Operation research's CPM techniques

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Operation research's CPM techniques

  1. 1. “ Pull” system to avoid overproduction <ul><li>Milk example – weekly batch or daily purchase? </li></ul><ul><li>Next purchase triggered when you start using the only bottle of milk you have. </li></ul><ul><li>Not an example of zero-inventory, but still a pull system. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of demand uncertainty and lead-times, in many cases inventory is necessary to allow for smooth production. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence TPS follows the supermarket model or keeping a small amount in stock. As soon as customers take products away, they are replenished. </li></ul><ul><li>Each demand instance triggers a part being pulled from upstream. </li></ul><ul><li>The triggering mechanism is called “ Kanban ” which means cards, signboard or a poster. </li></ul>
  2. 2. NETWORK ANALYSIS (CRITICAL PATH METHOD ) MUHAMMAD YOUNUS (08IN70) [email_address]
  3. 3. CONTENTS <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>NETWORKS TECHNIQUE’S </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAM EVALUATION & REVIEW TECHNIQUE </li></ul><ul><li>EVENTS TIMES </li></ul><ul><li>Earliest Events times </li></ul><ul><li>Latest Events times </li></ul><ul><li>FLOAT </li></ul><ul><li>TERMS USED IN CPM </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL PATH ANAYLYSIS </li></ul>
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>In present days the competitions, market trends, economics factors, environmental etc many factors increase the complexity for and enterprise that added the pressure of the brain of decision maker. </li></ul><ul><li>Project is one which consist of no. of interrelated activities so it is impossible to take decision on the intuition based. </li></ul>
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION (CONTINU…) <ul><li>Management always looks for some method and techniques which may help is Planning , Scheduling and Controlling the project. </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis whose aim is to sequence the project activities so that project completition time and cost are properly balanced so such types of analysis is called the Network Analysis. </li></ul>
  6. 6. NETWORK TECHNIQUES <ul><li>A network (also called the network diagram or network technique) is a symbolic representation of the essential characteristic of project. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two widely applied network techniques </li></ul><ul><li>CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) </li></ul><ul><li>PROGRAMME EVALUATION & REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT) </li></ul>
  7. 7. PROGRAMME EVALUATION AND REVIEW TECHNIQUE (PERT) <ul><li>PERT is develop in 1957 by U.S NAVY for scheduling the research and development work for polarize the missile program. </li></ul><ul><li>Its uses event oriented network in which the successive events are joined by arrows. </li></ul><ul><li>Its is preferred to those projects in which the time for various activities are not pre defined. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no significant to guideline. </li></ul>
  8. 8. CRITICAL PATH METHOD (CPM) <ul><li>The CPM’s development were initiated by E.I du pont de Neumours company in 1956. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the activity oriented network which consist of a number of a well recognized jobs, task or activities. </li></ul><ul><li>CPM is generally used for simple, repetitive types of projects for which the activity time and cost are known mean it is of deterministic nature. </li></ul><ul><li>It uses in the projects like construction of building, road, bridge, yearly closing of accounts by a company can be handled by CPM. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus it is deterministic rather then probabilistic model. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>EVENT TIMES </li></ul><ul><li>Each event node needs two boxes, to mark in the event times. </li></ul>LATEST EVENT TIME EARLIEST EVENT TIME
  10. 10. Earliest Event Times <ul><li>The EET for an event occurs when all activities leading into that event are complete. </li></ul><ul><li>To find EETs, work forwards through the network from the start node to the finish node. </li></ul>EARLIEST EVENT TIMES
  11. 11. Latest Event Times <ul><li>The LET for an event is the latest it can occur without delaying subsequent events. </li></ul><ul><li>To find LETs, work backwards through the network from the finish node to the start node. </li></ul>LATEST EVENT TIMES EARLIEST EVENT TIMES
  12. 12. Float <ul><li>The amount of time an activity can be delayed or lengthened. Sometimes this is called slack. </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematically, </li></ul><ul><li>Float LFT EFT </li></ul>
  13. 13. TERMS USED IN NETWORK’S (CPM) <ul><li>ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>It is the physical identifiable part of project which requires time for its execution </li></ul><ul><li>It is represented be and arrow, the tail of which represent the start and the head the finish of the activity </li></ul>Head Tail
  14. 14. <ul><li>EVENT </li></ul><ul><li>The beginning and end points of an activity are called nodes. </li></ul><ul><li>It is represented by a circle. </li></ul><ul><li>The head event of an activity is always greater then the tail event. </li></ul><ul><li>Event 2 > Event 1 </li></ul>Event 2 Event 1 Activity
  15. 15. <ul><li>PATH </li></ul><ul><li>An unbroken chain of activities arrows connecting the initial event to some other event is called a path. </li></ul>1 2 Activity 1 3 Activity 2 Activity 3 <ul><li>LOOPING </li></ul><ul><li>Some times the due to fall network sequences a condition as shown arises </li></ul>2 3 4 5 1
  16. 16. <ul><li>DUMMY ACTIVITY </li></ul><ul><li>It is the activity which only dependency of one activity on the other. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the one which does not consume any time mean’s (duration is to 0). </li></ul><ul><li>Its is usually represented by dotted line arrow. </li></ul>E B A D (Dummy Activity) C
  17. 17. <ul><li>NETWORK </li></ul><ul><li>It is the graphical representation of logically and sequentially connected arrows and nodes representative activities and events of the project. </li></ul><ul><li>Network are also called arrow diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>The figure follows illustrate the network of various activities </li></ul>B A E C D F
  18. 18. CRITICAL PATH ANALYSIS <ul><li>EXAMPLE : Mr. JHON called for a interview today so from start he is performing the following necessary activities in their particular duration. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw the network diagram. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate the critical path. </li></ul><ul><li>Create an event table to find out the earliest and latest event time and total float of the project. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Critical Path Analysis 20 Drive to interview 10 Dress and make-up 12 Iron clothes 7 Fetch car 8 Dry hair 3 Shower duration Activity
  20. 20. Precedence table 20 C,E Drive to interview F 10 B,D Dress and make-up E 12 - Iron clothes D 7 - Fetch car C 8 A Dry hair B 3 - Shower A duration Immediately preceding activities Activity The last activities that must be completed before an activity can begin
  21. 21. Activity on Arc Network A(3) D(12) B(8) E(10) C(7) F(20) 1 5 4 3 2 The network will build up with each mouse click, in the order you would construct it on paper.
  22. 22. Event Times A(3) D(12) B(8) E(10) C(7) F(20) 1 5 4 3 2 Each event node needs two boxes, to mark in the event times. Earliest event time EET Latest event time LET
  23. 23. Earliest Event Times A(3) D(12) B(8) E(10) C(7) F(20) 1 5 4 3 2 0 3 12 22 42 To find EETs, work forwards through the network from the start node to the finish node. The EET for an event occurs when all activities leading into that event are complete.
  24. 24. Latest Event Times A(3) D(12) B(8) E(10) C(7) F(20) 1 5 4 3 2 42 22 12 4 0 To find LETs, work backwards through the network from the finish node to the start node. The LET for an event is the latest it can occur without delaying subsequent events. 3 0 12 22 42
  25. 25. Critical Activities A(3) D(12) B(8) E(10) C(7) F(20) 1 5 4 3 2 Critical activities are activities that cannot run late. For critical activities: Latest finish — Earliest start = length of activity The green arrows mark the critical activities, which form the critical path . The critical path(s) must form a continuous route from the start node to the finish node. 4 3 0 0 12 12 22 22 42 42
  26. 26. EVENT TABLE L.F L.S E.F E.S YES 0 42 22 42 22 20 F YES 0 12 0 12 0 10 E YES 0 22 12 22 12 12 D * 15 22 15 7 0 7 C * 1 12 4 11 3 8 B * 6 9 5 3 0 3 A Total Float Duration Earliest Time Activity Latest Time C.P.M
  27. 27. THANK YOU
  28. 28. QUESTION ??? <ul><li>REPRESENTED BY, </li></ul><ul><li>MUHAMMAD YOUNUS A. QURESHI </li></ul><ul><li>08IN70 </li></ul>

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