The Action of Botox on Migraine


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Dr. Patrick Treacy Medical Director of the Ailesbury Clinics lectures on "Botox and Migraine" to the Migraine Association of Ireland in Ennis 2007

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  • The Action of Botox on Migraine

    1. 1. Using BOTOX ® as an adjunct in the treatment for MIGRAINE by Dr. Patrick Treacy Medical Director Ailesbury Clinics Ireland
    2. 3. Migraine Association of Ireland <ul><li>The history of the development of Botox ® </li></ul><ul><li>What exactly is Botox ® and how does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the current uses of Botox in medicine? </li></ul><ul><li>How exactly does Botox works for migraine? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the evidence for the use of Botox ® ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the possible side effects of Botox ® ? </li></ul>Lecture will cover
    4. 5. History of Botox starts in the new century 1900 German chemical warfare brought new means of killing people
    5. 6. Ypres April 22 nd 1915 Non specific method. 5,000 British troops died on the first day and 5,000 Germans on the second
    6. 7. Next year Ireland strikes for freedom. Dublin 1916
    7. 8. 1916 British built a new chemical warfare complex 7000 acres of scrubland in Porton Down Wiltshire
    8. 9. Porton Down Research Centre Research experiments on Botulinum by scientist Dr. Paul Fides gave rise to DysPORT
    9. 10. Clostridium botulinum <ul><li>Anaerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, spore-forming organism </li></ul><ul><li>Found in soil samples and aquatic sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Produces the neurotoxin botulin </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized in 1896 by Emile van Ermengen </li></ul>
    10. 11. Porton Down is still active today
    11. 12. First victim of experiments Aircraftman Ronald Madison died in May 1953
    12. 13. Reinhard Heydrich Assassinated by Czech agents in Prague on 27 th May 1942 by use of Botulinum toxin
    13. 14. 1953 US built chemical warfare plant at Fort Detrick American experiments by Edward Schantz gave rise to Botox
    14. 15. Botox Research <ul><li>Edward J. Schantz purified toxins from C. botulinum, S. aureus, B. cereus , and shellfish </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Alan Scott, was specializing in strabismus (cross-eye) looking to weaken overactive eye muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Schantz gave Scott preparations </li></ul><ul><li>of the botulinum toxin (BTX-A) </li></ul>Edward J. Schantz 1908-2005
    15. 16. Strabismus The various muscles of the eye that might be affected by strabismus. Demonstration of the various inflictions of strabismus
    16. 17. How did Botox reach such popularity?
    17. 18. The use of BOTOX cosmetically Pictures courtesy of Ailesbury Clinics
    18. 19. Same patient 5 days later
    19. 20. When did Botox become so popular? 1987 Canadian ophthalmologist Jean Carruthers noted that frown lines disappeared following the use of Botox to treat patients for blepharospasm. She told her dermatologist husband Dr. Alastair Carruthers 1990 , The Carruthers published their findings “ The treatment of glabellar furrows with Botulinum-A exotoxin” Carruthers JDA, Carruthers JA. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1990;
    20. 21. Botox and Cosmetic Medicine 1991 Carruthers presented their findings at the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Florida <ul><li>Carruthers article in J Dermatol Surg Oncol.1992;18:17-21 made the FDA approve Botox for use in cosmetic medicine. </li></ul>
    21. 22. Botox and Headaches 1992 The headache and Botox connection began emerging in 1992 when a California physician noted his patients who got Botox injections said they were having fewer headaches.
    22. 23. Where does Botox come from? Botulinum toxin (BTX) is produced by a bacterium called Clostridium botulinum , The clinical syndrome of botulism can occur following ingestion of contaminated food from this bacterium Botulinum toxin is broken into 7 neurotoxins ( types A, B, C [C1, C2], D, E, F, and G ), which are distinct but structurally similar. Human botulism is mainly due to types A, B, E, and, rarely, F,G. Types C and D cause toxicity only in animals.
    23. 24. What does the Botox look like? Botox is a single chain that can split to form a dichain molecule with a disulfide bridge. The light chain is similar to tetanus toxin The heavy chain can bind the toxin to nerve receptors
    24. 25. Scientific History of Botox 1822 German doctor Justinus Kerner published symptoms of &quot;sausage poison&quot; in 200 cases of gastroenteritis in Stuttgart in medical journal . He suggested the idea of a possible therapeutic use of “sausage poison“ in St. Vitus dance 1870 , German doctor Muller coined the name botulism for the symptoms. Botulus is Latin for sausage. 1895, Microbiologist Prof. Emile Van Ermengem checked 3 deaths from food poisoning outbreak in Ellezelles and isolated the bacterium Clostridium botulinum .
    25. 26. 20 th century History of BTX-A toxin <ul><li>1944 , Edward Schantz cultured Clostridium botulinum and isolated the toxin (BTX-A) . </li></ul><ul><li>1949 , Burgen et al discovered that botulinum toxin blocks neuromuscular transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
    26. 27. FDA approval for Botox <ul><li>1973 , Alan B Scott, MD, of Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute used (BTX-A ) in monkey experiments </li></ul><ul><li>1980 , Scott suggested and used BTX-A for the first time in humans to treat strabismus. </li></ul><ul><li>I989 , BTX-A approved by the FDA for treatment of strabismus, blepharospasm, and hemifacial spasm in patients aged younger than 12 years. </li></ul>
    27. 28. FDA approved uses of BTX-A 1. Cervical dystonia 2. Blepharospasm 3. Cranial nerve 11 disorders 4. Facial spasm 5. Glabellar frown lines
    28. 29. ‘ Extralabel’ use of BTX-A <ul><li>Spasticity </li></ul><ul><li>Stroke </li></ul><ul><li>Traumatic brain injury </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebral palsy </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sclerosis </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal cord injury </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul>Achalasia (oesophageal)   Chronic anal fissures Migraine and tension headaches Hyperhidrosis   Cerebral Palsy   Low back pain   Myofascial pain syndrome Tics Spastic bladder and urinary sphincters
    29. 30. ‘ Extralabel’ use of BTX-A <ul><li>Focal dystonias - Involuntary, sustained, or spasmodic patterned muscle activity </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) </li></ul><ul><li>Blepharospasm (eyelid closure) </li></ul><ul><li>Laryngeal dystonia (spasmodic dysphonia) </li></ul><ul><li>Limb dystonia (writer's cramp) </li></ul><ul><li>Oromandibular dystonia </li></ul><ul><li>Orolingual dystonia </li></ul><ul><li>Truncal dystonia </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>Sweating disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Frey syndrome, also known as auriculotemporal syndrome </li></ul>
    30. 31. ‘ Extralabel’ use of BTX-A <ul><li>Disorders of localized muscle spasms and pain </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic low back pain </li></ul><ul><li>Myofascial pain syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Temporomandibular joint disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Tension headache </li></ul><ul><li>Migraine headache </li></ul><ul><li>Cervicogenic headache </li></ul><ul><li>      </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle hyperactive disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia </li></ul><ul><li>Achalasia cardia </li></ul><ul><li>Hirschsprung disease </li></ul><ul><li>Sphincter of Oddi dysfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic anal fissures </li></ul>
    31. 32. How does Botox work? At a normal neuromuscular junction, a nerve impulse triggers the release of acetylcholine , which causes the muscles to contract.
    32. 33. How does Botox work? Botox acts by binding to receptor sites on the nerve terminals blocking the release of ACETYLCHOLINE This mechanism laid the foundation for the development of the toxin as a therapeutic tool.
    33. 34. Mechanism of BLOCKING of BTX-A The Botox light chain stops ACETYLCHOLINE release by cleaving a protein called SNAP-2 SNAP-2 is required for the docking of acetylcholine vesicles on the inner side of the nerve terminal plasma membrane.
    34. 35. Where does BOTOX® Block Ach? <ul><li>Skeletal Muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Arms </li></ul><ul><li>Legs </li></ul><ul><li>Face </li></ul><ul><li>Neck </li></ul>This use in stroke and cerebral palsy Motor Nerve Alpha/Gamma
    35. 36. Where else does BOTOX® block Ach release? <ul><li>Autonomic Nerves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretory glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweat glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salivary glands </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm </li></ul></ul></ul>This use in sweating and incontinence Hyperhidrosis Sialorrhea Autonomic Nerves Smooth Muscle Bladder
    36. 37. Why does Botox stop working? Clinical effect lasts about 2-6 months and then resolve Recovery occurs through formation of new nerve terminals Study by De Paiva suggests that regeneration of the original neuromuscular junction can take place.
    37. 38. The Migraine Story
    38. 39. Triggers and Risk Factors Migraine headaches are often triggered by specific things
    39. 40. Triggers: Changes in Daily Cycles
    40. 41. Triggers: Environment or Diet
    41. 42. Triggers: Mental
    42. 43. Migraine Takes Time Out From Your Life In the past 3 months in the US alone... Missed family or leisure activity Functioned less than half as well at household chores Were unable to do chores/household work Functioned less than half as well at work/school Missed Work or School 9 million 14 million 21 million 18 million 16 million
    43. 44. How Migraine Stacks Up Against Other Common Diseases From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the US Census Bureau, and the Arthritis Foundation. 1% 5% 6% 7% 12% Rheumatoid arthritis Asthma Diabetes Osteoarthritis Migraine Affected Patients
    44. 45. The Stages of a Migraine Attack
    45. 46. Migraine Unnecessary Suffering <ul><li>More than 50% of people with migraine </li></ul><ul><li>suffer for at least a year before they are </li></ul><ul><li>properly diagnosed </li></ul><ul><li>About 38% of people with migraine suffer for about 3 or more years before they are properly diagnosed </li></ul>National Headache Foundation. American Migraine Study II: Migraine in the United States: `Burden of Illness and Patterns of Treatment
    46. 47. How do Migraines happen? 1 Migraine originates deep within the brain 2 Electrical impulses spread to other regions of the brain. 3 Changes in nerve cell activity and blood flow may result in visual disturbance, numbness or tingling, and dizziness. 4 Chemicals in the brain cause blood vessel dilation and inflammation of the surrounding tissue 5 The inflammation irritates the trigeminal nerve , resulting in severe or throbbing pain
    47. 48. Chemicals irritate Trigeminal Nerve
    48. 49. This triggers other nerves
    49. 50. Arterial Activation Release of Neurotransmitter Worsening of Pain How does Botox help?
    50. 51. Botox blocks these neurotransmitters cGRP Sub P Glut
    51. 52. The blocking effects of BOTOX Motor Nerve Alpha/Gamma Sensory Nerve Type C, A-delta, A-Beta SP, cGRP, Glu Autonomic Cholinergic Smooth Muscle SNARE BOTOX Ach Ach * BTX/A->SNAP-25; BTX/B -> VAMP SNARE complex Single site of action = SNARE protein via SNAP-25
    52. 53. How Botox into Muscle stops Headache Pain Sub-P cGRP Bk K+ His Sub-P cGRP Central Sensitization: An increase in responsiveness of neurons within CNS Peripheral Sensitization: -Increase in excitability of peripheral nociceptors Response to Stimulus VESICULAR release of mediators stimulate nociceptors Antidromic Stimulation Neurogenic Inflammation: Dilation of arterioles, leakage of plasma from venules (edema) Chronic Inflammation and Pain: Wind-up Feedback loop Proposed Effects of BTX Direct inhibition of inflammatory mediators` Peripheral Sensitization Antidromic Stimulation: AP’s travel both centrally, and peripherally, invading branches of the same neuron outside the area of injury Vesicle mediated release BTX BTX Central Sensitization
    53. 54. How does Botox stop Migraine? <ul><li>It is not really clear how Botox curbs headache pain and stiffness. Researchers think Botox blocks sensory nerves that relay pain messages to the brain and relaxes muscles, making them less sensitive to pain. </li></ul>
    54. 55. How Botox injection blocks pain <ul><li>BOTOX® </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocks Sensory Input to CNS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Input to Muscle Spindle </li></ul></ul>BoNT
    55. 56. The Scientific Proof
    56. 57. <ul><li>Without Botox </li></ul><ul><li>KCl, IFC or Cap stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>4-5 fold increase in cGRP released </li></ul><ul><li>With Botox </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibited cGRP KCl-stimulated release </li></ul>Durham 2003 : Inhibition of cGRP chemical release from Trigeminal nerve cells Dose response of cGRP released from stimulated TG cells Stimulated changes in cGRP secretion in TG cells
    57. 58. Mayo Clinic Study in Scottsdale, Arizona <ul><li>David W. Dodick, M.D., April 14, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Observations </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the 48 patients said their migraine occurrences dropped by 50 percent or more. </li></ul><ul><li>61 percent said they had headaches less frequently and almost 30 percent said the headaches were less severe. </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>“ BTX-A significantly reduces frequency of headache attacks in migraine patients suffering from chronic daily headaches (CHD). ” </li></ul>Dodick D.W J Neurol 2005; 9:188
    58. 59. Baylor College of Medicine Headache Clinic <ul><li>58 patients participated in a controlled trial. </li></ul><ul><li>Some got Botox and others water injections. </li></ul><ul><li>At 3 months, 55% of patients who received Botox reported at least moderate improvement in their headaches. </li></ul><ul><li>2 of the 29 ( 7% ) who got the placebo water injections </li></ul><ul><li>reported similar results. </li></ul>Dr. William Ondo
    59. 60. Baylor College Trial <ul><li>&quot;The biggest advantage to Botox is its lack of side effects, especially compared to other medications,&quot; Dr. William Ondo of the Baylor College of Medicine said in an AHS press release. &quot;It really is extremely safe and appears to be very effective for some people.&quot; </li></ul>
    60. 61. Thomas Jefferson School of Medicine Study <ul><li>Compared with subjects who received placebo inj. </li></ul><ul><li>subjects in the Botox treatment group experienced: </li></ul><ul><li>Significantly fewer migraine attacks per month </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced severity of migraine attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer days using abortive/rescue medications </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer episodes of vomiting </li></ul>Silberstein, Mathew, Saper, and  Jenkins. &quot;Botulinum Toxin Type A as a Migraine Preventive Treatment . &quot; Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain 40 (6), 445-450 December 2003
    61. 62. Allergan FDA studies <ul><li>Allergan Inc completed several exploratory Phase II clinical trials investigating the potential use of BOTOX to treat various forms of headache and levels of headache severity in an effort to identify a responsive patient population, dose and efficacy endpoints to guide its Phase III program. </li></ul>
    62. 63. Allergan FDA results <ul><li>Significant differences in favour of BOTOX were demonstrated on measures such as decrease in the frequency of headache episodes; decrease of at least 50% in headache days; and decrease in acute medication use. </li></ul>
    63. 64. FDA trials <ul><li>Based on the Phase II findings specific to patients with CDH, Allergan reached an agreement with the FDA to move forward with a large Phase III clinical trial program </li></ul><ul><li>No significant between-group differences were observed on predetermined outcome measures </li></ul><ul><li>BOTOX is not currently approved by the FDA for the treatment of any headache disorder. </li></ul>
    64. 65. Migraine Injection Points
    65. 66. Any side effects of Botox? Flulike syndrome has been reported, generally short-lived. Other s/e muscle soreness, headaches, light-headedness, fever, chills, hypertension, weakness, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain are not necessarily a result of BTX-A treatment. They include . Since the mechanism of action of BTX-A is so specific, side effects are uncommon and systemic effects rare.
    66. 67. What about the famous droopy eyelids? Patient with eyelid ptosis
    67. 68. ANATOMY OF FOREHEAD MUSCLES FRONTALIS Action: Elevates eyebrows and the skin of the forehead Action: Elevates eyebrows and the skin of the forehead
    68. 69. ANATOMY OF FOREHEAD MUSCLES CORRUGATOR SUPERCILII Action: Depresses eyebrows and wrinkles forehead
    69. 70. ANATOMY OF FOREHEAD MUSCLES ORBICULARIS OCULI Action:Depresses eyebrows Closes the eyelids Helps drainage of tears
    71. 72. Contraindications to Botox injections Treat patients with diseases of the neuromuscular junction (eg, myasthenia gravis) cautiously because underlying generalized weakness can be exacerbated, and local weakness at injection sites can occur more than otherwise expected
    74. 77. BOTULINUM-A TOXIN formulations Botox® is an American form of BTX-A produced from the Hall strain of C botulinum Botox ® is distributed by Allergan Inc. Headquarters Irvine California Manufactured Westport Co. Mayo BOTOX ®
    75. 78. BOTULINUM-A TOXIN formulations Dysport ® is a British form of BTX-A made in England and mostly available in Europe. Dysport ® is produced by Speywood Pharmaceuticals in England (Dysport) DYSPORT ®
    76. 79. BOTULINUM-A TOXIN formulations Myobloc™ is BTX-B (botulinum toxin type B) is also used to treat facial wrinkles. FDA approved for the use of cervical dystonia in Dec 2000 Myobloc™ is distributed by Elan Pharmaceuticals in Athlone, Ireland MYOBLOC ®
    77. 80. Peripheral Sensitization Leads to Central Sensitization Peripheral Stimulation Release of Neuropeptides Peripheral Sensitization Increased afferent signals Lack of sensitivity of nerve endings Release of Glutamate and Peptides in CNS Antidromic Activation CNS Central Sensitization Additional Activation Decreased Inhibition at the dorsal horn
    78. 81. Botulinum Toxin May Prevent Peripheral Sensitization and Central Sensitization Peripheral Stimulation <ul><li>No peripheral release </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents Peripheral Sensitization: </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits release of neuropeptides </li></ul>Botulinum Toxin <ul><li>May Indirectly Prevent: </li></ul><ul><li>Central Sensitization </li></ul>Clinical relevance of these preclinical results remain to be established Release of Glutamate and Peptides in CNS Antidromic Activation CNS
    79. 82. PNS CNS Peripheral Sensitization Glu , Sp , cGRP, NA, NGF BK, PGs, HA, 5-HT, H + Adenosine, NO Central Sensitization Glu Sp C-fiber/ A delta A  fiber Spinal Cord or Nucleus Trigeminal Caudalis DRG or TGG Impulses Increase WDR Peripheral Sensitization, leading to Central Sensitization Translating these Mechanisms to Humans C- fos
    80. 83. Peripheral Sensitization Glu, Sp, cGRP, NA, NGF BK, PGs, HA, 5-HT, H + Adenosine, NO Central Sensitization Glu Sp C-fiber/A delta A  fiber Impulses BTX/A PNS CNS Increase WDR Spinal Cord or Nucleus Trigeminal Caudalis DRG or TGG BTX/A inhibits release of mediators at the peripheral pain fibres, resulting in an indirect effect on the CNS Blocking Headaches with Botox