Traffic, Pollution and Health Part 1:Monitors


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City-wide vehicle emission monitoring plan for Ottawa and Alta Vista Drive pilot project

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  • Th number of licensed vehicles includes cars, trucks, buses etc and is accelerating faster than the growth of the population as more an dmore pople live in the suburbs and require more cars per household than previously The length of roads in Ottawa is actually greater than the City of Toronto with 4 times the popualtion and a smaller area than Ottawa The estimates of premature deaths due to air pollution have increased from 140- 150 (OMA 2000) to the range 250-300 (OMA 2005 and Toronto MOH 2005) partly because Particulate Matter was added as a cause – and plans are in palce to monitor this pollutant which tends to impact locally and accumulate as opposed to being mixed with the atmosphere as other gaseoius products are, with less health impacts
  • it is notewqorthy that the Enviroemtnal Ass4essment for the East West Light Raail project inclded an assessment ofi the prevailing enviroemnt including air quality. Despite the absence of any actual measurements of air quality in the project area, throught EPA traffic management models (mobility 6) and he use of traffic flow numbers (based mainly on the Origin Detsination Survey in 1995 updated by spot traffic counts), the result for the 56 checkpoints was 47 moderate and 7 poor. The enxt Origin Destination Study is exp[ected to provide updated info on traffic flows and be available in April 2006
  • Pyramid of health effects illustrates that as the severity of the adverse health effect decreases, a larger portion of the population is affected We likely need to rely on severe adverse outcomes (mortality and hospitalization) because administrative records are most reliable and available One approach is to examine non-traumatic morbidity/mortality in the community and use risk coefficients from the literature to estimate what proportion is attributable to air pollution Another approach is to examine local exposures to air pollution and do a quantitative risk assessment (gives predicted risk)
  • Many questions are possible, only a few illustrated here Are cost-effective analysis tools currently available or could they be created to be able to assess the health benefits of various policy options? If we could introduce this type of information at the local level, it could help influence policy in a positive way Currently, analysis of health benefits of policy options is not common at the local level
  • Traffic, Pollution and Health Part 1:Monitors

    1. 1. Traffic, Pollution and Health City-wide vehicle emission monitoring plan for Ottawa and Alta Vista Drive pilot project draft – J une 9 , 2006
    2. 2. Background <ul><li>are 540,000 licensed vehicles in Ottawa </li></ul><ul><li>population 850,000 minus under 16 and over 80 (or approx 25%) leaves just over 600,000 or one car for each person </li></ul><ul><li>Official Plan assumes a population growth of 50% in 20 years - the number of vehicles will also likely grow </li></ul><ul><li>are 7500 km of road with 100 km of new roads built each year. Annual road spending is $600 M. </li></ul><ul><li>no road user charges ( gas taxes go to fed/prov and not to roads directly)) </li></ul><ul><li>Only 1 in 5 commuters use transit and they pay about half the total cost of transit ($200 M)through fares ($100 M) </li></ul><ul><li>Each year air pollution causes 279 premature deaths and direct health costs of $100 M in Ottawa (OMA, 2005; Toronto MOH, 2005) </li></ul>
    3. 3. Background -2 <ul><li>An assessment of Illness Costs of Air Pollution (ICAP)for the Alta Vista Transportation Corridor (AVTC) as part of the AVTC EA, using the OMA model, showed health impacts of 1 premature death and health costs of $40 K each year (subcontract in 2004 by project consultants, Delcan, to DSS Environmental Consultants) </li></ul><ul><li>on July 6, 2005 Transportation Committee approved the following motion: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;That Public Health measures, including Air Quality, be given appropriate consideration when evaluating alternatives during Environmental Assessments, even allowing for the possibility of eliminating an alternative on that criteria alone, should the public health risks be deemed sufficiently high.“ </li></ul><ul><li>This motion was first applied to the East West Light Rail Transit EA which included the following criteria for option evaluation: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Local and regional air quality (previously &quot;regional air quality&quot;) with the indicator being &quot;comparative assessment of air quality levels for key CAC (CO, NOx, HC and PM) - comparative assessment b) Human health with the indicator being &quot;health effects (OMA)&quot; comparative assessment&quot; </li></ul>
    4. 4. UK Air Pollution PM and to right Hours with O3 above 80 μg/m 3
    5. 5. UK Air Pollution Networks
    6. 6. London Air Quality Network
    7. 7. Local Air Quality Management Areas (UK) <ul><li>Since 1997 local authorities in the UK have been carrying out a review and assessment of air quality in their area. The aim of the review is to assist authorities in carrying out their statutory duty to work towards meeting the national air quality objectives. If a local authority finds any places where the objectives are not likely to be achieved, it must declare an Air Quality Management Area there </li></ul><ul><li>This Local Authority has declared an Air Quality Management Area </li></ul><ul><li>This Local Authority currently has no Air Quality Management Areas </li></ul>
    8. 8. City of York, UK - Real time PM, NO2 monitoring <ul><li>Air quality monitored at 9 sites, using accurate real time monitoring equipment giving pollutant concentrations per minute </li></ul><ul><li>City of York in northern England, population 181,094 (2001), area 272 km2 – about ¼ of Ottawa’s pop and 1/10 the area </li></ul><ul><li>33 Learian Streetbox monitors to be integrated with existing reference equipment and traffic monitors. </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen dioxide is also monitored at an additional 325 sites using the simpler diffusion tube monitoring method. </li></ul>
    9. 9. First Stage Review and Assessment of Air Quality <ul><li>highlighted potential for the air quality objectives for nitrogen dioxide to be exceeded due to the influence of both traffic and stationary source emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>further stages of review should include: </li></ul><ul><li>influence of power stations and other major sources of nitrogen dioxide on air quality </li></ul><ul><li>data obtained from past and current diffusion tube surveys . </li></ul><ul><li>Use modelling to predict pollution levels from most heavily trafficked streets and relate current levels of pollution to vehicle flow. </li></ul><ul><li>real time monitoring equipment in the following locations: </li></ul><ul><li>roadside junction of the inner ring road with a major radial route into the city </li></ul><ul><li>roadside area where housing is affected by influence of both the outer ring road, industry and out of town shopping </li></ul><ul><li>major shopping/tourist area with hourly exposure times of large number of people </li></ul><ul><li>background location close to the city centre </li></ul><ul><li>rural background location </li></ul><ul><li>computer model to predict future pollution levels and identify most effective traffic/ planning measures to reduce pollution. This model should be calibrated using actual real time monitoring data collected in the city. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Technical Breach Areas - City of York <ul><li>In York the five areas of concern are located on or near to the inner ring road, characterized by their enclosed nature and long periods of congested traffic </li></ul><ul><li>In each case there are residential properties located within 5m of the kerbside which constitute ‘relevant’ locations for the purpose of Local Air Quality Management. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant locations can be defined as outdoor, non-occupational locations (e.g. schools, care homes, hospitals and residential properties) where members of the public are likely to be regularly exposed to pollutants over the averaging time of the air quality objectives. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Local Air Quality Management Objectives - Technical Guidance LAQM.TG(09) - February 2009
    12. 12. Sources and Health Effects of Regulated Pollutants (UK)
    13. 13. Exceedences and percentiles (UK)
    14. 14. Emission Sources and Pollutants (UK)
    15. 15. Roadside Monitoring Locations (UK)
    16. 16. Exposure to Roadside NO2 Emissions (UK)
    17. 17. PM Emissions from Stoves (UK)
    18. 18. Equipment for Monitoring (UK)
    19. 19. Siting Criteria for Monitors (UK)
    21. 21. Texas Air Quality Network
    22. 22. AIRNow map showing PM2.5 concentrations
    23. 23. NOAA's National Weather Service Air Quality Forecast Guidance as 1-hr and 8-hr ozone concentration (in parts per billion or ppb) averages for Northeast US
    24. 24. NOAA's National Weather Service Air Quality Forecast Guidance for Northeast US (zoomed)
    25. 25. Montreal Air Quality Network
    26. 26. CALCULATION OF MOBILE EMISSIONS ON A FINE GRID Coordinator: Michael Florian ( Centre for Research on Transportation , Environment Canada , Ministère des Transports du Québec ) October, 2005 Summary: a procedure that takes climate data entered by the user and calculates hourly polluting emissions on a fine (1 km) grid for the Metropolitan Montréal area - using Mobile6.2 EPA emissions model and EMME/2 traffic management model
    27. 27. Lower Fraser Valley Air Quality Monitoring Network
    28. 28. Ontario MOE Air Quality Network
    29. 29. Distribution of NO 2 in Toronto Ref : CMAJ • SEPT. 2, 2003; 169 (5) Relation between income, air pollution and mortality: a cohort study ( Finkelstein er al) http://www. cmaj .ca/ cgi /reprint/169/5/397.pdf
    30. 30. NO2 Distribution- Toronto Ref: &quot;A Cohort Study of Traffic-related Air Pollution and Mortality in Toronto, Canada“ Jerrett et al(2009)
    31. 31. NO2 spatial distribution- Vancouver Ref: Spatial variations in estimated chronic exposure to traffic-related air pollution in working populations: A simulation by Eleanor M Setton1 , C Peter Keller1 , Denise Cloutier-Fisher1 and Perry W Hystad2 (International Journal of Health Geographics 2008, 7:39)
    32. 32. New York City Community Air Survey Ref: <ul><li>collects air samples at 150 locations throughout the five boroughs at street level, where people walk along sidewalks, and where traffic-related pollution is usually higher </li></ul><ul><li>NYCCAS locations represent a wide variety of environments found in New York City —sidewalks, busy streets, parks, and quiet neighborhood roads </li></ul><ul><li>NYCCAS will monitor pollutants that cause health problems and come from motor vehicles and other sources like boilers or furnaces in buildings </li></ul>
    33. 33. All Choked Up - HEAVY TRAFFIC, DIRTY AIR AND THE RISK TO NEW YORKERS ( MARCH 2007) Ref: <ul><li>This Manhattan map overlays the population 18 years of age and younger on the 500-foot zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Deeper red colors show higher percentage of youth residential populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Two million people in New York City live within 500 feet of major roadways </li></ul><ul><li>In Manhattan, over 75% of the total population lives within 500 feet of a congested road. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Model 3300 Ogawa Passive Sampler <ul><li>low cost, no power req’ments </li></ul><ul><li>can determine pollutant levels with “saturation” sampling at many sites. </li></ul><ul><li>outdoors: a smaller shelter for all gases except ozone (O3), and a larger shelter for O3 sampling that is suitable for other gases as well </li></ul><ul><li>can assess average exposure of individuals to selected pollutants over 8- or 24-hour period. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Assessing Spatial Variability of Ambient Nitrogen Dioxide in Montreal, Canada, with a Land-Use Regression Model Nicolas L. Gilbert Health Canada, Mark S. Goldberg McGill Univ , Bernardo Beckerman Univ of Southern Calif, Jeffrey R. Brook Meteorological Service of Canada, Michael Jerrett Univ of Southern Calif J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. 55 :1059–1063 (2005) <ul><li>In May 2003, NO2 was measured for 14 consecutive days at 67 sites across the city using Ogawa passive diffusion samplers. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrations ranged from 4.9 to 21.2 ppb (median 11.8 ppb) </li></ul><ul><li>I n multiple regression analyses, </li></ul><ul><li>* distance from the nearest highway, </li></ul><ul><li>* traffic count on the nearest highway </li></ul><ul><li>* length of highways and </li></ul><ul><li>* major roads within 100 m, and </li></ul><ul><li>* population density showed significant associations with NO2 (multiple correlation >70%) </li></ul><ul><li>These analyses confirm the value </li></ul><ul><li>of land-use regression modeling to </li></ul><ul><li>assign exposures in large-scale </li></ul><ul><li>epidemiologic studies. </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Accurate assessments of exposure to </li></ul><ul><li>traffic-related air pollution are critical </li></ul><ul><li>for both epidemiologic studies and for </li></ul><ul><li>the assessment of health impacts of </li></ul><ul><li>current traffic patterns and future </li></ul><ul><li>development of road networks. For this </li></ul><ul><li>purpose, land-use regression modeling </li></ul><ul><li>appears to be a promising approach, </li></ul>
    36. 36. Ultrafine particles near and on roads Jeff Brook, Meteorological Service of Canada, EC Windsor Busy Roads Number per cubic centimeter 401 Windsor to Toronto
    37. 37. Washington DC ozone and PM readings http://www2.nature. nps . gov /air/ webcams /parks/ nacccam / washcam . cfm
    38. 38. Plans and measures developed in Stuttgart to promote air quality: The Challenge of the new Environment Zone (roadside monitor) php ?option=com_ docman &task=doc_download& gid =223& Itemid =131
    39. 39. Plans and measures developed in Stuttgart to promote air quality: The Challenge of the new Environment Zone (exceedances) php ?option=com_ docman &task=doc_download& gid =223& Itemid =131
    40. 40. Plans and measures developed in Stuttgart to promote air quality: The Challenge of the new Environment Zone (sources PM10) php ?option=com_ docman &task=doc_download& gid =223& Itemid =131
    41. 41. Santa Barbara County Air Quality Monitoring Network <ul><li>Santa Maria Last updated: Dec 19, 2005 09:08 AM </li></ul><ul><li>Current 1-hour Ozone: 7 ppb at 08 AM </li></ul><ul><li>Today's Max 1-hour Ozone: 28 ppb at 04 AM </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday's Max 1-hour Ozone: 46 ppb at </li></ul><ul><li>Yesterday's Max 8-hour Ozone: 40 ppb at 12 AM </li></ul><ul><li>Hourly Ozone Results for this Station (last 7 days) </li></ul><ul><li>Date/Time Ozone(ppb) (mph) Wind </li></ul><ul><li>12/19/05 08 AM 7 3 </li></ul><ul><li>12/19/05 07 AM 5 4 </li></ul><ul><li>12/19/05 06 AM 6 4 </li></ul><ul><li>12/19/05 05 AM 7 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Exceeds state one-hour standard of 95 ppb </li></ul><ul><li>Exceeds federal one-hour standard of 125 ppb </li></ul><ul><li>Exceeds federal eight-hour standard of 85 ppb </li></ul><ul><li>The APCD has a network of 17 monitoring stations to find out what's in the air we breathe. Twelve of these stations measure for ozone, and are shown in our monitoring station network map. </li></ul>
    42. 42. AIR QUALITY MONITORING STATIONS (Singapore) <ul><li>fully automated telemetric air quality monitoring and management system (TAQMMS) in Jan 1994. The network has 16 air quality monitoring stations on the mainland. The stations are linked via public telephone lines to a Central Control Station (CCS) </li></ul><ul><li>At the air monitoring stations, automatic analysers continuously monitor the classical air pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, carbon monoxide, particulate matter (PM10) and hydrocarbon . </li></ul><ul><li>The data collected at the air monitoring stations in the network are transmitted via the public telephone network to the CCS at regular intervals. </li></ul>
    43. 43. Clean Air Santiago experience Gianni Lópe (2002), National Environment Commission of Chile <ul><li>Santiago experience </li></ul><ul><li>We started in 1989 with air quality monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>• Since 1990 we provided information to the media </li></ul><ul><li>• At the same time, we started to declare high pollution episodes when the PM10 daily average reached 240 ugrs/m3 </li></ul><ul><li>• After that, it was not necessary to request political support. </li></ul>
    44. 44. Air Quality Management in Hong Kong <ul><li>Health Impact- HK </li></ul><ul><li>(pop 6.8 M, 1100 km2) </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle density 271 v/km roadway </li></ul><ul><li>Each year, air pollution is estimated to cause about </li></ul><ul><li>2,000 premature deaths/yr </li></ul><ul><li>7,500 additional hospital admissions </li></ul><ul><li>Compared to Ottawa -Gatineau </li></ul><ul><li>(pop 1 M, 2700 km2) </li></ul><ul><li>vehicle density 100 v/km roadway </li></ul><ul><li>250-300 premature deaths/yr </li></ul>
    45. 45. Air Quality Management in Hong Kong(2)
    46. 46. Roadside Air Quality Monitoring Compared With Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Kong Ha and Albert Leung, Environment Protection Department, Hong Kong, SAR, China <ul><li>Fixed monitoring stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>11 general air quality stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 roadside stations (**see photo) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Air Quality Annual Report can be downloaded at: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    47. 47. Framework of Activities needed for sound Air Quality Management, showing the central role of monitoring <ul><li>Air Quality Monitoring and Management in Asia: An Integrated Approach ( Jon Bower, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>• Reliable information on ambient air quality </li></ul><ul><li>• A complete and accurate emission inventory </li></ul><ul><li>• Adequate meteorological and topographic data </li></ul><ul><li>• An appropriate, validated dispersion modelling capability </li></ul><ul><li>An economic model developed for the local situation </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to quantify the costs of air pollution impacts on population health, ecosystems and the built environment, together with the costs of alternative remedial/control strategies </li></ul>
    48. 48. East West Light Rail Env Assessment Project Area
    49. 49. GRIMM Model 1.107 Mini Environmental PM Monitoring Station <ul><li>The Grimm 1.107 monitor performs particulate size measurements by 90-degree laser light scattering . Air with multiple particle sizes passes through a flat laser beam produced by an ultra low maintenance laser diode. A 15-channel pulse height analyzer for size classification detects the scattering signals. Due to the lack of a sample heater inlet even aerosols and semi volatile liquid particles can be identified. These counts from each precisely sized pulse channel are converted to mass using a well-established equation and the data is then formatted for USA EPA categories of PM10 and PM2.5. The user can also program several averaging functions. </li></ul><ul><li>The Environmental Weather Housing, Model 165, consists of a fiberglass frame that supports the optical instrument (# 107) on a central mounting plate. All the electronic and mechanical components, such as the moisture absorbent container, the ventilation system, the heating and control system, the temperature and humidity sensor, and the DC power supply, are mounted on the same frame to minimize vibration. </li></ul>
    50. 50. GRIMM Model 1.107 &quot;ENVIRO-check“ - Mini Environmental Dust Monitor <ul><li>Dimensions: 40 x 40 x 20 cm (15.5&quot; x 15.5&quot; x 8 &quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>Housing Stainless Steel or Fiberglass </li></ul><ul><li>Weight 15.9 kg (33 lbs.) complete with dust monitor. May be used as stand-alone unit in the field </li></ul><ul><li>Operating Temperature –20C to +40C ambient </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic internal heater system Preset for +22C </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic air exchange ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>system Progressive start above 22C </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic moisture compensation </li></ul><ul><li>system Preset above 85% rH, complete with air drying tank for three months use </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Sensor F -20C to + 40C (-20 to 100F) </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity Sensor Ranges from 0 to 100% </li></ul><ul><li>RS-232 Compatible 9-pin connection cable bi-directional for remote operation from PC, even on a remote base. </li></ul><ul><li>Software package - Numeric statistic graphic and analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling head 170M permits proper ambient sampling and fits directly into the 165 housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Optional: GRIMM’s Poly-Aromatic-Hydrocarbon (PAH) Sensor which can be fitted into the 165 housing. </li></ul>
    51. 51. GRIMM 1.107 Features <ul><li>E P A - Under EPA for PM10 evaluation, also PM2.5 candidate, even capable of sub micron (PM-1 ready) dust mass </li></ul><ul><li>Real Time measured data are storable on data logger from one minute to one day averages </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Controlled Housing - set for 22C </li></ul><ul><li>Moisture Compensation System - programmable by user </li></ul><ul><li>External Temperature and Humidity Sensors - are standard items </li></ul><ul><li>Auto Zero instrument software performs an optical system electronic and pump check upon startup </li></ul><ul><li>Data Logging System - removable memory card for storing data from one day to one year, makes this an easy way to transport data to PC </li></ul><ul><li>Corrosion Resistant Housing - made of polished stainless steel and also available as fiberglass. </li></ul><ul><li>Tamper Resistant Lock - mounted on a sturdy support base </li></ul><ul><li>Portable - 40x40x20cm (15.5&quot; x 15.5&quot; x 8&quot;), weight 15.9 kg (33 lbs.) </li></ul><ul><li>Dual Technologies - both light scattering and regulatory-compliant gravimetric methods are standard features </li></ul><ul><li>Optional - can present the particle counts in 15 different size channels in real time </li></ul><ul><li>Software - GRIMM's WINDOWS 95™ compatible data presentation and analysis program allows many viewing and organizing modes </li></ul><ul><li>Low Maintenance - usually only three months for filter exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Power Supply - 18V DC by battery , but also at 110/60 or 220/50 </li></ul><ul><li>In accordance to the final rule of the United Stated federal regulation for 40 CFR, section 53, this automated system is being evaluated as an EQUIVALENT method for PM10 </li></ul>
    52. 52. GRIMM 1.107 Specs <ul><li>Data Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>USA EPA </li></ul><ul><li>Size Range </li></ul><ul><li>Size Channel error </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration range </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Sample Flow </li></ul><ul><li>Range Power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous PM10 and PM2.5 convention - even ready for PM-1 </li></ul><ul><li>0.3 to 25 microns Dae </li></ul><ul><li>+/- 2% µg/m3 </li></ul><ul><li>1 to 6,500 µg/m3 </li></ul><ul><li>+/- 1 µg for one minute averaging </li></ul><ul><li>1.2 liters/min, flow controlled </li></ul><ul><li>12V DC Battery or 110/220 VAC with external power supply </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard Display </li></ul><ul><li>Meaurement Period </li></ul><ul><li>Data Logging System </li></ul><ul><li>Dust collection filter 10 key foil membrane </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 16 character LCD </li></ul><ul><li>1 minute to constant </li></ul><ul><li>Memo card from 16KB - 1MB (1 day to 1 year) </li></ul><ul><li>47mm Ø PTFE, EPA filter for PM-2.5, removable for gravimetric and/or chemical analysis </li></ul>
    53. 53. LEARIAN- Streetbox <ul><li>The Streetbox is a unique battery powered pollution monitor which is capable of gathering real time information on a wide range of gaseous species simultaneously. It can be deployed in less than 5 minutes and is fully automatic in use. Offering a battery life of over 1 year and a logging memory in excess of 170 days the Streetbox is the UK’s biggest selling roadside pollution monitor. </li></ul><ul><li>The Streetbox combined range offers a product range exclusively designed for local air quality authorities. By using approved technologies for both gaseous and particle monitoring the combined range allows the user to gather both gaeous and particle real time information from the same instrument. The combined unit is housed in a fully weatherproof unit measuring less than 250mm by 250mm and weighing only 5kg. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Wood Burning Stoves and High PM Levels in Montreal Ref: Globe and Mail Feb. 5, 2009 47 per cent of the fine particulate matter in Quebec's air comes from fireplaces and wood stoves Environment Canada has issued 25 smog alerts for Montreal since the start of winter, 18 last month alone. The Lung Association says atmospheric pollution is responsible for 1,540 premature deaths in the Montreal region annually Montreal would prohibit the installation of wood stoves in new or existing homes. Stoves that burn wood pellets would still be allowed. The city's executive committee approved the wood-burning bylaw yesterday and will present it to city council on Feb. 23.
    55. 55. Roadside PM Monitor - to measure Particulate Matter 2.5 <ul><li>Data obtained in July 2003 during LA Basin inversion conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Rubidoux is a residential community on the west side of the Basin (by Riverside) </li></ul><ul><li>PM2.5 composition included ammonium sulfate and secondary semi-volatile organic material </li></ul>
    56. 56. LEARIAN Streetbox <ul><li>Traffic Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>The Streetbox has a proven track record in the provision of roadside pollution data. </li></ul><ul><li>By using co-located sensors it is possible for a single logger to record up to three species of gaseous pollution in realtime. </li></ul><ul><li>Additionally, with the use of optional meteorological sensors, a full environmental </li></ul><ul><li>footprint can be established easily without the need for expensive and permanently installed equipment. Current sensor options include CO, NO2 and SO2, however other species will be launched shortly. </li></ul>
    57. 57. LEARIAN Specs <ul><li>Streetbox summary </li></ul><ul><li>8 analogue i/ps, 8 digital i/ps, 4 digital o/ps, Counter o/ps </li></ul><ul><li>Self-powered, integral communications, multi-user software included </li></ul><ul><li>Battery Life: greater than 400 days </li></ul><ul><li>Memory: 500kb standard upgradable to 8Mb </li></ul><ul><li>Logging Capacity: 170 days at 15 minute averages </li></ul><ul><li>Communications options: RS232 (included) - Licence exempt radio - Telephone modem </li></ul><ul><li>GSM Data downloading: Full error checking self appending files </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors: Up to three air quality sensors plus temperature and battery status </li></ul><ul><li>Options currently include CO, NO2, SO2 contact Learian directly for otheroptions </li></ul><ul><li>Fixing: Single multi-bracket(supplied) Fixing Time: Less than 5 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions </li></ul><ul><li>Streetbox: Width: 168mm Length: 280mm Depth: 123mm Weight: 1.8Kg </li></ul><ul><li>Sealing: IP65 </li></ul><ul><li>Power consumption: 100µA Quiescent 20mA Recording 35mA Transmitting 1.6mA Average </li></ul><ul><li>Base station: Width: 80mm Length: 125mm Depth: 60mm Weight:400g </li></ul><ul><li>Sealing: IP64 </li></ul><ul><li>Power consumption: 30mA approx. 40hrs on PP3 </li></ul>
    58. 58. LEARIAN Streetbox Gold <ul><li>Streetbox Gold Range </li></ul><ul><li>• Improved Data Management </li></ul><ul><li>• Combined NO2 & PM10 Real time operation </li></ul><ul><li>• Extended Calibration Period </li></ul><ul><li>• Fully Weatherproof </li></ul><ul><li>• Over 170 days of logging time before download </li></ul><ul><li>• Wide range of communication options </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and monitoring any declared air quality </li></ul><ul><li>Management areas is difficult enough without having to worry about which monitors to use. The new Streetbox Gold combines USEPA approved technology and NETCEN ratified product to offer a single piece of equipment which is capable of monitoring both NO2 and dust particles simultaneously in real time. Weighing less than 4Kg, the Gold monitor can be easily fixed to any suitable piece of street furniture within minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Combined NO2 and PM10 </li></ul><ul><li>Roadside Pollution Monitor </li></ul>
    59. 59. LEARIAN Streetbox Gold Features <ul><li>The Streetbox Gold combined monitor has been exclusively designed for the local air quality monitoring sector. </li></ul><ul><li>It offers extended calibration periods, reduced maintenance and on board self checking as standard. </li></ul><ul><li>It allows the user of air quality data the option of variable logging periods and averaging times from 10 seconds to 1 year . </li></ul><ul><li>It can record data in a range of formats and provides a full data audit trail with the option of secondary validation when used with new or existing reference equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>The Gold range of monitors allow data to be gathered in a easy and cost effect manner either directly or via a wide range of communication options. </li></ul><ul><li>Learian support the gold range with a selection of addon options such as wind speed and direction sensors, additional gas sensors, protective cages and full installation and data gathering services. </li></ul>
    60. 60. LEARIAN Streetbox Gold Specs <ul><li>Overall Unit Size: 267 x 235 x 145mm Weight: 4Kg </li></ul><ul><li>Power consumption: 450 mA </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature Range: -10 to 50 C </li></ul><ul><li>Calibration Period: 6 months –gas sensors </li></ul><ul><li>12 months Particle sensor </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Options: Licence exempt radio </li></ul><ul><li>RS232, RS485,Telephone modem </li></ul><ul><li>GSM modem Traffic controller interface and </li></ul><ul><li>Ethernet port. </li></ul><ul><li>NO2 sensor </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor type:Electro-Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Nominal Range: 0 – 10 ppm </li></ul><ul><li>Expected Life: < 2 years </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution: 20 ppb </li></ul><ul><li>T90 response time: > 40 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Repeatability: 1% of signal </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline Options: CO, SO2 & O3 </li></ul><ul><li>Particles </li></ul><ul><li>Sensor Type: Forward Light Scatter </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitivity: 0 .001mg/m3 </li></ul><ul><li>Precision: 0 .003 ug/m3 or 2% reading </li></ul><ul><li>Long term Stability: 5% reading </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-Zero: 15min to 24 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Options: </li></ul><ul><li>PM10 or PM2.5 Cut filters for better size specific performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Planning,Air Quality Management, Impact Studies, Fence line monitoring </li></ul>
    61. 61. How to Deal with Different Health Outcomes? Monica Campbell, Environmental Protection Office, Toronto Public Health Pyramid of Health Effects Toronto Annual Estimates for Inhalable Particulates (PM 10 ) Premature mortality (acute) 177 Cardiovascular hospitalization 421 Respiratory hospitalizations 597 Adult chronic bronchitis 1,186 Emergency room visits 5,981 Bronchitis in children 11,997 Asthma symptom days 71,930
    62. 62. Some Policy Questions of Local Significance Monica Campbell, Environmental Protection Office, Toronto Public Health <ul><li>How does health burden shift if: </li></ul><ul><li>Network of surface designated transit lanes introduced? </li></ul><ul><li>Road congestion pricing is introduced? </li></ul><ul><li>Bicycle network is created that reduces space for cars? </li></ul><ul><li>Older vehicles are required to be retrofit or retired? </li></ul><ul><li>Zoning is changed to reduce urban sprawl? </li></ul><ul><li>Existing point sources are required to meet health-based air quality standards? </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive energy conservation plan is implemented? </li></ul><ul><li>Coal-fired power plants are replaced with natural gas? </li></ul>
    63. 63. City Monitoring Proposal ( 1 of 2) <ul><li>1. Obtain 10 monitoring units from Learian Streetbox at $7 K each or Grimm Model 1.107 at $20 K each (cost < $200 K) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Install 5 along the 417 east-west between St Laurent and Bayshore at 5 km intervals. Install 2 each on major arterial roads: St Laurent, Hunt Club, Woodroffe, Wellington, Bank, Bronson as well as major collector roads crossing residential areas, such as Alta Vista Drive, Heron Road, Carling Ave etc </li></ul><ul><li>3. Obtain hourly data for at least one year from each unit, stored in memory at remote units, transferred via phone line to central PC at monthly intervals </li></ul>
    64. 64. City Monitoring Proposal 2 of 2 <ul><li>4. Identify periods when PM 2.5 readings exceed 50 micro gm/m3 and compare relationship between all monitor readings and with MOE AQI station at Wurtemburg/Rideau </li></ul><ul><li>5. From results of 2005 Origin Destination Survey, determine relationship between traffic volume and average daily PM reading at monitor sites. Identify additional sites where new readings are needed and surplus old sites where measurements can be adequately estimated from nearby readings. If no surplus sites are identified, obtain new monitoring equipment for new requirements </li></ul>
    65. 65. Project Plan - Alta Vista Drive Monitoring Pilot <ul><li>Obtain funding for two monitoring units ($ 7K each) </li></ul><ul><li>the COMMUNITY ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS GRANTS program (which has about $50 K a year available for community sponsored projects that have an environmental thrust). </li></ul><ul><li>- requires detailed proposal and budget for one year project, noting benefits to local community environment </li></ul><ul><li>- requires AVDRA to form a project team to oversee project. Contact Mr. Onno Ganderesse, CEPG lead </li></ul><ul><li>b) Request to Medical Officer of Health , outlining public health hazard from traffic emissions on AVD, city wide monitoring proposal and opportunity to have a pilot project in Alta Vista. Make presentation to Health and Social Services Advisory Committee to obtain support. Contact Dr. D. Salisbury, MOH and Vice Chair, HHSAC, Mr Philip Brown. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Identify optimum sites (Heron and AVD?, AVD and Kilborn? Smyth and AVD?) based on likelihood of high pollution episodes during day and year and on known traffic flow patterns (research past transportation projects and traffic surveys) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Purchase and install unit, begin data collection in consultation with City Staff. Contact Ms. Natty Urquizo Environmental Management Branch </li></ul>
    66. 66. Alta Vista Pilot project- Options <ul><li>Option A (now)- AVRDA expression of support for city wide monitoring network and calling for action (which hopefully would include AVD) - add to existing planned request for Traffic Management Study and send separate request to Medical Officer of Health - can be prepared in a week, sent for action to the Mayor and Hume - would mean 2-3 hours of review and drafting by 3-4 people on AVDRA who are familiar with city processes </li></ul><ul><li>Option B (due July 06)- formal application for Community Environmental Projects Grant to get two automatic roadside monitor to measure pollution along AVD for a year - funding decisions made annually (fall) out of  $50 K grant budget by grant review committee </li></ul><ul><li>- carefully prepare application, project plan and budget: 2 people, 2-3 hrs/week for 1-2 months </li></ul><ul><li>- might take 6 months to get approval (from July- Oct 06) and then another year to watch over the project </li></ul><ul><li>Option C (ASAP but lasting a year) - informal traffic counts from which one could estimate pollution - give us a good idea of traffic, without any money costs and within a short time - ask for 4 or 5 volunteer &quot;traffic counters&quot; to count traffic over a one hour period during A.M. and P.M. rush hours at preselected points along AVD. </li></ul><ul><li>- take a count for one minute, repeat 15 minutes later, get hourly flow by multiplying by 60  </li></ul><ul><li>- could start with a count one day per week for a month then wait 3 months and do it again - this would give us all a feel for where and when the traffic is heaviest and prepare for what else follows (including vest site to have emissions monitor) </li></ul><ul><li>Option D – do all three, starting with Option A, then C then B in terms of order </li></ul>
    67. 67. Next Steps - summary <ul><li>Spring 2006 - Draft Project Plan and obtain funding </li></ul><ul><li>Summer 2006 - Obtain 10 monitoring stations </li></ul><ul><li>Xmas 2006 - Identify sites and install equipment, begin measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Fall 2007 Analysis of PM data for readings above 50 micro gm/m3 (Dec 06 to Sep 07) </li></ul><ul><li>Xmas 2007 Final report and recommendations (incorporate 1 full year of data) including plan for city-wide traffic management/reduction to eliminate high pollution periods </li></ul>
    68. 68. The End Any Questions?