2003 Lecture Ip Intro

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Intellectual Property Rights and information technology it

Intellectual Property Rights and information technology it

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  • 1. Introduction to Intellectual Property Sources include: “ Introduction to Intellectual Property Rights,” U.S .Dept of State www.usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/inteprp and “ Copyright Basics,” U.S. Copyright Office www.copyright.gov/circs/circ1.html
  • 2. Intellectual Property
    • Four Kinds of Intellectual Property
      • Patents
      • Copyrights
      • Trademarks
      • Trade Secrets
    • Like Real Property:
      • It can be bought, sold, licensed, exchanged, given away
      • The owner can prevent unauthorized use
  • 3. The Constitution and Intellectual Property
    • Article I, Section 8: “The Congress shall have power to … promote the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries."
    • The Patent Bill of 1790 enabled the government to patent "any useful art, manufacture, engine, machine, or device, or any instrument thereon not before known or used."
      • Not discoveries of nature
    • The Copyright Act of 1790
      • covered books, maps and charts
      • 14-year term of protection, renewable once if the author is still alive
      • Notice and deposit requirements
  • 4. Patents: Society’s Contract with Inventors
    • Inventor is given
      • the exclusive right to prevent others from
        • making, using, and selling a patented invention
        • for a fixed period of time (International standard: 20 yrs)
      • in return for the inventor's disclosing the details of the invention to the public.
    • Patent systems encourage the disclosure of information to the public by rewarding an inventor for his or her endeavors.
    • (Note: patent doesn’t necessarily give the inventor the right to make invention itself. Why not?)
  • 5. Benefits of Patent System
    • Rewards time, money & effort associated with research
    • Stimulates further research as competitors invent alternatives
    • Encourages innovation and research by permitting companies to recover R&D costs during period of exclusive rights
    • Limited term encourages quick commercialization
    • Patents allow early exchange of information between research groups
      • Avoiding duplicate efforts
      • Increasing general pool of public information
  • 6. Patentable Inventions Must Be:
    • Novel
      • Is not part of what is known to the public
    • Useful
    • Nonobvious
      • What a person skilled in the relevant field would consider to be nonobvious
      • “ more ingenuity … than the work of a mechanic skilled in the art”
  • 7. Copyright: An exclusive right to:
    • To reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords;
    • To prepare derivative works based upon the work;
    • To distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending;
    • To perform the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works;
    • To display the copyrighted work publicly , in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work; and
    • In the case of sound recordings, to perform the work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission.
  • 8. Copyright
    • Does not extend to any idea, procedure, process, system … regardless of the form in which it is described, explained, or embodied.
    • Copyright protection is limited to an author’s particular expression of an idea, process, concept, and the like in a tangible medium.
  • 9. Copyright then and recently:
    • 1790:
      • Books, maps, charts
      • 14 year plus one 14 year renewal
      • Copyright must be registered and document deposited
    • 2000:
      • “ An original work of authorship fixed in a tangible medium of expression”
        • Literary works, including computer programs
        • Musical works and lyrics
        • Dramatic words
        • Pantomimes and choreographic works
        • Pictoral, graphic, and sculptural works
        • Motion pictures and audiovisual works
        • Sound recordings
        • Architectural works
      • Life of author plus 50 years
      • Copyright exists from the moment “it is fixed in a copy … for the first time”
  • 10. Sec. 107. - Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use
    • … the fair use of a copyrighted work … for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a work … is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include -
    • (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
    • (2) the nature of the copyrighted work;
    • (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
    • (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.
    • The fact that a work is unpublished shall not itself bar a finding of fair use if such finding is made upon consideration of all the above factors
  • 11. Fair Use: 1)What is the character of the use?
    • Weighs toward:
      • Nonprofit
      • Educational
      • Personal
    • “ Core”, helpful if the above true:
      • Criticism
      • Commentary
      • Newsreporting
      • Parody
      • Otherwise "transformative" use
    • Weighs against:
      • Commercial
      • This and following from
      • “ Fair Use of Copyrighted Materials”, Georgia Harper
    • http://www.utsystem.edu/ogc/intellectualproperty/copypol2.htm#test
  • 12. Fair use: 2)What is the nature of the work?
    • Weighs toward:
      • Fact
      • Published
    • Somewhat supportive:
      • A mixture of fact and imaginative
    • Weighs against:
      • Imaginative
      • Unpublished
  • 13. Fair Use: 3) How much of the work will you use?
    • Weighs toward:
      • Small amount
    • Weighs against:
      • More than a small amount
  • 14. Fair Use: 4) If widespread, commercial use?
    • Weighs toward:
      • After evaluation of the first three factors, the proposed use is tipping towards fair use
    • Somewhat supportive:
      • Original is out of print or otherwise unavailable
      • No ready market for permission
      • Copyright owner is unidentifiable
    • Weighs against:
      • Competes with (takes away sales from) the original
      • Avoids payment for permission (royalties) in an established permissions market
  • 15. Fair Use: 4) <comments>
    • This factor is a chameleon. Under some circumstances, it weighs more than all the others put together. Under other circumstances, it weighs nothing! It depends on what happened with the first three factors.
    • Here's why:
    • This factor asks, &quot;If the use were widespread, would the copyright owner be losing money?&quot; Well, actually, it asks, &quot;If the use were widespread, and the use were not fair , would the copyright owner be losing money?&quot; After all, if the use were fair, the copyright owner would not be entitled to any money at all, so he couldn't &quot;lose&quot; what he never would have had to begin with.