Food safety ppt
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Like this? Share it with your network

Share
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
1,940
On Slideshare
1,940
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
138
Comments
0
Likes
4

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. First Information On Food SafetyFirst Information On Food Safety Dear Chef’s,Dear Chef’s, This first information on Food Safety is designed not only for theThis first information on Food Safety is designed not only for the programme, but also act as reference manual in your day to day work. Youprogramme, but also act as reference manual in your day to day work. You are therefore requested to preserve this manual and use it as and whenare therefore requested to preserve this manual and use it as and when required.required. Best of LuckBest of Luck Course Material By:Course Material By: Neeraj KatariaNeeraj Kataria Executive ChefExecutive Chef
  • 2. Food Related IllnessFood Related Illness Most food related illness is caused by bacteria associated with high risk foods e.g meat and dairyMost food related illness is caused by bacteria associated with high risk foods e.g meat and dairy products.products. The Government has a reporting system for some of the bacteria causing food poisoning, but not forThe Government has a reporting system for some of the bacteria causing food poisoning, but not for all types. The majority of causes come from the following:all types. The majority of causes come from the following:  Bacteria or their poison (toxins) e.g. Salmonella.Bacteria or their poison (toxins) e.g. Salmonella.  Mould poisons (mycotoxins) e.g. PatulinMould poisons (mycotoxins) e.g. Patulin  Viruses e.g. HepatitisViruses e.g. Hepatitis  Chemicals e.g. Cleaning FluidChemicals e.g. Cleaning Fluid  Metals e.g. LeadMetals e.g. Lead  Natural poisons in food e.g. Red kidney beansNatural poisons in food e.g. Red kidney beans If we fail to achive safe food, it could result in the following :If we fail to achive safe food, it could result in the following :  ProsecutionProsecution  Bad PublicityBad Publicity  Damage of reputationDamage of reputation  Heavy costs of product recallHeavy costs of product recall  Loss of businessLoss of business
  • 3. Food Safety Act 1990Food Safety Act 1990 The Food Safety Act 1990 makes the company and ourselves responsible for the productsThe Food Safety Act 1990 makes the company and ourselves responsible for the products manufactured and sold.manufactured and sold. It is as offence to sell or offer for saleIt is as offence to sell or offer for sale ….….  Food which is made harmfulFood which is made harmful  Food which is unfit to eatFood which is unfit to eat  Food that is contaminatedFood that is contaminated  Food that is not to the standard expectedFood that is not to the standard expected Environment Health Officers enforce food Safety Law and the power toEnvironment Health Officers enforce food Safety Law and the power to :-:-  Enter, visit and inspect food premises at any reasonable timeEnter, visit and inspect food premises at any reasonable time  Ensure businesses are opening safely and hygienicallyEnsure businesses are opening safely and hygienically  Offer adviceOffer advice  Close part or all of a business if necessaryClose part or all of a business if necessary  Issue notices to improve conditions or stop certain practicesIssue notices to improve conditions or stop certain practices  Prosecute employeesProsecute employees PenaltiesPenalties:: Under the Act itself, some offences attract a penalty of up to £20,000. Under regulating supportingUnder the Act itself, some offences attract a penalty of up to £20,000. Under regulating supporting the Act offences canthe Act offences can attract a penalty of up to £5,000. Both may include a prison sentence.attract a penalty of up to £5,000. Both may include a prison sentence. A Company can defend itself in Court using the Due Diligence Defence, by showing and provingA Company can defend itself in Court using the Due Diligence Defence, by showing and proving that reasonable precautions had been taken to prevent the offence arising.that reasonable precautions had been taken to prevent the offence arising.
  • 4. Food Safety and Hygiene RegulationsFood Safety and Hygiene Regulations Regulations under the Food Safety Act make us responsible for our actions, especially with regard to personalRegulations under the Food Safety Act make us responsible for our actions, especially with regard to personal hygiene.hygiene. Control of Food Safety HazardsControl of Food Safety Hazards Every business has to identify its own particular food safety hazards and decide how to control them.Every business has to identify its own particular food safety hazards and decide how to control them. A food hazard and decide how to control them. A food hazard is anything that could adversely affectA food hazard and decide how to control them. A food hazard is anything that could adversely affect the fitness, soundness or quality of food or could harm the consumer.the fitness, soundness or quality of food or could harm the consumer. Temperature ControlTemperature Control Food which can support the growth of the food poisoning micro-organism need to be stored andFood which can support the growth of the food poisoning micro-organism need to be stored and served at the temperature to prevent food poisoning. This can mean control by holding cold (eitherserved at the temperature to prevent food poisoning. This can mean control by holding cold (either chilled or frozen) or hot.chilled or frozen) or hot. Hygienic OperationHygienic Operation The business must operate hygienically by having suitable premises, equipment and facilities which are kept cleanThe business must operate hygienically by having suitable premises, equipment and facilities which are kept clean andand in a good state of repair and maintenance.in a good state of repair and maintenance. Personal HygienePersonal Hygiene Personnel must keep themselves clean, wash hands before handling food and food equipment, and wear clean andPersonnel must keep themselves clean, wash hands before handling food and food equipment, and wear clean and washable over-clothing. They must also report certain illness.washable over-clothing. They must also report certain illness. TrainingTraining Personnel must be supervised or given hygiene training which is suitable and appropriate to their workPersonnel must be supervised or given hygiene training which is suitable and appropriate to their work
  • 5. Hazards in Preparation and ManufactureHazards in Preparation and Manufacture Identification of Hazards:Identification of Hazards: Food safety hazards have the potential to cause harm to consumers and can be divided into threeFood safety hazards have the potential to cause harm to consumers and can be divided into three types:types: Microbiological :Microbiological : e.g. bacteria, mould, yeast, virusese.g. bacteria, mould, yeast, viruses Chemical:Chemical: e.g. cleaning fluids, grease, pesticides, fumese.g. cleaning fluids, grease, pesticides, fumes Physical :Physical : e.g. metal, glass, wood, plastic, rubbere.g. metal, glass, wood, plastic, rubber Hazards can be occur throughout the process from raw materials through to the final product.Hazards can be occur throughout the process from raw materials through to the final product. Consequences of hazards getting through to consumers:Consequences of hazards getting through to consumers:  Food related illnessFood related illness  Injury on consumptionInjury on consumption  SpoilageSpoilage These hazards can also affect the process and lead to poor standard and inefficiencyThese hazards can also affect the process and lead to poor standard and inefficiency
  • 6. Chemical and Physical HazardsChemical and Physical Hazards Sources:Sources: Foreign matter can be introduced in to food when it is exposed or being made. It can come fromForeign matter can be introduced in to food when it is exposed or being made. It can come from Materials and PackagingMaterials and Packaging Foreign matter from anything used to make and packageForeign matter from anything used to make and package Food products, e.g. plastic, ties and glassFood products, e.g. plastic, ties and glass People:People: Items falling off people from clothing, hair, personal belongings and jewellery e.g. buttons, rings,Items falling off people from clothing, hair, personal belongings and jewellery e.g. buttons, rings, plasters.plasters. Machines and Equipment:Machines and Equipment: Items coming from the plant, equipment, surfaces and from any chemicals introduced e.g. nuts andItems coming from the plant, equipment, surfaces and from any chemicals introduced e.g. nuts and bolts, seals, grease and oil, cleaning fluid.bolts, seals, grease and oil, cleaning fluid. Environment:Environment: Items coming from the premises and pests coming in, e.g dust, paint, broken light bulb, pests,Items coming from the premises and pests coming in, e.g dust, paint, broken light bulb, pests, droppings.droppings.
  • 7. Microbiological HazardsMicrobiological Hazards Micro-organisms are tiny living things which are found every where. A microscope is normallyMicro-organisms are tiny living things which are found every where. A microscope is normally required to view them.required to view them. Products are sampled and surfaces tested to identify the number of micro-organisms and the typeProducts are sampled and surfaces tested to identify the number of micro-organisms and the type e.g. bacteria, mould, yeast, viruses.e.g. bacteria, mould, yeast, viruses.  Most micro-organisms are harmlessMost micro-organisms are harmless  Some are beneficialSome are beneficial Particular types are used to produce foods and drinks.Particular types are used to produce foods and drinks.  Some causes illnessSome causes illness These are called pathogensThese are called pathogens  Some cause spoilageSome cause spoilage Particular types will grow and change the nature of food i.e. make them go offParticular types will grow and change the nature of food i.e. make them go off Bacteria and moulds can cause illness and spoilage.Bacteria and moulds can cause illness and spoilage. Yeasts only cause spoilage.Yeasts only cause spoilage. Viruses only cause illnessViruses only cause illness The main hazard is food related illness, particularly caused by bacteria.The main hazard is food related illness, particularly caused by bacteria. Spores and ToxinsSpores and Toxins Micro-organisms can grow rapidly given the correct conditions, taking their requirements from the environmentMicro-organisms can grow rapidly given the correct conditions, taking their requirements from the environment theythey find themselves in. As part of their normal living process, they produce waste products. Some of these wastefind themselves in. As part of their normal living process, they produce waste products. Some of these waste productsproducts spoil the food and some are poisonous to us; these are called toxins.spoil the food and some are poisonous to us; these are called toxins. Some bacteria have the ability to withstand adverse conditions, e.g. very high temperatures and a dry environment,Some bacteria have the ability to withstand adverse conditions, e.g. very high temperatures and a dry environment, byby producing spores. Spores are survival mechanism and when the conditions become favourable they germinate andproducing spores. Spores are survival mechanism and when the conditions become favourable they germinate and thethe
  • 8. Food Related Illness Caused by PathogensFood Related Illness Caused by Pathogens Although some pathogens are moulds, the vast majority of pathogens are bacteria and the chief cause of foodAlthough some pathogens are moulds, the vast majority of pathogens are bacteria and the chief cause of food relatedrelated illness. The symptoms of the illness vary according to the type of pathogenic bacteria, but often include nausea,illness. The symptoms of the illness vary according to the type of pathogenic bacteria, but often include nausea, headache, aching joints, vomiting and diarrhea. The symptoms may occur quickly within two hours, or there mayheadache, aching joints, vomiting and diarrhea. The symptoms may occur quickly within two hours, or there may be abe a delay (incubation period). This depends on the type of pathogen and how it works in the body.delay (incubation period). This depends on the type of pathogen and how it works in the body. In general, infective bacteria might take a few hours to cause symptoms, but toxins often have a rapid effect.In general, infective bacteria might take a few hours to cause symptoms, but toxins often have a rapid effect. Food Poisoning BacteriaFood Poisoning Bacteria These pathogenic bacteria need to grow in the food into large numbers before they cause illness.These pathogenic bacteria need to grow in the food into large numbers before they cause illness. The most common pathogenic bacteria are :-The most common pathogenic bacteria are :-  Salmonella- often from poultry, eggs and meatSalmonella- often from poultry, eggs and meat  Staphylococcus- carried by two people in every fiveStaphylococcus- carried by two people in every five  Clostridium – found on raw food such as vegetables and meatClostridium – found on raw food such as vegetables and meat  Bacillus – found mainly in cereals and especially in riceBacillus – found mainly in cereals and especially in rice Food Borne IllnessFood Borne Illness The bacteria need to survive and live in the food but do not need to grow into large numbers to cause illness.The bacteria need to survive and live in the food but do not need to grow into large numbers to cause illness. When we consume food, the pathogen then grow in us before we become ill.When we consume food, the pathogen then grow in us before we become ill.  Campylobacter - often found in infected animals, birds and unpasteurised milk. It causes sever diarrhoea andCampylobacter - often found in infected animals, birds and unpasteurised milk. It causes sever diarrhoea and stomach pain.stomach pain.  Listeria – is widespread in environment, has been found in raw foods as well as processed and cooked foods.Listeria – is widespread in environment, has been found in raw foods as well as processed and cooked foods. The illness Listeriosis is very rare and the symptoms range from mild and flu like to meningitis and inThe illness Listeriosis is very rare and the symptoms range from mild and flu like to meningitis and in pregnant woman it can lead to miscarriage.pregnant woman it can lead to miscarriage.
  • 9. What do Micro-organism Need?What do Micro-organism Need? Micro-organism need certain requirements to live grow.Micro-organism need certain requirements to live grow.  The right food source with correct acidity/ alkalinity levelThe right food source with correct acidity/ alkalinity level  Available waterAvailable water  The right temperatureThe right temperature  With or without oxygenWith or without oxygen  Time to develop into large enough numbersTime to develop into large enough numbers
  • 10. Micro-organisms –Growth ConditionsMicro-organisms –Growth Conditions Right food source and pHRight food source and pH Micro- organisms vary in what food sources they can grow in. It depends on the type of micro-Micro- organisms vary in what food sources they can grow in. It depends on the type of micro- organist.organist. The acidity or alkalinity level of the food being prepared or manufactured is important. This isThe acidity or alkalinity level of the food being prepared or manufactured is important. This is measured by pH.measured by pH. Most micro-organisms like growing in food of near neutral pH. Food poisoning bacteria don’t likeMost micro-organisms like growing in food of near neutral pH. Food poisoning bacteria don’t like growgrow in acid foods such as beer and soft drinks. The more acid the food is, the less micro-organisms grow.in acid foods such as beer and soft drinks. The more acid the food is, the less micro-organisms grow. Moulds and Yeasts can tolerate acid conditions.Moulds and Yeasts can tolerate acid conditions. Available WaterAvailable Water Micro-organisms need some water to grow. Salt or sugar added to water prevent them using theMicro-organisms need some water to grow. Salt or sugar added to water prevent them using the waterwater and the more concentrated the solution, less water is available for them e.g. the more sugar addedand the more concentrated the solution, less water is available for them e.g. the more sugar added thethe less micro-organism growless micro-organism grow OxygenOxygen Some micro-organisms need oxygen to grow . Some can grow without oxygen and there are someSome micro-organisms need oxygen to grow . Some can grow without oxygen and there are some thatthat do not mind growing with or without.do not mind growing with or without. TimeTime Bacteria are nature’s fast breeders and some can multiply by dividing into two every 10-20 minutes.Bacteria are nature’s fast breeders and some can multiply by dividing into two every 10-20 minutes. Yeast are slower than bacteria and grow by making another one of it self by budding.Yeast are slower than bacteria and grow by making another one of it self by budding. Mould are slower growing than yeast and grow by producing more and more threads (mycelium)Mould are slower growing than yeast and grow by producing more and more threads (mycelium) andand
  • 11. TemperatureTemperature Micro-organisms don’t need a precise temperature to grow at.Micro-organisms don’t need a precise temperature to grow at. They grow over a range of temperatures.They grow over a range of temperatures. Generally, cold inhabits their growth and heat destroys them.Generally, cold inhabits their growth and heat destroys them. Spores and toxins can be difficult to destroy and may needSpores and toxins can be difficult to destroy and may need highhigh temperatures under pressure.temperatures under pressure.
  • 12. Sources of Microbiological HazardsSources of Microbiological Hazards  FoodFood Raw food, partially processed food and water. Any ingredient used to make or prepare theRaw food, partially processed food and water. Any ingredient used to make or prepare the food product can be contaminated with pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms.food product can be contaminated with pathogenic and spoilage micro-organisms.  Preparation and ManufacturePreparation and Manufacture Microbiological hazard can arise through cross contamination, ineffective process control,Microbiological hazard can arise through cross contamination, ineffective process control, poorpoor cleaning and the use of dirty packaging.cleaning and the use of dirty packaging.  PeoplePeople Microbiological hazards can come from dirty protective clothing. Contamination fromMicrobiological hazards can come from dirty protective clothing. Contamination from hands,hands, unhygienic habits, people carrying micro-organisms that cause illness and septic cuts.unhygienic habits, people carrying micro-organisms that cause illness and septic cuts.  EnvironmentEnvironment Poor cleaning of the premises, of the premises, allowing pests to contaminate work surfacesPoor cleaning of the premises, of the premises, allowing pests to contaminate work surfaces and poor handling of waste can lead to microbiological hazards.and poor handling of waste can lead to microbiological hazards.
  • 13. Preventative Measure for HazardsPreventative Measure for Hazards A preventative measure is a step or precaution taken to prevent or control a food safety hazardA preventative measure is a step or precaution taken to prevent or control a food safety hazard getting through to the consumer.getting through to the consumer. For example, a preventative measure taken in the preparation of hot food is cook the food properlyFor example, a preventative measure taken in the preparation of hot food is cook the food properly toto ensure that all micro-organisms are destroyed.ensure that all micro-organisms are destroyed. Spores and toxins will not be destroyed by cooking and therefore further precautions have to beSpores and toxins will not be destroyed by cooking and therefore further precautions have to be takentaken either before or after this steps in the process to ensure spores are allowed to germinate or bacteriaeither before or after this steps in the process to ensure spores are allowed to germinate or bacteria which produce toxin are not allowed to grow into large enough numbers.which produce toxin are not allowed to grow into large enough numbers.
  • 14. Preventative Measures for Chemical and Physical HazardsPreventative Measures for Chemical and Physical Hazards A preventative measure is a step or precaution taken to prevent or control a food safety hazardA preventative measure is a step or precaution taken to prevent or control a food safety hazard getting through to the consumer.getting through to the consumer. Hazards ExamplesHazards Examples Possible Preventative MeasuresPossible Preventative Measures ChemicalChemical Cleaning / disinfecting agentsCleaning / disinfecting agents Grease and oils for lubricationGrease and oils for lubrication PhysicalPhysical GlassGlass Metal from KnivesMetal from Knives Food grade chemicals, correct use, correctFood grade chemicals, correct use, correct storage, schedules , training.storage, schedules , training. Food grade greases, design of equipment,Food grade greases, design of equipment, engineer training.engineer training. Protection of glass used in windows lighting.Protection of glass used in windows lighting. Replace glass containers with plastic.Replace glass containers with plastic. Breakage procedures, training.Breakage procedures, training. One piece knife blades, regular sharpeningOne piece knife blades, regular sharpening and maintenance, in line sieves, filters,and maintenance, in line sieves, filters, magnets, metal detectors, procedures, training.magnets, metal detectors, procedures, training.
  • 15. Preventative Measures for Microbiological HazardsPreventative Measures for Microbiological Hazards Preventative measure will include the following Methods:Preventative measure will include the following Methods:  Protect food from contaminationProtect food from contamination Keep food covered e.g. lids on containers and keep pests off, sacks and packets sealed,Keep food covered e.g. lids on containers and keep pests off, sacks and packets sealed, Clingfilm over cold foodClingfilm over cold food  Protect food from cross contaminationProtect food from cross contamination Cross contamination means the transfer of micro-organisms via a vehicle from the source ontoCross contamination means the transfer of micro-organisms via a vehicle from the source onto food which could be high risk. (High risk foods are those foods in which pathogens can easilyfood which could be high risk. (High risk foods are those foods in which pathogens can easily grow)grow) Examples of vehicles areExamples of vehicles are  Knives and utensilsKnives and utensils  HandsHands  Protective clothingProtective clothing  Cleaning clothsCleaning cloths Avoid cross contamination by putting up barriers, separate handling for raw and high risk foodsAvoid cross contamination by putting up barriers, separate handling for raw and high risk foods through good design and layout, separate utensils and equipmentthrough good design and layout, separate utensils and equipment Washing hands and changing protective clothing between handling raw and high risk foods.Washing hands and changing protective clothing between handling raw and high risk foods.
  • 16. Preventative Measures for Microbiological HazardsPreventative Measures for Microbiological Hazards  Destroy micro-organismsDestroy micro-organisms HeatHeat – canning, UHT, pasteurisation, cooking– canning, UHT, pasteurisation, cooking Chemicals-Chemicals- disinfectants applied to surfaces and equipmentdisinfectants applied to surfaces and equipment  Slow down or prevent micro-organisms growing in foodSlow down or prevent micro-organisms growing in food Cold-Cold- freezing and chilling food and storing coldfreezing and chilling food and storing cold Adding chemicalsAdding chemicals – adding high levels of salt or sugar or specific chemical preservatives– adding high levels of salt or sugar or specific chemical preservatives GasGas – taking away oxygen and replacing with carbon- dioxide– taking away oxygen and replacing with carbon- dioxide Low pHLow pH – creating an acid food by adding vinegar or processing food which is naturally acid.– creating an acid food by adding vinegar or processing food which is naturally acid.
  • 17. Preventative Measures for Storage and Temperature ControlPreventative Measures for Storage and Temperature Control StorageStorage Food, whether raw, partially processed or cooked and other ingredients have to be stored,Food, whether raw, partially processed or cooked and other ingredients have to be stored, protectedprotected and preserved :and preserved :  Before useBefore use  Between process stepsBetween process steps  Before consumptionBefore consumption General Rules for StorageGeneral Rules for Storage  All incoming goods should be inspected on arrival.All incoming goods should be inspected on arrival.  All areas should be kept clean and dry, be well lit and ventilatedAll areas should be kept clean and dry, be well lit and ventilated  Adequate space should be available and storage areas not overloadedAdequate space should be available and storage areas not overloaded  Everything correctly labelled and datedEverything correctly labelled and dated  Stock rotation procedures must be strictly adhered to and products not kept longer thanStock rotation procedures must be strictly adhered to and products not kept longer than necessarynecessary  Correct temperatures maintained where necessary and air temperatures checked regularly.Correct temperatures maintained where necessary and air temperatures checked regularly.  All raw materials and packaging must be kept clean and covered, i.e lids kept on and bagsAll raw materials and packaging must be kept clean and covered, i.e lids kept on and bags intact and kept off the floor.intact and kept off the floor.  All cleaning materials and chemicals must be stored away from raw material, ingredients andAll cleaning materials and chemicals must be stored away from raw material, ingredients and finished products.finished products.
  • 18. Preventative Measures for Storage and Temperature ControlPreventative Measures for Storage and Temperature Control Temperature ControlTemperature Control Heat Processing:Heat Processing: Time and temperatures need to be set according to the type of heat process, e.g. for cooked food –a core temperature ofTime and temperatures need to be set according to the type of heat process, e.g. for cooked food –a core temperature of 75° C to be achieved.75° C to be achieved. Cooling Food:Cooling Food: Hot food should be cooled rapidly to pass through the danger zone as quickly as possible and then stored cold.Hot food should be cooled rapidly to pass through the danger zone as quickly as possible and then stored cold. Cold Storage:Cold Storage: Food to be kept at correct temperatures for chill and frozen storage. Regularly check operating temperatures, keepFood to be kept at correct temperatures for chill and frozen storage. Regularly check operating temperatures, keep doors and openings to a minimum and don’t place hot food into cold storage.doors and openings to a minimum and don’t place hot food into cold storage. Thawing Food:Thawing Food: Frozen food should be thawed under cold conditions with both the temperature and time controlled to ensure that theFrozen food should be thawed under cold conditions with both the temperature and time controlled to ensure that the core of the food is completely thawedcore of the food is completely thawed Reheating food:Reheating food: Food should be reheated only once and rapidly reheated to a minimum core temperature of 75Food should be reheated only once and rapidly reheated to a minimum core temperature of 75 °° CC Hot HoldingHot Holding Food should be maintained at a minimum temperature of 63 ° C and kept for as short a time as possible to maintainFood should be maintained at a minimum temperature of 63 ° C and kept for as short a time as possible to maintain food quality.food quality. Out of specification Food:Out of specification Food: Any food which cannot be used because it is out of date or spoilt in some way must be properly labelled and storedAny food which cannot be used because it is out of date or spoilt in some way must be properly labelled and stored prior to disposal in such a way that it cannot be accidentally used.prior to disposal in such a way that it cannot be accidentally used.
  • 19. Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices Unit DesignUnit Design Hazards are easier to deal with and elimination if processes avoid contamination and crossHazards are easier to deal with and elimination if processes avoid contamination and cross contamination.contamination. Good unit design ensure minimum handling of food and avoidance of cross contamination takingGood unit design ensure minimum handling of food and avoidance of cross contamination taking into consideration the following :into consideration the following :  Construction materials that are durable, easy to maintain and clean .Construction materials that are durable, easy to maintain and clean .  Good layout to give a work flow with adequate space and separation of processes.Good layout to give a work flow with adequate space and separation of processes.  Areas that are easy to clean. Places where ceiling and walls and floors meet, should be roundedAreas that are easy to clean. Places where ceiling and walls and floors meet, should be rounded so no dirt gathers.so no dirt gathers.  Environment that is pest free. There should be no easy access for food pests with screensEnvironment that is pest free. There should be no easy access for food pests with screens provided for open doors and windowsprovided for open doors and windows  Well lit and ventilated, to make the area safer, easier to clean and more comfortable to work in.Well lit and ventilated, to make the area safer, easier to clean and more comfortable to work in.  Well planned facilities for personnel, monitoring the process, waste handling and storage.Well planned facilities for personnel, monitoring the process, waste handling and storage.
  • 20. Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices Equipment DesignEquipment Design The correct design of plant and equipment is essential and the following principles should beThe correct design of plant and equipment is essential and the following principles should be considered:considered: Surfaces in contact with food should be :Surfaces in contact with food should be :  InertInert  SmoothSmooth  NonporousNonporous Equipment should be designed :Equipment should be designed :  So that there are no crevices or dead spacesSo that there are no crevices or dead spaces  So it can be easily maintainedSo it can be easily maintained  So that it can protect the contents from external contaminationSo that it can protect the contents from external contamination  So that the exterior prevents soiling and pestsSo that the exterior prevents soiling and pests
  • 21. PestsPests Common Food pests include the following :Common Food pests include the following :  Rats and MiceRats and Mice  Insects – files, cockroaches, waspsInsects – files, cockroaches, wasps  Birds- Pigeons and sparrowBirds- Pigeons and sparrow Pests can carry dieses spread micro-organisms, contaminated food and causes damage to biuldingsPests can carry dieses spread micro-organisms, contaminated food and causes damage to biuldings and equipment.and equipment. Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices
  • 22. PeoplePeople People are a major source of food safety hazards ( hair , Jewellery, Cigarette ends, staphylococcus, salmonellaPeople are a major source of food safety hazards ( hair , Jewellery, Cigarette ends, staphylococcus, salmonella Preventative measures include the following :Preventative measures include the following : Personal cleanlinessPersonal cleanliness People should have standards of personal cleanliness and whilst at work, keep hands clean.People should have standards of personal cleanliness and whilst at work, keep hands clean. Hands are the main means of transferring microbiological hazards from ourselves. They must be washed regularly andHands are the main means of transferring microbiological hazards from ourselves. They must be washed regularly and particularly at key times using wash basins with hot water, un-perfumed soap and then dried correctly andparticularly at key times using wash basins with hot water, un-perfumed soap and then dried correctly and thoroughly.thoroughly.  After using the WCAfter using the WC  After smoking or blowing your noseAfter smoking or blowing your nose  After handling waste or refuseAfter handling waste or refuse  After eating or drinking and taking a breakAfter eating or drinking and taking a break  After cleaning and disinfectionAfter cleaning and disinfection  Before starting work and handling foodBefore starting work and handling food Protective ClothingProtective Clothing Protective clothing should be designed to protect food products from people. Consideration should be given to theProtective clothing should be designed to protect food products from people. Consideration should be given to the following :following :  Wear appropriate clean protective clothing, e.g. overall, hats, hair nets and snoods when dealing with foodWear appropriate clean protective clothing, e.g. overall, hats, hair nets and snoods when dealing with food  Wear it in the food processing area and never outsideWear it in the food processing area and never outside  Change and clean it regularly, according to company standardsChange and clean it regularly, according to company standards  Store clean clothing near the changing area and dirty clothing in laundry containersStore clean clothing near the changing area and dirty clothing in laundry containers  Wear clean additional protection where necessary, e.g. gloves and aprons. It helps to prevent crossWear clean additional protection where necessary, e.g. gloves and aprons. It helps to prevent cross contaminationcontamination Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices
  • 23. Personal Health:Personal Health: People can be a serious hazard to food when they are suffering from food related illness. Consideration should bePeople can be a serious hazard to food when they are suffering from food related illness. Consideration should be given to when people work and they should be excluded if there are risks that the food will be contaminated.given to when people work and they should be excluded if there are risks that the food will be contaminated. We need to report if we are suffering from any of the followingWe need to report if we are suffering from any of the following  Food poisoningFood poisoning  Staphylococcal infectionsStaphylococcal infections  Heavy coldsHeavy colds  Close members of our family are ill with food poisoningClose members of our family are ill with food poisoning Micro- organisms in septic cuts, boils and sores can be a risk to food safety. They should be coveredMicro- organisms in septic cuts, boils and sores can be a risk to food safety. They should be covered with clean waterproof dressing to prevent the risk.with clean waterproof dressing to prevent the risk. Appearance and Behavior:Appearance and Behavior: SmokingSmoking – Smoking can be a hazard to food from fumes, ash, cigarette ends and staphylococcus– Smoking can be a hazard to food from fumes, ash, cigarette ends and staphylococcus picked up on fingers. Smoking is not allowed in food premises.picked up on fingers. Smoking is not allowed in food premises. Eating and DrinkingEating and Drinking – Eating and drinking should be confined to breaks in designated areas with careful hand– Eating and drinking should be confined to breaks in designated areas with careful hand washing afterwards.washing afterwards. Jewellery, Perfume and Nail varnishJewellery, Perfume and Nail varnish – All these hazards are easy to prevent by not wearing jewellery, heavy perfume– All these hazards are easy to prevent by not wearing jewellery, heavy perfume or nail varnishor nail varnish Unhygienic HabitsUnhygienic Habits – Habits must be avoided whilst working with food because microbiological hazards are spread on– Habits must be avoided whilst working with food because microbiological hazards are spread on hands and are picked up by touching the face, mouth ears and nose.hands and are picked up by touching the face, mouth ears and nose. Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices
  • 24. Cleaning and DisinfectionCleaning and Disinfection Ineffective cleaning and disinfection can lead to hazards through the following:Ineffective cleaning and disinfection can lead to hazards through the following:  Not removing the matter on which micro – organisms growNot removing the matter on which micro – organisms grow  Poor disinfection of surfaces and equipment in contact with foodPoor disinfection of surfaces and equipment in contact with food  Allowing chemicals to contaminated foodAllowing chemicals to contaminated food There are two separate areas than need to be defined:There are two separate areas than need to be defined: 1.1. CleaningCleaning This is a process used for removing grease, dirt and visible soiling. The standard or objective is forThis is a process used for removing grease, dirt and visible soiling. The standard or objective is for surface to be visually clean.surface to be visually clean. 2.2. DisinfectionDisinfection This is carried out after the cleaning stage or at the same time. The objective is to reduce theThis is carried out after the cleaning stage or at the same time. The objective is to reduce the organisms down to an acceptable level which results in no risk of contamination to the food.organisms down to an acceptable level which results in no risk of contamination to the food. 3.3. MethodMethod There are a number of logical steps which are similar for whatever method used, i.e. a two sink me ofThere are a number of logical steps which are similar for whatever method used, i.e. a two sink me of washing up or clean in place techniques for pipe work. Each step has to be carried out correct achievewashing up or clean in place techniques for pipe work. Each step has to be carried out correct achieve an effective results. N.B: A dirty surface cannot be disinfected properly.an effective results. N.B: A dirty surface cannot be disinfected properly. Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices
  • 25. Cleaning And DisinfectionCleaning And Disinfection Effective cleaning utilises a combination of different types of energyEffective cleaning utilises a combination of different types of energy  Physical – elbow greasePhysical – elbow grease  Mechanical – machinesMechanical – machines  Turbulence - Liquids (clean in place techniques)Turbulence - Liquids (clean in place techniques)  Thermal – hot waterThermal – hot water  Chemical – e.g. detergents in foam cleaningChemical – e.g. detergents in foam cleaning The cleaning process has to be planned with a combination of the above, taking into accountThe cleaning process has to be planned with a combination of the above, taking into account the following:the following:  Time availableTime available  Level and type of dirtLevel and type of dirt  Equipment and manpower availableEquipment and manpower available  Area and surfaces to be cleanedArea and surfaces to be cleaned  Risk to the products being madeRisk to the products being made Cleaning can take place:Cleaning can take place:  During the process between products, e.g. a flush through with waterDuring the process between products, e.g. a flush through with water  At the end of processing e.g. a full clean and disinfectionAt the end of processing e.g. a full clean and disinfection  As we go e.g. removal of spillagesAs we go e.g. removal of spillages Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices
  • 26. Cleaning And DisinfectionCleaning And Disinfection Cleaning AgentsCleaning Agents There are many cleaning agents available, detergents remove grease oil and general dirt, strongThere are many cleaning agents available, detergents remove grease oil and general dirt, strong alkaline and acids are very abrasive and can remove heavy soiling and caked on deposits.alkaline and acids are very abrasive and can remove heavy soiling and caked on deposits. All cleaning agents dissolve the dirt into water so that it can be rinsed away. Sometimes, hot waterAll cleaning agents dissolve the dirt into water so that it can be rinsed away. Sometimes, hot water needed to help the dirt to dissolve, it depends upon the chemical chosen.needed to help the dirt to dissolve, it depends upon the chemical chosen. DisinfectantsDisinfectants Disinfectants are chemicals which kill the micro-organisms, or reduce them to an acceptable levelDisinfectants are chemicals which kill the micro-organisms, or reduce them to an acceptable level Sterilants are chemicals which kill all the micro-organisms, i.e. 100 % killSterilants are chemicals which kill all the micro-organisms, i.e. 100 % kill SanitiserSanitiser Sanitisers are chemicals in which the manufacturer combines a detergent with a compatibleSanitisers are chemicals in which the manufacturer combines a detergent with a compatible disinfection so that cleaning and disinfection can be done in one stage, this may not be effective ifdisinfection so that cleaning and disinfection can be done in one stage, this may not be effective if the surface heavily soiled .the surface heavily soiled . Rules for ChemicalsRules for Chemicals  Never mix chemicals. Mixing the wrong chemicals can give off poisonous gasNever mix chemicals. Mixing the wrong chemicals can give off poisonous gas  Always use the right amountAlways use the right amount  Follow manufactures instructionsFollow manufactures instructions  Store correctly in proper labelled containersStore correctly in proper labelled containers Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices
  • 27. Cleanliness And DisinfectionCleanliness And Disinfection Monitoring:Monitoring: Cleaning should be assessed to ensure it meets the standards required. The following monitoringCleaning should be assessed to ensure it meets the standards required. The following monitoring methods could be usedmethods could be used  SurfacesSurfaces Microbiological testing of surfacesMicrobiological testing of surfaces  ProductProduct Microbiological tests of productMicrobiological tests of product  InspectionInspection Inspection of areas to see if they are visually cleanInspection of areas to see if they are visually clean  AuditAudit Audits of the procedures and work instructions to check they are being followedAudits of the procedures and work instructions to check they are being followed RecordsRecords Always keep a record of what cleaning has been done, i.e. the cleaning log.Always keep a record of what cleaning has been done, i.e. the cleaning log. Preventative Measures-Hygienic PracticesPreventative Measures-Hygienic Practices
  • 28. Principles of HACCP and Assured Safe CateringPrinciples of HACCP and Assured Safe Catering Firstly hazards have to be identified from the start of the process through to the finish.Firstly hazards have to be identified from the start of the process through to the finish. Everything must be looked at and followed through. The risks of those hazards have to beEverything must be looked at and followed through. The risks of those hazards have to be assessed and a decision made as to whether the hazard, if not controlled or limited, willassessed and a decision made as to whether the hazard, if not controlled or limited, will get through to customers. This becomes a critical point in the process and it needs to beget through to customers. This becomes a critical point in the process and it needs to be controlled.controlled. The critical Control point is monitored in various ways and the preventative measures at thatThe critical Control point is monitored in various ways and the preventative measures at that point must be kept within the target and tolerances set. Action must be taken when thepoint must be kept within the target and tolerances set. Action must be taken when the preventative measure is not going to prevent the hazard happening.preventative measure is not going to prevent the hazard happening. The HACCP or Assured Safe Catering plan needs to be checked from time to time to ensure theThe HACCP or Assured Safe Catering plan needs to be checked from time to time to ensure the control of food safety.control of food safety.
  • 29. UnderstandingUnderstanding FOOD HYGIENEFOOD HYGIENE What is Food Hygiene?What is Food Hygiene? This is quite simple: Keeping the food we produce, display and sell clean and free fromThis is quite simple: Keeping the food we produce, display and sell clean and free from contamination.contamination. The second question we need to ask is why is food hygiene important? This is not difficult either:The second question we need to ask is why is food hygiene important? This is not difficult either: To ensure our customers do not come to any harm from the food we sell.To ensure our customers do not come to any harm from the food we sell.  To ensure a good reputation and increased businessTo ensure a good reputation and increased business  To provide good working conditions, higher staff marble and lower staff turnoverTo provide good working conditions, higher staff marble and lower staff turnover  To comply with the lawTo comply with the law  To contribute to higher profitsTo contribute to higher profits
  • 30. What does ill food hygiene do?What does ill food hygiene do? Food PoisoningFood Poisoning Food poisoning is the most common result of ill food hygiene. It is an illness caused by eating contaminated food .Food poisoning is the most common result of ill food hygiene. It is an illness caused by eating contaminated food . The main symptoms are:The main symptoms are:  DiarrhoeaDiarrhoea  SicknessSickness  Abdominal painAbdominal pain  FeverFever  NauseaNausea In exceptional cases the victim may collapse or die.In exceptional cases the victim may collapse or die. The group of people at greater risk from food poisoning are :The group of people at greater risk from food poisoning are :  The very youngThe very young  The very oldThe very old  Pregnant womanPregnant woman  People who are already illPeople who are already ill Food poisoning may be caused byFood poisoning may be caused by  Bacteria or their toxinsBacteria or their toxins  VirusesViruses  ChemicalsChemicals  MetalsMetals Most foods contain bacteria. We get food poisoning when too many pathogenic bacteria are present in our food whenMost foods contain bacteria. We get food poisoning when too many pathogenic bacteria are present in our food when it is eaten (normally large numbers , but in some cases only a few ) these bacteria can reach dangerous levels longit is eaten (normally large numbers , but in some cases only a few ) these bacteria can reach dangerous levels long before they change the food in any way you cannot see them smell them or taste thembefore they change the food in any way you cannot see them smell them or taste them
  • 31. The food which will be eaten without further processing causes the gretest risk.The food which will be eaten without further processing causes the gretest risk. It usually requires refrigerated storage and is sometimes called high risk foodIt usually requires refrigerated storage and is sometimes called high risk food These areThese are  all cooked meat and poultryall cooked meat and poultry  Cooked meat products and gravyCooked meat products and gravy  Cooked eggs and products made from raw eggs eg mayonnaiseCooked eggs and products made from raw eggs eg mayonnaise  Shellfish and sea foodsShellfish and sea foods  Cooked rice the most common food poisoning bacteria areCooked rice the most common food poisoning bacteria are SalmonellaSalmonella Mainly from PoultryMainly from Poultry Salmonella is one of the bacteria which causes illness themselves. They grow to large numbers inSalmonella is one of the bacteria which causes illness themselves. They grow to large numbers in the food which we then eatthe food which we then eat Staphylococcus --Staphylococcus -- Carried by two people in every fiveCarried by two people in every five Staphylococcus is the kind which produces toxins or poisons in the food. We con not taste, see orStaphylococcus is the kind which produces toxins or poisons in the food. We con not taste, see or smell these poisons and some cannot be destroying by normal cooking.smell these poisons and some cannot be destroying by normal cooking. Clostridium –Clostridium – Found on raw food such as vegetables and meatFound on raw food such as vegetables and meat Clostridium cause illness and protect themselves against adverse conditions like high temperatures orClostridium cause illness and protect themselves against adverse conditions like high temperatures or cleaning chemicals, but producing spores. They are difficult to destroy.cleaning chemicals, but producing spores. They are difficult to destroy. Campylobacter –Campylobacter – Found in infected animals and birds and unpasteurised milk .Found in infected animals and birds and unpasteurised milk . Campylobacter is transferred on the food. It does not need to grow in large number in the food toCampylobacter is transferred on the food. It does not need to grow in large number in the food to cause us illness. It can cause severe diarrhoea and stomach pain. It can be destroyed by normalcause us illness. It can cause severe diarrhoea and stomach pain. It can be destroyed by normal cooking.cooking.
  • 32. Food poisoning bacteria need the following conditions in order to grow:Food poisoning bacteria need the following conditions in order to grow: WARMTHWARMTH Temperature between 5°c and 63°c with optimum growth at 37°cTemperature between 5°c and 63°c with optimum growth at 37°c MOISTUREMOISTURE All living things need moisture to growAll living things need moisture to grow FOODFOOD Normally high in proteinNormally high in protein TIMETIME One bacteria divides into two every 10 -20 minutes given the right conditions.One bacteria divides into two every 10 -20 minutes given the right conditions. Micro organisms: The unseen enemyMicro organisms: The unseen enemy Micro organisms are tiny living things, not plants or animals. They are found everywhere, in the air,Micro organisms are tiny living things, not plants or animals. They are found everywhere, in the air, in soil and water in and on us and in the food we eat. They can only be seen with the aid ofin soil and water in and on us and in the food we eat. They can only be seen with the aid of microscope. Examples of micro organisms aremicroscope. Examples of micro organisms are BACTERIABACTERIA Most bacteria are harmless and some are beneficial such as those used for cheese and yoghurtMost bacteria are harmless and some are beneficial such as those used for cheese and yoghurt manufacture. The ones that, concern us most are and those that cause spoilage in food.manufacture. The ones that, concern us most are and those that cause spoilage in food. MOULDSMOULDS Most moulds are harmless and in the same way as bacteria, some are beneficial like penicillium.Most moulds are harmless and in the same way as bacteria, some are beneficial like penicillium. However, some can cause illness, but the main cause for concern is spoilage of food products.However, some can cause illness, but the main cause for concern is spoilage of food products.
  • 33. Food SpoilageFood Spoilage Food Spoilage can be caused by micro- organisms and unlike food poisoning, it has noticeable effects on the food.Food Spoilage can be caused by micro- organisms and unlike food poisoning, it has noticeable effects on the food. Spoilage causes the food to discolor, smell or become slimy. These effects are obvious and the food must not beSpoilage causes the food to discolor, smell or become slimy. These effects are obvious and the food must not be offered for consumption or sale.offered for consumption or sale. Care has to be taken with the handling, storage and shelf life of perishable foods to ensure that spoilage does not startCare has to be taken with the handling, storage and shelf life of perishable foods to ensure that spoilage does not start in your premises. In commercial terms this could lead to dissatisfied customers and reduced sales.in your premises. In commercial terms this could lead to dissatisfied customers and reduced sales. VIRUSESVIRUSES Viruses are smell particles much smaller than bacteria that cannot live on their own. Viruses do not live on food. TheyViruses are smell particles much smaller than bacteria that cannot live on their own. Viruses do not live on food. They invade living cells, even harmless bacteria, which may found in food.invade living cells, even harmless bacteria, which may found in food. HOW DOES FOOD BECOME CONTAMINATED?HOW DOES FOOD BECOME CONTAMINATED? There are two kinds of contamination.There are two kinds of contamination. 1.1. Microbiological this is when micro-organisms can get into food.Microbiological this is when micro-organisms can get into food. 2.2. Physical – this is when foreign substance, e.g. chemicals or foreign matter, get into the foodPhysical – this is when foreign substance, e.g. chemicals or foreign matter, get into the food WHERE DOES CONTAMINATION COME FROM?WHERE DOES CONTAMINATION COME FROM?  A personA person  Raw foodRaw food  Equipment and machineryEquipment and machinery  PremisesPremises  Refuses and waste foodRefuses and waste food  PestsPests  Dirt and dustDirt and dust Contamination can occur directly from the source of the food poisoning bacteria to the food poisoning bacteria to theContamination can occur directly from the source of the food poisoning bacteria to the food poisoning bacteria to the food or indirectly from raw food to cooked foods via a knife , cloth or work surface. This is called CROSSfood or indirectly from raw food to cooked foods via a knife , cloth or work surface. This is called CROSS CONTAMINATIONCONTAMINATION
  • 34. What can be done to prevent food poisoning and food spoilage ?What can be done to prevent food poisoning and food spoilage ? We do suffer the symptoms of food poisoning every time we eat high risk foods. For food poisoningWe do suffer the symptoms of food poisoning every time we eat high risk foods. For food poisoning to occur there has usually been a breakdown in food hygiene practice which has allowed the micro-to occur there has usually been a breakdown in food hygiene practice which has allowed the micro- organism to live and grow.organism to live and grow. Prevention of contaminationPrevention of contamination To prevent the risk of contamination always follow good hygiene practices.To prevent the risk of contamination always follow good hygiene practices. 1.1. Never use or offer for sale food which has passed its shelf life.Never use or offer for sale food which has passed its shelf life. 2.2. Never mix cooked and raw foods or use the same utensils on both productsNever mix cooked and raw foods or use the same utensils on both products 3.3. Avoid directly handling fresh foodsAvoid directly handling fresh foods 4.4. Never blow into bags to open themNever blow into bags to open them 5.5. Never use wrapping materials or food that has been on the floor.Never use wrapping materials or food that has been on the floor. 6.6. Never lick you fingers when handling food or wrapping materials.Never lick you fingers when handling food or wrapping materials. 7.7. Wash your hands frequently through out the dayWash your hands frequently through out the day 8.8. Always ensure you equipment and utensil are kept clean.Always ensure you equipment and utensil are kept clean. 9.9. keep damaged stock or goods to be returned separate from other goods.keep damaged stock or goods to be returned separate from other goods. 10.10. Maintain the highest standards of personal hygiene at all times.Maintain the highest standards of personal hygiene at all times.
  • 35. Personal HygienePersonal Hygiene Food handlers are the most frequent source of contamination of food. You have a moral and legalFood handlers are the most frequent source of contamination of food. You have a moral and legal responsibility to observe high standards of personal hygiene and you must do everything you can toresponsibility to observe high standards of personal hygiene and you must do everything you can to ensure your actions do not result in the contamination of the products you handle and sell.ensure your actions do not result in the contamination of the products you handle and sell. Hand and SkinHand and Skin Hands are in contact with food all the time and they are the main method of transferingHands are in contact with food all the time and they are the main method of transfering contamination.contamination. Wash your hands throughout the day using hot water, unscented clean towels. Washbasins withWash your hands throughout the day using hot water, unscented clean towels. Washbasins with these items must be provided in all food premises.these items must be provided in all food premises. Jewellery and PerfumeJewellery and Perfume  Take off watches, brooches, jewelled rings or earrings as they can harbour dirt and bacteria andTake off watches, brooches, jewelled rings or earrings as they can harbour dirt and bacteria and could drop into food.could drop into food.  Avoid strong Smelling perfumes as these can taintAvoid strong Smelling perfumes as these can taint food productsfood products Protective clothingProtective clothing  All food handlers should wear clean and washable clothing.All food handlers should wear clean and washable clothing.  Do not keep outdoor cloths in food rooms. Store protective clothing properly . Keep hats andDo not keep outdoor cloths in food rooms. Store protective clothing properly . Keep hats and coats away from food or packaging .coats away from food or packaging . Cuts and SpotsCuts and Spots These provide an ideal place for bacteria to multiply. They should be covered with a brightlyThese provide an ideal place for bacteria to multiply. They should be covered with a brightly coloured (normally blue) clean, water proof dressing. Remember, even a clean cut that has almostcoloured (normally blue) clean, water proof dressing. Remember, even a clean cut that has almost healed is a breeding ground for bacteria- so keep it covered.healed is a breeding ground for bacteria- so keep it covered.
  • 36. Principles of HACCP Assured safe CateringPrinciples of HACCP Assured safe Catering Firstly, hazards have to be identified from the star of the process through to the finish. EverythingFirstly, hazards have to be identified from the star of the process through to the finish. Everything must be looked at and followed through. The risks of those hazards have to be assessed and amust be looked at and followed through. The risks of those hazards have to be assessed and a decision made as to whether the hazard, if not controlled or limited, will get through todecision made as to whether the hazard, if not controlled or limited, will get through to customers. This becomes a critical point in the process and it needs to be controlled.customers. This becomes a critical point in the process and it needs to be controlled. The critical control point is monitored in various ways and the preventative measures at the pointThe critical control point is monitored in various ways and the preventative measures at the point must be kept within the target and tolerances set. Action must be taken when the preventativemust be kept within the target and tolerances set. Action must be taken when the preventative measure is not going to prevent the hazards happening.measure is not going to prevent the hazards happening. The HACCP or Assured Safe Catering plan needs to be checked from time to time to ensure thereThe HACCP or Assured Safe Catering plan needs to be checked from time to time to ensure there is control of food safety.is control of food safety.
  • 37. THANK YOUTHANK YOU