acquired a new higher status among their peers, and are now recognized for possessing the skills that can bring innovation to the community. The volunteers were all teenagers and young adults.
  • 48.
    • It is also interesting to note that women were prolific content producers. The fact that the video content portrayed a diverse set of actors in terms of gender and ethnicity, seems to confirm Hoffmann- Riem’s model
    • The researchers attribute the increase in participation to the preference for face-to-face communication over written communication in communities with high rates of illiteracy.
    • It is possible to conclude that the citizen reporters in Tombadouro produced more video blogs than those in other communities because they had access to production equipment for a longer stretch of time and also because residents in that community shared a higher sense of solidarity and collaborated easily with each other.