Indo European family of languages


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A power point presentation on Indo European family of languages by the students of English dept. at Metropolitan University, Sylhet.
Pulak Barua
Ex Lecturer
Dept. of English
Metropolitan University, Sylhet, Bangladesh

Published in: Education, Technology
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Indo European family of languages

  2. 2. <ul><li>The most widely studied language family </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the world's population speak one or more of these languages. </li></ul><ul><li>The term Indo-European was previously coined as Aryan , and later on Indo Germanic . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Members of The Indo-European Family of Languages Note : Two other branches of Indo-European family Hittie and Tocharian are now extinct. These are not shown in the above diagram.
  4. 4. Armenian <ul><li>Found in a small area south of the Caucasus </li></ul><ul><li>Mountains and the eastern end of the Black Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrance, between the eighth and sixth centuries B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Influences of some consonant shifting </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of grammatical gender </li></ul><ul><li>No link with any other Indo European languages . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Phrygians </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Its rising </li></ul><ul><li>Armenian literature </li></ul><ul><li>Persian domination </li></ul><ul><li>Other languages in vocabulary. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Iranian <ul><li>Covers the Northwest of India and the great plateau of Iran. </li></ul><ul><li>Linked with the Indian branch. </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of the language carried as remote as southern Russia and central China. </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of Semitic languages </li></ul><ul><li>Pahlavi, a later form </li></ul><ul><li>Pahlavi to Persian, Farsi </li></ul><ul><li>Persian vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Other languages and dialects in the same region with Persian. </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul>Iranian Avestan Persian
  7. 7. <ul><li>Pahlavi a later form </li></ul><ul><li>Pahlavi to Persian, Farsi </li></ul><ul><li>Persian vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Other languages and dialects </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul>
  8. 8. Balto-Slavic Balto-Slavic Baltic Slavic Baltic Prussian Latvian Lithuanian Slavic East Slavic West Slavic South Slavic
  9. 9. <ul><li>Bible and certain liturgical texts represents the Slavic language </li></ul><ul><li>East Slavic includes Russian, Belorussian, Ukrainian </li></ul><ul><li>West Slavic includes Polish, Czech, Slovak, Sorbian </li></ul><ul><li>South Slavic includes Bulgarian, Serbo-Croatian, Slovene, and Modern Macedonia. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Hittie </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest recorded branch </li></ul><ul><li>The term taken from the translation of the Hebrew Bible </li></ul><ul><li>Records are on clay tablet </li></ul><ul><li>The Hittites were ancient Anatolian people </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Gothic, is the principal language of East Germanic. </li></ul><ul><li>Burgundian and Vandalic. </li></ul><ul><li>North Germanic is found in Scandinavia, Denmark, Iceland and the Faroe Islands. </li></ul><ul><li>West Germanic divided into two branches: High German and Low German. </li></ul><ul><li>High German divided into lot of dialects like Middle, Rhenish, East Franconian Bavarian and Alemannic. </li></ul><ul><li>Low German languages are Old Saxon, Old Low Franconian, Old Frisian and Old English. </li></ul><ul><li>Old Frisian and Old English closely related and constitute Anglo-Frisian subgroup. </li></ul><ul><li>Old Saxon has become the essential constituent of modern Low German. </li></ul><ul><li>Old Low Franconian, with some mixture of Frisian and Saxon constitute Dutch and Flemish. </li></ul>Germanic Germanic East Germanic North Germanic West Germanic
  12. 12. <ul><li>Middle, Rhenish, East Franconian Bavarian and Alemannic dialects of HighGerman </li></ul><ul><li>Old Saxon, Old Low Franconian, Old Frisian and Old English. </li></ul><ul><li>Old Frisian and Old English constitute Anglo-Frisian </li></ul><ul><li>Old Low Franconian, with some mixture of Frisian and Saxon constitute Dutch and Flemish. </li></ul>West Germanic High German Low German
  13. 13. <ul><li>Vedas </li></ul><ul><li>The use of Sanskrit </li></ul><ul><li>extended afterward </li></ul><ul><li>Panini and the transition </li></ul><ul><li>of Vedic Sanskrit </li></ul><ul><li>Two epics, the Mahabharatha </li></ul><ul><li>and the Ramayana </li></ul><ul><li>Prakrits and Pali </li></ul><ul><li>Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi and Marathi descendents of dialects </li></ul>Indian
  14. 14. <ul><li>Hellenic </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical position </li></ul><ul><li>Five dialectal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Attic the mostly studied dialect </li></ul><ul><li>Place of greats’ assemblage </li></ul><ul><li>Attic, base of Koine </li></ul><ul><li>Local differentiation of Koine and Modern Greek . </li></ul>
  15. 15. Albanian <ul><li>Modern remnant of Illyrian </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is mixed </li></ul><ul><li>Slowly recognized </li></ul><ul><li>Formerly classed with Hellenic group </li></ul><ul><li>Now independent recognition </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Added in the Indo-European language family in the 20th century. </li></ul><ul><li>Some fragmentary texts discovered </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese king of seventh century. </li></ul><ul><li>Belongs to the Indo-European family along with the Hellenic, Italic, Germanic and Celtic groups. </li></ul>Tocharian
  17. 17. Italic Branch <ul><li>Derived from Latin </li></ul><ul><li>Settlements from different parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Etruscan , Lingurian , Venetic, Messapian and Greek, spoken earlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin gradually getting dominant. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin declined </li></ul>Italic Italic Latin Umbrian Oscan
  18. 19. <ul><li>French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italic, prominent Romance language </li></ul><ul><li>Romanian, Catalon, Galician, Rhaeto-Romanic, Wallon- minor Romanian </li></ul>
  19. 20. Celtic <ul><li>Language of the Celts in Gaul is known as Gallic </li></ul><ul><li>Goidelic or Gaelic Celts </li></ul><ul><li>Brythonic Celts </li></ul><ul><li>Cornish became extinct in the eighteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Manx has died out since World War II </li></ul><ul><li>Gaelic is found in the Highlands and spoken by 75,000 people . </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Gaelic is found in the Highlands and spoken by 75,000 people. </li></ul><ul><li>Welsh is spoken about one-quarter of the people </li></ul><ul><li>Irish </li></ul>
  21. 22. THANK YOU