Hrm Ta


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Hrm Ta

  2. 2. <ul><li>Developed by Eric Berne who believed that the majority of our life experiences are recorded in our subconscious minds in an unaltered fashion and become a part of the way we behave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The behavior is subconsciously designed to get reactions and determine how others feel about us. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A method of dealing with behavioral disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to manage classroom behavior if we understand that children’s acceptable and unacceptable behavior is designed to ascertain how others feel about them </li></ul>
  3. 3. Continued: “ Transactional Analysis is a theory of personality and a systematic psychotherapy for personal growth and change” International Transactional Analysis Association (ITAA)
  4. 4. Our Brain (according to Berne) <ul><li>Determines what we think and how we act </li></ul><ul><li>Acts like a tape recorder while recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Associated feelings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Has 3 distinct parts or ego states </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>A Challenging philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>A theory of personality </li></ul><ul><li>A theory of communication </li></ul><ul><li>A theory of child development </li></ul><ul><li>A theory of pathology </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>We need physical and psychological “strokes” </li></ul><ul><li>We make current decisions based on past premises </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness is the first step in the change process </li></ul><ul><li>We are in charge of how we think, feel, and behave. Others do not make us think, feel and behave </li></ul><ul><li>People can change </li></ul>
  7. 7. Philosophy of Transactional Analysis <ul><li>People are OKAY </li></ul><ul><li>People can THINK for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>People can MAKE DECISIONS for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>People can change decisions and </li></ul><ul><li>RE-DECIDE </li></ul>
  8. 8. TWO BASIC PRINCIPLES <ul><li>Change is more likely to take place and will be more sustainable when a contract is agreed on. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive change will occur only in an atmosphere of open communication </li></ul>
  9. 9. Two Basic Principles <ul><li>Change is more likely to take place and will be more sustainable when a contract is agreed on. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive change will occur only in an atmosphere of open communication </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Structural Analysis : How personality is structured. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional Analysis – How to assess an individual’s personality </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional Analysis Proper : Analysis of what people do and say to each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Game Analysis : Analysis of ulterior transactions leading to a payoff </li></ul><ul><li>Script Analysis : Analysis of specific life dramas that people compulsively play out </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fundamental Ideas <ul><li>Three Ego States </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parent Ego State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Child Ego State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult Ego State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Four Life Positions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m not OK; you’re OK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m not OK; you’re not OK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m OK; you’re not OK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I’m OK; you’re OK </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individuals need to feel adequate </li></ul>
  12. 12. Parent Ego State <ul><li>Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on messages or lessons learned from parents and other ‘parental’ or authoritarian sources </li></ul><ul><li>Should and should not; ought and ought not; always and never </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudicial views (not based on logic or facts) on things such as: </li></ul><ul><li>religion dress salespeople </li></ul><ul><li>traditions work products </li></ul><ul><li>money raising children companies </li></ul><ul><li>Nurturing views (sympathetic, caring views) </li></ul><ul><li>Critical views (fault finding, judgmental, condescending views) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Adult Ego State <ul><li>Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on objective analysis of information (data, facts) </li></ul><ul><li>Make decisions based on logic, computations, probabilities, etc. (not emotion) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Child Ego State <ul><li>Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on child-like emotions, impulses, feelings we have experienced </li></ul><ul><li>Child-like examples </li></ul>Impulsive Self-centered Angry Fearful Happy Pleasure seeking Rebellious Happy Curious Eager to please
  15. 15. IN SHORT Parent - taught concept Child - felt concept Adult - learned concept
  16. 16. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Four basic life concept </li></ul><ul><li>I’m OK, you’re OK – ideal </li></ul><ul><li>I’m OK, you’re not OK – get away from me </li></ul><ul><li>I’m not OK, you’re OK – I’ll never get anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>I’m not OK, you’re not OK – get rid of each other </li></ul>
  17. 17. Human Interaction Analysis <ul><li>A transaction = any interaction or communication between 2 people </li></ul><ul><li>People send and receive messages out of and into their different ego states </li></ul><ul><li>How people say something (what others hear?) just as important as what is said </li></ul>
  18. 18. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Transactional analysis - Transactions between people are seen as having 3 levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Complementary – both people are operating from the same ego state </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed – the other person reacts from an unexpected ego state </li></ul><ul><li>Ulterior – two ego states within the same person but one disguises the other </li></ul>
  19. 19. Complementary ‘Transactions’ <ul><li>Interactions, responses, actions regarded as appropriate and expected from another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel communication arrows, communication continues. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1: #1 What time do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>#2 I’ve got 11:15. </li></ul>P A C P A C
  20. 20. Crossed ‘Transactions’ <ul><li>Interactions, responses, actions NOT regarded as appropriate or expected from another person. </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed communication arrows, communication breakdown. </li></ul><ul><li>Example 1 #1 What time do you have? </li></ul><ul><li>#2 There’s a clock on the wall, why don’t you figure it out yourself? </li></ul>P A C P A C
  21. 21. Ulterior ‘Transactions’ <ul><li>Interactions, responses, actions which are different from those explicitly stated </li></ul><ul><li>Example#1 How about coming up to my room and </li></ul><ul><li>listening to some music? </li></ul>P A C P A C
  22. 22. Transactional Analysis <ul><li>Game analysis - ulterior motivated transactions that appear complimentary on the surface but end in bad feelings: </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Degree games – minor upset, played socially end up with minor discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Degree games – more intimate end up w/bad feelings </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Degree games - usually involve physical injury </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Clinical settings and in counseling </li></ul><ul><li>Educational settings </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Personal, family and other relationships </li></ul>
  24. 24. Strengths <ul><li>Supported by a great deal of research on the subconscious mind </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes self-analysis and self-correction </li></ul><ul><li>Applications go beyond the classroom, into the student’s personal lives </li></ul><ul><li>Helps children understand their own messages and those of others </li></ul><ul><li>Helps children avoid destructive roles that are often played in interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a framework for communication and understanding. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Weaknesses <ul><li>Only appropriate for individual guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be used as an intervention technique </li></ul><ul><li>Overcoming the automatic behaviors from the parent and child ego state may be difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be applied as readily to discipline problems other than those involving verbal exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Students may not have the language, cognitive, or reasoning skills necessary to use this technique </li></ul><ul><li>Making distinctions between the ego states is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Training for teachers can be lengthy and time consuming. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to maintain throughout the year </li></ul>