Personality
Evaluating PARTICIPATION
– Questions.
– Listening.
– Sharing Ideas, thoughts, information….
– Discipline.
Coverage..
– What is Personality.
– Personality & Traits.
– Instruments & Psychometrics to measure
„personality‟.
– Termin...
Personality
A person‟s general style of
interacting with the world &
People differ from one another in
ways that are rel...
Personality – Definition
 Individuals have their own way of thinking and
acting, their own unique style and personality.
...
Personality & Traits
 How do you describe some body? By their qualities &
term the same as personality.
Instruments & Psychometrics measuring Personality
 Instruments.
 What do they measure & what qualities. How accurate
are...
Personal effectiveness & personality
 Personal effectiveness model.
 Personality is not a measure of some body‟s
effecti...
Learning Points
 All of us are different from each other in some respect.
Each of us are unique.
 Accept differences to ...
Individual Differences
Thanks to a vast array of individual differences, modern
organizations have a rich and interesting ...
Individual Differences
Cognitions: Represent “any knowledge, opinion, or beliefs
of the environment, about oneself, or abo...
Determinants of Personality
Personality Determinants
• Heredity
• Environment
• Situation
Personality
“Characteristic pattern of thinking,
feeling and acting.”
Four major perspectives on Personality
Psychoanalyti...
Psychoanalytic Approach
Developed by Sigmund Freud
Psychoanalysis is both an approach to
therapy and a theory of persona...
Psychoanalytic Approach
Conscious
Unconscious
Superego Preconscious
Id
Ego
Information
which can
easily be
made
conscious
...
Psychoanalytic Approach
 Conscious
- all things
we are
aware of at
any given
moment
Conscious
Unconscious
Superego Precon...
Psychoanalytic Approach
 Preconscious -
everything
that can, with
a little
effort, be
brought into
consciousness
Consciou...
Psychoanalytic Approach
 Unconscious
-
inaccessible
warehouse
of anxiety-
producing
thoughts and
drives
Conscious
Unconsc...
Psychoanalytic
Divisions of the Mind
 Id - instinctual drives present at birth
– does not distinguish between reality and...
Defense Mechanisms
Unconscious mental processes
employed by the ego to reduce
anxiety
Defense Mechanisms
Repression - keeping anxiety-
producing thoughts out of the
conscious mind
Reaction formation - repla...
Defense Mechanisms
Displacement - when a drive directed
to one activity by the id is redirected
to a more acceptable acti...
Defense Mechanisms
Projection - reducing anxiety by
attributing unacceptable impulses to
someone else
Rationalization - ...
 Personality Traits
Enduring characteristics that describe
an individual’s behavior.
The First Trait Theory
 Two Factor Trait
Theory of Personality
UNSTABLE
STABLE
cholericmelancholic
phlegmatic sanguine
IN...
Personality Traits
 Trait personality theories suggest that a person can be
described on the basis of some number of pers...
Overview of the Big “5”
Evaluating Trait Theory
 Trait theory, especially the Big 5 model, is able to
describe personality
– Cross-cultural human...
Personality Types
 Type A
– Competitiveness,
haste, restlessness,
impatience, feelings of
being time pressured,
strong ne...
Assessing the Unconscious--
Rorscharch
Used to identify
people‟s inner
feelings by
analyzing their
interpretations
of the ...
Assessing the
Unconscious--TAT
Thematic
Apperception
Test (TAT)
• people express
their inner
motives through
the stories t...
Personality Attributes affecting OB
• Locus of control: Internals and Externals
• Machiavellianism: Pragmatism, emotional ...
Locus of Control
 Locus of Control
The degree to which people believe they are masters
of their own fate.
Internals
Indiv...
Machiavellianism
 Degree to which an individual is pragmatic,
maintains emotional distance & believes
that ends justifies...
Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring
 Self-Esteem (SE)
Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.
Self-Monitoring
...
Risk-Taking
 High Risk-taking Managers
– Make quicker decisions
– Use less information to make decisions
– Operate in sma...
Personality Types
 Type A‟s
1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;
2. feel impatient with the rate at which m...
The Big Five Model
 Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive
 Agreeableness: Trusting, good natured, coope...
Myers – Briggs Typologies (MBTI)
• Measures personality types and preferences
• Helps identify differences in ways in whic...
Ways of Perceiving: Sensing
• Form perception through senses
• Perception based on perceived realities, facts
• Realistic ...
Ways of Perceiving: Intuition
• Use feelings, possibilities, and haunches – as primary
means to form opinions about what e...
Deciding: Thinking
• Think about issues; predict logical effect.
• Objective and analytical, weigh positive and negative
f...
Deciding: Feeling
• Trust feelings; more concerned with personal values than
logic
• Sympathetic and good at working with ...
Extraversion
• Directed outwards to external people
• Like work involving interaction with people
• Result oriented; likes...
Introversion
• Focused inwards on personal phenomena
• Prefer work for individualized thinking
• Like to concentrate on id...
Perceiving
• Merely perceive
• Spontaneous, adaptable attitude to life
• Not committed to one way of doing things:
- Diffi...
Judging
• Evaluate and judge information about life
• They are planners, organizers and regulators
• Like to plan ahead an...
Perceiving & Deciding
• Four combinations each resulting in a different „type‟ of
individual
• These differences affect:
-...
Perceiving & Deciding
a) Sensing & Thinking (ST):
- Trusts facts – whatever can be perceived by the sense
and verified
- M...
Perceiving & Deciding
c) Intuition & feeling (NF):
- Make decisions on personal feelings
- Not interested in facts but pos...
Perceiving & Deciding
• People tend to use two of the four functions, favoring one
and using the second as a complementary...
Person – Job Fit
• Fit between an individual‟s personality characteristics and
his/her occupational environment.
• Holland...
Holland’s
Typology of
Personality
and
Congruent
Occupations
Shaping Personality
• We are constantly playing different roles, in different
situations and with different people
• Somet...
Shaping Personality
• Possible to make a 180 degree change in our personality:
- Need to determine personality traits that...
Mental Scripting
• In mental scripting you create a detailed scenario in
which you mentally play out a desired role again ...
Innovation & Creativity
• Is innovation & creativity important for organizations?
How important is this?
What really works...
Primary & Secondary Practices
• Strategy.
• Structure.
• Execution.
• Performance Culture.
• Leadership.
• Talent manageme...
Creativity & Innovation
• Traits of a creative person.
• Problem sensitivity.
• Idea fluency.
• Originality.
• Flexibility...
Problem sensitivity
• Is the ability to recognize the inconveniences. It also
leads to realization that a problem exist, a...
Idea fluency
• Is the ability to conceive quantity of ideas for a given
problem.
• Exercise – what are different ways you ...
Originality
• Is the ability to find different and unusual ways of doing
things. Some time it calls for courage to throw a...
Flexibility..
• Is the willingness to consider different approaches and
variety of view points to a problem with an open m...
Drive..
• Is the ability to hold on to problems inspite of
disappointments & frustrations. How important is drive in
life ...
About creativity..
• How our brain works.
• What percentage of our brain get utilised?
• How to activate your right brain
Ob ppt  personality & henry ford case   f & g section, 8 & 9 aug (1)
Ob ppt  personality & henry ford case   f & g section, 8 & 9 aug (1)
Ob ppt  personality & henry ford case   f & g section, 8 & 9 aug (1)
Ob ppt  personality & henry ford case   f & g section, 8 & 9 aug (1)
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Ob ppt personality & henry ford case f & g section, 8 & 9 aug (1)

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Ob ppt personality & henry ford case f & g section, 8 & 9 aug (1)

  1. 1. Personality
  2. 2. Evaluating PARTICIPATION – Questions. – Listening. – Sharing Ideas, thoughts, information…. – Discipline.
  3. 3. Coverage.. – What is Personality. – Personality & Traits. – Instruments & Psychometrics to measure „personality‟. – Terminologies. – Personal effectiveness & Personality. – Learning points. – Origin of Personality? – Henry Ford case
  4. 4. Personality A person‟s general style of interacting with the world & People differ from one another in ways that are relatively consistent over time and place
  5. 5. Personality – Definition  Individuals have their own way of thinking and acting, their own unique style and personality.  “The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment” Allport, 1937  The sum total of the ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others.  The individual‟s personality is made up of heredity, environment and moderated by the environment  Your personality type is determined by preferred way of relating to others and to the world – how you focus your attention, acquire information, make decisions, and orient yourself towards the outside world
  6. 6. Personality & Traits  How do you describe some body? By their qualities & term the same as personality.
  7. 7. Instruments & Psychometrics measuring Personality  Instruments.  What do they measure & what qualities. How accurate are they? What are some of these instruments?  Do they measure over all effectiveness of a person.  How can a student make use of these instruments? Self awareness.
  8. 8. Personal effectiveness & personality  Personal effectiveness model.  Personality is not a measure of some body‟s effectiveness.
  9. 9. Learning Points  All of us are different from each other in some respect. Each of us are unique.  Accept differences to manage people better.  Each has his or her strengths & weaknesses in a given context/job/situations.  Self awareness is important to be effective. It is about leveraging own strengths, managing weaknesses, leveraging other‟s strengths.
  10. 10. Individual Differences Thanks to a vast array of individual differences, modern organizations have a rich and interesting human texture. - Individual differences make the manager‟s job endlessly challenging Self Concept: The I & Me in OB - Self is the core of one‟s conscious existence. - Awareness of self is is referred to as one‟s self-concept - It is the concept the individual has of him/herself as a physical, social, spiritual or moral being - Because you have a self-concept you recognize yourself as a distinct human - A self-concept will be impossible without the capacity to think
  11. 11. Individual Differences Cognitions: Represent “any knowledge, opinion, or beliefs of the environment, about oneself, or about one‟s behaviour American culture: large public self: prides self as open, honest, candid and to the point Japanese culture: Culturally discourage self-disclosure, typically view Americans as blunt, prying, and insensitive to formalities Americans see Japanese as distant, cold and evasive No culture are right or wrong, they are just different Self-Esteem:A belief about one‟s own self-worth based on overall self evaluation Self-Efficacy: Those who are confident of their ability tend to succeed, while those who are preoccupied with failing
  12. 12. Determinants of Personality
  13. 13. Personality Determinants • Heredity • Environment • Situation
  14. 14. Personality “Characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.” Four major perspectives on Personality Psychoanalytic - unconscious motivations Trait - specific dimensions of personality Humanistic - inner capacity for growth Social-Cognitive - influence of environment
  15. 15. Psychoanalytic Approach Developed by Sigmund Freud Psychoanalysis is both an approach to therapy and a theory of personality Emphasizes unconscious motivation - the main causes of behavior lie buried in the unconscious mind
  16. 16. Psychoanalytic Approach Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego Information which can easily be made conscious Thoughts, feelings, urges, and other information that is difficult to bring to conscious awareness Information in your immediate awareness Rational, planful, mediating dimension of personality Moralistic, judgmental, perfectionist dimension of personality Irrational, illogical, impulsive dimension of personality
  17. 17. Psychoanalytic Approach  Conscious - all things we are aware of at any given moment Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego
  18. 18. Psychoanalytic Approach  Preconscious - everything that can, with a little effort, be brought into consciousness Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego
  19. 19. Psychoanalytic Approach  Unconscious - inaccessible warehouse of anxiety- producing thoughts and drives Conscious Unconscious Superego Preconscious Id Ego
  20. 20. Psychoanalytic Divisions of the Mind  Id - instinctual drives present at birth – does not distinguish between reality and fantasy – operates according to the pleasure principle  Ego - develops out of the id in infancy – understands reality and logic – mediator between id and superego – Reality principle  Superego – internalization of society‟s moral standards – responsible for guilt – Morality principle
  21. 21. Defense Mechanisms Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety
  22. 22. Defense Mechanisms Repression - keeping anxiety- producing thoughts out of the conscious mind Reaction formation - replacing an unacceptable wish with its opposite
  23. 23. Defense Mechanisms Displacement - when a drive directed to one activity by the id is redirected to a more acceptable activity by the ego Sublimation - displacement to activities that are valued by society
  24. 24. Defense Mechanisms Projection - reducing anxiety by attributing unacceptable impulses to someone else Rationalization - reasoning away anxiety-producing thoughts Regression - retreating to a mode of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development
  25. 25.  Personality Traits Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior.
  26. 26. The First Trait Theory  Two Factor Trait Theory of Personality UNSTABLE STABLE cholericmelancholic phlegmatic sanguine INTROVERTED EXTRAVERTED Moody Anxious Rigid Sober Pessimistic Reserved Unsociable Quiet Sociable Outgoing Talkative Responsive Easygoing Lively Carefree Leadership Passive Careful Thoughtful Peaceful Controlled Reliable Even-tempered Calm Touchy Restless Aggressive Excitable Changeable Impulsive Optimistic Active
  27. 27. Personality Traits  Trait personality theories suggest that a person can be described on the basis of some number of personality traits – Allport identified some 4,500 traits – Cattel used factor analysis to identify 30-35 basic traits – Eysenck argued there are 3 distinct traits in personality • Extraversion/introversion • Neuroticism • Psychotocism Allport
  28. 28. Overview of the Big “5”
  29. 29. Evaluating Trait Theory  Trait theory, especially the Big 5 model, is able to describe personality – Cross-cultural human studies find good agreement for the Big 5 model in many cultures – Appear to be highly correlated not only in adulthood, but also in childhood and even late preschoolers – Three dimensions (extraversion, neuroticism and agreeableness) have cross-species generality  Problems with trait theory include: – Lack of explanation as to WHY traits develop – Issue of explaining transient versus long-lasting traits
  30. 30. Personality Types  Type A – Competitiveness, haste, restlessness, impatience, feelings of being time pressured, strong needs for achievement and dominance  Type B – Mellow or laid-back
  31. 31. Assessing the Unconscious-- Rorscharch Used to identify people‟s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
  32. 32. Assessing the Unconscious--TAT Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) • people express their inner motives through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
  33. 33. Personality Attributes affecting OB • Locus of control: Internals and Externals • Machiavellianism: Pragmatism, emotional distance, believes ends justify the means • Self-esteem: Degree individual like or dislike themselves • Self-monitoring: Individual‟s ability to adjust behaviour to external situations • Risk taking: Willingness to take chances • Type A and B personality: - Type A: Impatient; hectic pace; can‟t cope with leisure; obsessed with numbers; measuring - Type B: No sense of urgency; play for fun and relaxation; relax without guilt
  34. 34. Locus of Control  Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. Internals Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
  35. 35. Machiavellianism  Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance & believes that ends justifies the means  High Machs manipulate more, win more, are persuaded less & persuade others more  Flourish when – Interact face-to-face rather than indirect – When situation has minimum rules & regulations, thus allowing latitude for improvisation – Emotional involvement with detials irrelevant to winning distracts low Machs
  36. 36. Self-Esteem and Self-Monitoring  Self-Esteem (SE) Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. Self-Monitoring A personality trait that measures an individuals ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.
  37. 37. Risk-Taking  High Risk-taking Managers – Make quicker decisions – Use less information to make decisions – Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations  Low Risk-taking Managers – Are slower to make decisions – Require more information before making decisions – Exist in larger organizations with stable environments
  38. 38. Personality Types  Type A‟s 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type B‟s 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.
  39. 39. The Big Five Model  Extraversion: outgoing, talkative, sociable, assertive  Agreeableness: Trusting, good natured, cooperative, soft hearted  Conscientiousness: Dependable, responsible, achievement oriented, persistent  Emotional stability: Relaxed, secure, unworried  Openness to experience: Intellectual, imaginative, curious, broadminded
  40. 40. Myers – Briggs Typologies (MBTI) • Measures personality types and preferences • Helps identify differences in ways in which individuals perceive and judge the world around them: - Perceive: Obtain awareness of a situation and factors involved in it - Judging: Deciding what to do about it - The instrument does not measure intelligence and abilities
  41. 41. Ways of Perceiving: Sensing • Form perception through senses • Perception based on perceived realities, facts • Realistic and practical • May not perceive creative solutions • Prefer standardized approach, dislike change • Precise, methodical, steady, check facts
  42. 42. Ways of Perceiving: Intuition • Use feelings, possibilities, and haunches – as primary means to form opinions about what exists and what might be done about it. • Value imagination and inspiration • Generate new problem – solving approaches; envision new possibilities, new ideas and ways of doing things • May like idea without checking for practicality • Routines are disliked; concerned with possibilities in a situation than details of practical application • Don‟t mind complication as long as it is new and different We use both ways of perceiving but tend to favour one or other
  43. 43. Deciding: Thinking • Think about issues; predict logical effect. • Objective and analytical, weigh positive and negative facts. • May ignore human considerations; not comfortable in sharing feelings. • Have sense of justice and fairness. • Able to censure and punish others.
  44. 44. Deciding: Feeling • Trust feelings; more concerned with personal values than logic • Sympathetic and good at working with people. • High value on harmonious relationships • Too influenced by own or other‟s preferences
  45. 45. Extraversion • Directed outwards to external people • Like work involving interaction with people • Result oriented; likes quick results • Impatient with things that slow them down • Enjoy communicating with people
  46. 46. Introversion • Focused inwards on personal phenomena • Prefer work for individualized thinking • Like to concentrate on ideas and detail • Ideas more important than results • Not people oriented; difficult to communicate with others
  47. 47. Perceiving • Merely perceive • Spontaneous, adaptable attitude to life • Not committed to one way of doing things: - Difficult to make decisions & prioritize - Postpone, not finish • Like to learn new things about people • Need all facts before deciding
  48. 48. Judging • Evaluate and judge information about life • They are planners, organizers and regulators • Like to plan ahead and make decisions • Like to see results without delay • Forge ahead in a project • For quick decisions may not collect data
  49. 49. Perceiving & Deciding • Four combinations each resulting in a different „type‟ of individual • These differences affect: - The ways in which people interact - The type of work suited for - How well they function in certain situations • One goal of MBTI is to find out what type of work are best suited to one‟s preferred ways of perceiving and deciding
  50. 50. Perceiving & Deciding a) Sensing & Thinking (ST): - Trusts facts – whatever can be perceived by the sense and verified - Make impersonal, thinking decisions based on analysis of the facts, logically reasoning in terms of cause and effect b) Sensing & Feeling (SF): - Interested in facts but base their final judgments on their feelings and on how much something matters to them or to others
  51. 51. Perceiving & Deciding c) Intuition & feeling (NF): - Make decisions on personal feelings - Not interested in facts but possibilities, new concepts and new plans - Interested in potential of people d) Intuition & Thinking (NT): - Interested in possibilities but make judgments based on logical analysis - Interested in exploring theoretical or technical ideas - Not interested in the feelings of others
  52. 52. Perceiving & Deciding • People tend to use two of the four functions, favoring one and using the second as a complementary process. • Need to use both ways of perceiving and deciding. The skill can be developed • Once people know their preferred style they can consciously practice the other styles, to expand capabilities and possibilities. • For example: - Sensing: best for obtaining an impartial, accurate impression of a situation, reality - Intuition: best way to unearth the possibilities in a situation - Thinking: preferred when an impersonal, objective, logical analysis is reqd. Includes assessing probabilities & outcomes - Feeling: useful in deciding what something really means to oneself and others, or what the emotional cost will be.
  53. 53. Person – Job Fit • Fit between an individual‟s personality characteristics and his/her occupational environment. • Holland’s six personality types: - Realistic: Physical activities requiring skill, strength and coordination - Investigative: Activities involving thinking, organizing and understanding - Social: involving helping and developing others - Conventional: Rule related, orderly and unambiguous - Enterprising: Verbal activities with opportunities to influence others and attain power - Artistic: Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expressions
  54. 54. Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations
  55. 55. Shaping Personality • We are constantly playing different roles, in different situations and with different people • Sometimes situations shape our role – we step into different costumes to take on different roles • Occasions when there is an uncertain fit between who we are or expect to be and the role required • Changes mean we need to act in a new way, perhaps change your image and bring out a hidden side of you. • You need to make a personality change to alter the way you act or are, to fit better or get along with others • We are quite plastic and can adapt ourselves to behave differently
  56. 56. Shaping Personality • Possible to make a 180 degree change in our personality: - Need to determine personality traits that no longer work and figure out what qualities we need to adopt to become successful - Practice the new traits • Another way to create change in your personality: Be aware of the trait you are using, control it and use a more appropriate one • 4 steps to changing your personality: - Determine how you want to change --- what or who you want to become - Create a mental script --- imagine yourself in the new role - Practice your mental script to reinforce your new image of yourself - Play out your mental script in life. • Check out what aspect of your personality you do not like and imaging the opposite
  57. 57. Mental Scripting • In mental scripting you create a detailed scenario in which you mentally play out a desired role again and again until you create a habit or a pattern of action - As you repeatedly experience the action mentally, you reinforce the pattern in your mind - This, in turn, makes you feel more and more certain you can play the role, and the confidence carries over into playing the scene in every day life • Once you have created a mental script, practice applying it in the real world - Practice it a few minutes every day, until you feel really that new trait becomes part of you.
  58. 58. Innovation & Creativity • Is innovation & creativity important for organizations? How important is this? What really works for organizations – primary & secondary practices.
  59. 59. Primary & Secondary Practices • Strategy. • Structure. • Execution. • Performance Culture. • Leadership. • Talent management. • Growth. • Innovation.
  60. 60. Creativity & Innovation • Traits of a creative person. • Problem sensitivity. • Idea fluency. • Originality. • Flexibility. • Drive. • How do I become more creative?
  61. 61. Problem sensitivity • Is the ability to recognize the inconveniences. It also leads to realization that a problem exist, an outlook that there is scope for improvement in any thing and every thing, an attitude to look up on the problem as opportunity. Polaroid & Waterman • Exercise -Make a list of all inconveniences you are facing in your life.
  62. 62. Idea fluency • Is the ability to conceive quantity of ideas for a given problem. • Exercise – what are different ways you can convey „Thanks‟ to some one who has helped you.
  63. 63. Originality • Is the ability to find different and unusual ways of doing things. Some time it calls for courage to throw away all the „accepted‟ concepts. • Exercise – Think of some unusual gifts you will present to your friends/spouse on their birth days
  64. 64. Flexibility.. • Is the willingness to consider different approaches and variety of view points to a problem with an open mind. • Exercise – Think of six distinct uses of an white paper
  65. 65. Drive.. • Is the ability to hold on to problems inspite of disappointments & frustrations. How important is drive in life & also innovation? „ Nothing in the world can take the place of persistence. Talent will not; nothing is more common than unsuccessful men with talent. Genius will not; unrewarded genius is almost a proverb. Education will not; the world is full of educated derelicts. Persistence and determination are omnipotent‟. • Exercise – make a list things in your opinions are very difficult to do by yourself.
  66. 66. About creativity.. • How our brain works. • What percentage of our brain get utilised? • How to activate your right brain
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