Marine pollution
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Marine pollution Marine pollution Presentation Transcript

  • IndexIndex 1.1. What is Marine Pollution?What is Marine Pollution? 2.2. Harm of ChemicalsHarm of Chemicals 3.3. Sources of Marine PollutionSources of Marine Pollution 4.4. Types of Marine PollutionTypes of Marine Pollution 5.5. NGO GroupsNGO Groups 6.6. Marine Pollution in Specific CountriesMarine Pollution in Specific Countries 7.7. Six important Marine LegislationsSix important Marine Legislations 8.8. BibliographyBibliography
  • What is Marine Pollution ? Marine pollution occurs when harmful substances like chemicals, plastics, micro- organisms, radioactive waste, nuclear waste, industrial waste, domestic waste and agricultural waste are discharged into water bodies. like in this picture, red tides are shown which are caused due to marine pollution.
  • Harm of ChemicalsHarm of Chemicals Many potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles whichMany potentially toxic chemicals adhere to tiny particles which are then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most ofare then taken up by plankton and benthos animals, most of which are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxinswhich are either deposit or filter feeders. In this way, the toxins are concentrated upward within ocean food chains. Manyare concentrated upward within ocean food chains. Many particles combine chemically in a manner highly depletiveparticles combine chemically in a manner highly depletive of oxygen, causing estuaries to become anoxic.of oxygen, causing estuaries to become anoxic.  When pesticides are incorporated into the marine ecosystem,When pesticides are incorporated into the marine ecosystem, they quickly become absorbed into marine food webs. Once inthey quickly become absorbed into marine food webs. Once in the food webs, these pesticides can cause mutations, as wellthe food webs, these pesticides can cause mutations, as well as diseases, which can be harmful to humans as well as theas diseases, which can be harmful to humans as well as the entire food web.entire food web.  Toxic metals can also be introduced into marine food webs.Toxic metals can also be introduced into marine food webs. These can cause a change to tissue matter, biochemistry,These can cause a change to tissue matter, biochemistry, behaviour, reproduction, and suppress growth in marine life.behaviour, reproduction, and suppress growth in marine life. Also, many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fishAlso, many animal feeds have a high fish meal or fish hydrolysate content. In this way, marine toxins can behydrolysate content. In this way, marine toxins can be transferred to land animals, and appear later in meat and dairytransferred to land animals, and appear later in meat and dairy products.products. View slide
  • Point Sources – Point sources are sources which are definite. They do not change their position so they can be controlled from polluting the water bodies by regularly checking them. Example- factory. Non-point Sources- Non-point sources are sources which are not definite. They do change their position so they cannot be controlled from polluting water bodies. Example- rainfall. View slide
  • OIL Poisoning
  • Biomagnification of Inert Materials
  • Acidification • Acidification means to acidify. • Marine bodies acidify because they absorb CO . • Due to increase in CO concentration, the oceans absorb more poison and kills its organisms. 2 2 Island with fringing reef in the Maldives.Coral reefs are dying around the world because of acidification(background photo)
  • Eutrophication Eutrophication is an increase in chemical nutrients, typically compounds containing nitrogen or phosphorus, in an ecosystem. It can result in an increase in the ecosystem's primary productivity (excessive plant growth and decay), and further effects including lack of oxygen and severe reductions in water quality, fish, and other animal populations. Polluted Lagoon (background photo)
  • Plastic debris Marine debris is mainly discarded human rubbish which floats on, or is suspended in the ocean. Eighty percent of marine debris is plastic- a component that has been rapidly accumulating since the end of World War II. The mass of plastic in the oceans may be as high as one hundred million metric tons. A man with plastic debris along a sea coast (background photo)
  • ToxinsToxins  There are many toxins and heavy metalsThere are many toxins and heavy metals that are causing harm to environment andthat are causing harm to environment and many times which have resulted in verymany times which have resulted in very severe diseases. Oil spills are not ansevere diseases. Oil spills are not an exception.exception.  Mercury poisoning in Japan, is best knownMercury poisoning in Japan, is best known such case.such case. Fishes affected by Mercury poisoning in Japan (background photo)
  • This is the UN division which helps toThis is the UN division which helps to maintain laws related to sea acceptedmaintain laws related to sea accepted by all UN members.by all UN members. It helps all NGO groups working toIt helps all NGO groups working to save marine resources.save marine resources.
  • ACOPSACOPS - Advisory Committee on Protection of the- Advisory Committee on Protection of the Sea Assists governments in research, policySea Assists governments in research, policy formulation, awareness campaigns to reduce marineformulation, awareness campaigns to reduce marine oil pollution; list of publications, full text newsletter.oil pollution; list of publications, full text newsletter. American Cetacean SocietyAmerican Cetacean Society- San Pedro, California;- San Pedro, California; oldest whale conservation society - internationaloldest whale conservation society - international conferences, teaching materials, publications, latestconferences, teaching materials, publications, latest developments, cruises, adoption programmes, factdevelopments, cruises, adoption programmes, fact sheets on killer, northern right and other whales.sheets on killer, northern right and other whales. American Coastal CoalitionAmerican Coastal Coalition- Coastline statistics- Coastline statistics CMCCMC - Center for Marine Conservation Description of- Center for Marine Conservation Description of programmes, suggestions for actionprogrammes, suggestions for action
  • Coral Reef AllianceCoral Reef Alliance Financial and technical support for coral reefFinancial and technical support for coral reef conservation, educational resourcesconservation, educational resources COLCOL - Council on Ocean Law Reference center for U.S. position on- Council on Ocean Law Reference center for U.S. position on law of the sea; U.S. Congressional speeches, government policylaw of the sea; U.S. Congressional speeches, government policy statements and reports, conference proceedings, discussionstatements and reports, conference proceedings, discussion papers, articlespapers, articles El NiñoEl Niño - NOVA Online documentary, Public Broadcasting System,- NOVA Online documentary, Public Broadcasting System, U.S.1998 El Niño, El Niño events over time, glossary, booksU.S.1998 El Niño, El Niño events over time, glossary, books Endangered Seas CampaignEndangered Seas Campaign - WWF World Wide Fund for Nature- WWF World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) – fisheries management and protection, toolkit for(WWF) – fisheries management and protection, toolkit for "Safeguarding Fisheries", newsroom; world maps of most"Safeguarding Fisheries", newsroom; world maps of most threatened fisheries; publicationsthreatened fisheries; publications Greenpeace -Greenpeace - Oceans CampaignOceans Campaign Campaigns against over fishing,Campaigns against over fishing, pirate fishing, Southern Ocean whaling, marine pollution; reportspirate fishing, Southern Ocean whaling, marine pollution; reports and press releasesand press releases
  • INAINA - Institute of Nautical Archaeology, USA Gathers knowledge of- Institute of Nautical Archaeology, USA Gathers knowledge of human past from physical remains of maritime activity andhuman past from physical remains of maritime activity and disseminates through scholarly and popular publications, seminarsdisseminates through scholarly and popular publications, seminars and lectures; information on field projects, virtual museum of nauticaland lectures; information on field projects, virtual museum of nautical archaeology, publicationsarchaeology, publications IMMAIMMA - International Marine Mammal Association Marine mammal- International Marine Mammal Association Marine mammal conservation; books, articles, reports, information packages on by-conservation; books, articles, reports, information packages on by- catch of pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, etc.), dolphins and porpoises;catch of pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, etc.), dolphins and porpoises; marine protected areasmarine protected areas IMMSIMMS - International Marine Minerals Society Promote and improve- International Marine Minerals Society Promote and improve the understanding of the origin, distribution, mining, processing,the understanding of the origin, distribution, mining, processing, development, and economic assessment of mineral deposits withindevelopment, and economic assessment of mineral deposits within the province of the global ocean; meeting and conferences schedulesthe province of the global ocean; meeting and conferences schedules IOI - International Ocean InstituteIOI - International Ocean Institute Training programmes,Training programmes, publications, research, conferences and seminars; newsletter,publications, research, conferences and seminars; newsletter, bibliographical information for Ocean Yearbook.bibliographical information for Ocean Yearbook.
  • The International Sea Keepers SocietyThe International Sea Keepers Society Monitors andMonitors and protects health of world's oceans by equipping yachtsprotects health of world's oceans by equipping yachts and other vessels and platforms around the world with aand other vessels and platforms around the world with a sophisticated ocean and weather monitoring modulesophisticated ocean and weather monitoring module Law of the Sea CommitteeLaw of the Sea Committee - American Bar Association- American Bar Association Section of International Law Membership of CommitteeSection of International Law Membership of Committee listed with contact information, free e-mail subscription tolisted with contact information, free e-mail subscription to newsletter of Committee activities and discussionsnewsletter of Committee activities and discussions Protect the Sharks campaignProtect the Sharks campaign Worldwide sharkWorldwide shark conservation and awareness programmesconservation and awareness programmes Reef Environmental Education FoundationReef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF)(REEF) Scientists and divers; divers' surveys; reef database;Scientists and divers; divers' surveys; reef database; mapsmaps
  • Seal Conservation SocietySeal Conservation Society Promotes protection,Promotes protection, conservation and study of seals, sea lions and walruses;conservation and study of seals, sea lions and walruses; pinniped reference databasepinniped reference database IUCNIUCN - World Conservation Union Programmes- World Conservation Union Programmes coordinating conservation and management of marinecoordinating conservation and management of marine biodiversity in cooperation with regional and countrybiodiversity in cooperation with regional and country offices. International organization concerned withoffices. International organization concerned with environmental conservation works with local communitiesenvironmental conservation works with local communities to promote responsible use of resources.to promote responsible use of resources. Whale and Dolphin Conservation Society- Charity forWhale and Dolphin Conservation Society- Charity for protection of dolphins and whales, world newsprotection of dolphins and whales, world news concerning these mammals, species guideconcerning these mammals, species guide
  • Water Pollution in INDIAWater Pollution in INDIA  In India the pollution of water is at a veryIn India the pollution of water is at a very high level.high level.  Religious festivals and factories are majorReligious festivals and factories are major sources of water pollution.sources of water pollution.  Water for bathing is also used for drinkingWater for bathing is also used for drinking in some places.in some places.  At some places the conditions are so badAt some places the conditions are so bad that water used for drinking can be seenthat water used for drinking can be seen with suspended impurities.with suspended impurities.
  • Serious effects of EXXON VALDEZSerious effects of EXXON VALDEZ DISASTER even after 20 YEARSDISASTER even after 20 YEARS  Even after 20 years after the EXXONEven after 20 years after the EXXON VALDEZ DISASTER, when some peopleVALDEZ DISASTER, when some people went to Alaska, they found that there waswent to Alaska, they found that there was oil beneth the rocks and in ocean as well.oil beneth the rocks and in ocean as well.  When they dipped the shovel in water andWhen they dipped the shovel in water and took it out with water on it then they foundtook it out with water on it then they found the liquid was not water but actually oil.the liquid was not water but actually oil.
  • MERCURY Poisoning in Minamata,MERCURY Poisoning in Minamata, JAPANJAPAN
  • What it is? What can we do?
  • National Marine Sanctuaries ActNational Marine Sanctuaries Act of 1972of 1972  Authorizes the Sec. of Commerce toAuthorizes the Sec. of Commerce to designate and manage areas of thedesignate and manage areas of the marine environment with nationallymarine environment with nationally significant aesthetic, ecological, historicalsignificant aesthetic, ecological, historical or recreational values asor recreational values as National MarineNational Marine Sanctuaries .Sanctuaries .  The primary objective is to protect marineThe primary objective is to protect marine resources while facilitating “compatible”resources while facilitating “compatible” public and private uses of thosepublic and private uses of those resources.resources.
  • Fisheries Management andFisheries Management and Conservation Act - 1976Conservation Act - 1976  The primary law dealing with fisheriesThe primary law dealing with fisheries resources and fishing activities in federalresources and fishing activities in federal waters (extends from edge of State waterswaters (extends from edge of State waters out to the 200 mile limit).out to the 200 mile limit).  Primary goals include conservation andPrimary goals include conservation and management of fisheries resources,management of fisheries resources, development of U./S. domestic fisheriesdevelopment of U./S. domestic fisheries and phasing out foreign fishing activitiesand phasing out foreign fishing activities within the 200 mile conservation zonewithin the 200 mile conservation zone adjacent to the U.S. coastline.adjacent to the U.S. coastline.
  • Clean Water Act of 1977Clean Water Act of 1977  Unlawful to discharge any pollutant from aUnlawful to discharge any pollutant from a point source into navigable waters unlesspoint source into navigable waters unless a permit (NPDES) is obtaineda permit (NPDES) is obtained  EPA has authority to set effluent standardsEPA has authority to set effluent standards  Also unlawful to discharge dredged or fillAlso unlawful to discharge dredged or fill materials into wetlands without a permitmaterials into wetlands without a permit
  • Endangered Species ActEndangered Species Act  Provides for the conservation ofProvides for the conservation of threatened and endangered plants andthreatened and endangered plants and animals and the habitats in which they areanimals and the habitats in which they are found.found.  The law prohibits any action,The law prohibits any action, administrative or real, that results in aadministrative or real, that results in a “taking” of a listed species, or adversely“taking” of a listed species, or adversely affects habitat.affects habitat.
  • Oceans Act of 2000Oceans Act of 2000  Establishes a commission to make recs.Establishes a commission to make recs. for coordinated and comprehensivefor coordinated and comprehensive national ocean policy.national ocean policy.  Issues will include coastal hazards,Issues will include coastal hazards, stewardship, marine pollution prevention,stewardship, marine pollution prevention, enhancing marine-related commerce andenhancing marine-related commerce and transportation, research and educationtransportation, research and education and the use of technology to addressand the use of technology to address coastal issues.coastal issues.
  • Estuaries and Clean Waters ActEstuaries and Clean Waters Act of 2000of 2000  Encourages the restoration of estuaryEncourages the restoration of estuary habitat through more efficient projecthabitat through more efficient project financing and enhanced coordination offinancing and enhanced coordination of Fed. And non-Fed. restoration programsFed. And non-Fed. restoration programs  Establishes a Estuary Habitat RestorationEstablishes a Estuary Habitat Restoration Council to develop a comprehensiveCouncil to develop a comprehensive approachapproach
  • Bibliography • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marine_pollution • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Maldives_- _Kurumba_Island.jpg • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Aguas_del_lago_de _Maracaibo_contaminands_por_Lemna_03.JPG • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e0fiv-u052c • http://farm3.static.flic...702070_cb248253de_o.jpg • http://www.hillsdalecoun...lanningeduc/runoff-1.jpg • http://www.youtube.com0watch?v=MbjC9SMKCIE