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Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
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Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy
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Ibs mmii- sessions-9-10 - copy

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  • 1. IBS MM-II Sessions 9-10 Harish Keswani
  • 2. Interface of Marketing with Finance
  • 3. Marketing Performance Measures (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) • P&L Statement (Income statement, operating statement) • Difference between Balance Sheet and P&L ?
  • 4. Marketing Performance Measures (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) • P&L -Statement of Financial Performance (eg. for a product or division) • Balance Sheet – Statement of Financial ‘Position’ Fixed costs & Overheads
  • 5. Marketing Performance Measures (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) • Break Even Sales – Break Even Sales = Fixed Costs / Contribution Margin of Fixed costs – To compute Total Cost = Fixed costs + Variable Cost • Market Share = Company sales / Market Sales • Gross Margin % = Gross Margin / Net Sales • Net Profit % = Net Profit / Net Sales • Operating Expenses % = Total Expenses / Net Sales • Inventory Turnover Rate = Cost of Goods sold/ Average Inventory at cost (Higher the better, indicates better efficiency and profitability) • ROI (Return on Investment)= Net profit before tax/ Investment
  • 6. Marketing Performance Measures (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) • Net Marketing Contribution = Net Sales – cost of goods sold – marketing expenses (Higher the better) • Marketing Return on Sales and investment – Marketing ROS = Net marketing contribution/ Net Sales (Higher the better) – Marketing ROI = Net marketing contribution/ Marketing expenses (Higher the better) • COSTS : – FIXED COSTS : Costs which remain constant irrespective of production quantity (eg. Rentals, salaries of core permanent people, marketing expenses etc) – VARIABLE COSTS : Costs which are directly propotional and dependent on quantity producted (eg. Cost of goods, ie raw material, packaging, etc)
  • 7. Impact of Marketing Strategies & Action Plans
  • 8. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm
  • 9. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Promotion strategy, Product strategy Channel strategy, etc. Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm
  • 10. Marketing Actions The Firm Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm Tactical Actions Advertising Service Improvements Branding, Loyalty
  • 11. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Impact on satisfaction, Impact on attitudes, loyalty Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm
  • 12. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Brand Equity Customer Equity Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm
  • 13. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Market share impact Sales impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm
  • 14. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Market share, Sales, etc. Financial Position Value of the Firm
  • 15. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact ROI, IRR, NPV, EVA Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm
  • 16. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Profits Cash flow Other measures Value of the Firm
  • 17. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Forward thinking Hinges on growth prospects Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm
  • 18. Marketing Actions The Firm Tactical Actions Strategies Customer Impact Market Impact Financial Impact Impact on Firm Value Marketing Assets Market Position Financial Position Value of the Firm Market capitalization Total shareholder return
  • 19. Financial Analysis of Marketing Tactics (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) To boost business - • Option 1 : Increase advertising expenditure Increase in Sales = Increase in Cost / Contribution Margin of that cost head (Similar to break even computation which is = total cost/contribution margin) • Factor to consider with increased sales targets – Increase sales means increase in market share (if market size is stable)
  • 20. Financial Analysis of Marketing Tactics (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) To boost business - • Option 2 : Increase Distribution coverage by hiring more sales people • One possible tool : Workflow method to determine increase in sales team size No. of Sales People = No. of customers * Frequency of calls * Length of calls _____________________________________________ Time avg sales person has for sales activities per year • Now if this adds to cost by X Then Additional sales required = X / Contribution margin
  • 21. Financial Analysis of Marketing Tactics (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) To boost business - • Option 3 : Decrease Price (or give discounts) • How do we compute how much increase in sales is required to compensate for the discount to maintain break even • Assume for a product Z – Total Sales = Rs. 1 billion – Current Unit Price = Rs. 17,000 – Unit Variable Cost % =76% = Rs. 12,920 – Unit Contribution = Rs. 4,080 (24%)
  • 22. Financial Analysis of Marketing Tactics (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) • Option 3 : Decrease Price (or give discounts)….cont • Assume we want to decrease price by 10% for Product Z – New Price = Rs.15,300 – Unit Variable cost = Rs.12,920 (This will not change just because we want to reduce the price) – Unit Contribution = Rs. 2,380 (15.56%) • In order to maintain total contribution we can say – New contribution margin X New Sales Level = Original Contribution – So New Sales Level = Original Contribution/ New contribution margin – Rs. 240 million / 0.1556 = Rs. 1.543 Billion – Thus Sales must increase by 543 million in order to break even on a 105 price reduction – This again will point towards increasing market share proportionately
  • 23. Financial Analysis of Marketing Tactics (Ref: Principles of Marketing – Appendix 2) • Option 4 : Extend Product line with a lower priced product • Sometimes adding new products in same category ‘Cannibalize’ existing products ,i.e eat into sales of existing product. • In order for this strategy to work, the total contribution margin to fixed costs has to be maintained or increased. • Eg. explained
  • 24. Interface of Marketing with Operations Toyota – Case Study
  • 25. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? • On January 21, 2010, Toyota Motor Corporation (Toyota) recalled 2.3 million select Toyota Division vehicles in the US. • The recall was done to fix sticking accelerator pedals which caused unintended acceleration, leading to accidents. Earlier in November 2009 too, the company had recalled 4.2 million cars in the US to rectify accelerator pedals which were getting lodged under the floor mats of the vehicles. • Subsequently on February 1, 2010, Toyota suspended the sales of eight of its popular car models involved in the recall and discontinued production at six of its North American car-assembly plants in response to growing customer concerns. • The eight car models represented 57% of Toyota’ s sales in the US in 2009 • The scale of the recalls was huge. The situation was serious. It points to the possible dangers a global economy can bring to large corporations.
  • 26. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? • Automotive operations accounted for 89% of Toyota’ s total revenues in 2008. • The company manufactured vehicles at 53 production sites in 27 countries around the globe. • In the fiscal year 2008, Toyota sold approximately 8.91 million vehicles in 170 countries and regions under the Toyota, Lexus, Daihatsu, and Hino brands. North America was its biggest market followed by Japan, Europe, and Asia.
  • 27. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? General Perception about Toyota before recalls – • Toyota recognized quality as one of the most important factors affecting customer satisfaction and strove to achieve excellence in manufacturing quality products at competitive prices. • Toyota inplemented Qulaity frameworks like Kaizen (continuous improvement), PDCA (plan, do, check, action), Pokayoke (mistake- proofing), and Just-in-Time (JIT) to achieve excellence in production. • To ensure zero defects in the finished product, Toyota set up quality assurance systems across various divisions, including development, purchasing, and production. • Because of its competent quality process system, the Toyota brand had become synonymous with quality, reliability, and durability, experts said.
  • 28. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? TMHE Improves Efficiency & Quality - The Toyota Production System (TPS) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tc9IQLJl4AU
  • 29. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? A U-turn in perception of Toyota after recalls • Some analysts felt that the Japanese company had succumbed to the pressures of rapid globalization and sacrificed its legendary quality to reach the goal of becoming the number one auto maker in the world. According to them, a series of recalls in the US, China, and Europe had tainted the automaker’ s image of manufacturing reliable cars and trucks • “Toyota’ s “reputation for long-term quality is finished. People aren’ t going to buy Toyotas, period. It doesn’ t matter which model. What’ s happened is sufficient to keep people out of the stores”
  • 30. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? Some analysts remained loyal and confident • Some analysts were positive that Toyota would not lose its quality edge. According to them, the fact that the car maker had discontinued sales of the affected models until the recall issues were resolved was proof of its commitment to quality • They need to do something warmer, something that demonstrates caring. I think they can recover, but that window is closing. They will have to do something big and fast
  • 31. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? • Though the company was hit by a series of quality issues in 2006, it continued with its global expansion spree. In 2007, Toyota added an average of two new factories a year to its global network. • By 2007, about two-third of Toyota's workforce was located outside Japan and the company could no longer rely on word of mouth to convey its managerial and manufacturing methods to workers at its overseas plants. • As a result, quality suffered. There were complaints from customers that oil-sludge buildup had destroyed their vehicles’ engines. Between 2004 and 2007, Toyota recalled 9.3 million vehicles, a number exceeding its total annual output. • In the 2007 J.D. Power survey, the Toyota brand scored below that of Hyundai • Despite the recalls, in 2008, Toyota realized its goal and surpassed GM as the world’ s largest car maker in terms of sales volume
  • 32. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? • Critics alleged that Toyota had had to compromise on quality to achieve the number one spot in the auto industry. The ranking came at the expense of the company’ s engineering and quality control prowess, they said. • As the intensity of the recalls increased, experts began to question Toyota’ s reputation as a quality automaker. Toyota’ s position began to slip in consumer satisfaction surveys too
  • 33. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? Discussion, reasons : • Rapid expansion overseas, increased demands on production • Most of the production outside Japan may have taken time to adapt the Quality Systems setup in Japan. • Outsourcing of certain components’ design • Chasing Sales volume and Market share put pressure on manufacturing to ramp up faster • Cost cutting measures may have impacted quality How does this impact ‘ Brand Image’ • “It takes a very long time to establish a reputation for safety and reliability. It doesn’ t take very long to lose it”
  • 34. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? Solutions: • Experts felt that in order to prevent its image from slipping further, Toyota had to focus on its quality aspect. The company needed to closely monitor quality and overhaul its design, engineering, and manufacturing operations. • According to industry analysts, Toyota, known for its reputation for quality, had to effectively communicate its strategy to customers to retain its position as one of the biggest auto makers in the world. • Toyota should contact owners individually in order to get them into dealerships for repairs, and then compensate them by offering a rebate or another free service. Toyota must avoid creating more bad feelings among consumers, they said.
  • 35. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? Solutions: • On January 31, 2010, in order to rebuild its decades-long reputation for quality and to promote the reliability and safety of its vehicles, Toyota launched a major public relations campaign. The company ran a full- page print ad in major newspapers explaining its decision to halt production of the defective cars. • A top executive from the company was likely to appear on television to discuss the recalls. • Toyota planned to set up a global quality special task force that would conduct regional quality improvement activities around the world. The committee headed by the president was to inspect every process —quality in design, quality in production, quality in sales, and quality in service and provide customers with satisfying products in each and every region
  • 36. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? Solutions: • To develop quality-management professionals, Toyota would start an “Automotive Center of Quality Excellence” in key regions. • Based on the improvements, Akio planned to seek evaluation from outside experts regarding its newly improved quality-control management and listen to each and every customer and improve quality. • Talking about his initiatives, Akio said, “Under the banner, “Let’ s build better cars”, we will go back to the basics of “customer first” and “genchi genbutsu”, and once more, deeply consider what “customer first” really means. • All our employees around the world, all of our dealers, and all of our suppliers will unify in their utmost efforts to regain the trust of our customers as soon as possible. • Discuss : Role of marketing !
  • 37. Toyota Motor Company: Losing its Quality Edge? While solutions were being worked out : • In the fiscal year through March 2010, Toyota expected a net loss of 200 billion yen despite efforts to cut costs by 440 billion yen during the year. • It was reported that global recalls of about 8 million vehicles would reduce the demand by 100,000 vehicles and cost the company 100 billion yen. • In the three months ending March 31, 2010, sales of 503,000 vehicles were predicted in North America. • However, analysts felt that the company would not able to achieve the sales target as customers were reluctant to buy Toyota vehicles due to quality problems.
  • 38. Next Session Topics : Interface of Marketing with HRM Coaching a Sales Team

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