Cbdmt Microalgae Market And Application Outlook

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Microalgae can be produced using a wide variety of methods, ranging from closed fully controlled methods to less predictable methods in outdoor tanks. The terminologies used to describe the type of …

Microalgae can be produced using a wide variety of methods, ranging from closed fully controlled methods to less predictable methods in outdoor tanks. The terminologies used to describe the type of algal culture include indoor/oudoor, open/closed, axenic, batch, continuous and semi-continuous.

Open pond systems are shallow ponds in which algae are cultivated. Nutrients can be provided through runoff water from nearby land areas or by channeling the water from sewage/water treatment plants. Photobioreactors are different types of tanks or closed systems in which algae are cultivated. Algal cultures consist of a single or several specific strains optimized for producing the desired product. About ten microalgae are used for commercial applications. They are used as a whole without transformation (named whole algae in this report) or are used to produce extracts of interest (named extract in this report).

See also www.microalgae-market.com

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  • 1. Microalgae Market and Application OutlookDate: 19/4/2011By Philippe TramoyCopyright 2011 CBDM.T SARL. All rights reserved. Any unauthorized use or disclosure is prohibited. The information hereinwas obtained from various sources; we do not guarantee its accuracy or completeness. This research report is prepared forgeneral circulation and is circulated for general information only. It does not have regard to specific investment objectives,financial situations and the particular needs of any particular person who may receive this report. Investors should seekfinancial advice regarding the appropriateness of investing in any securities or investment and trading strategies discussedor recommended in this report and should understand that the statements regarding future prospects may not be realized.Investors should note that income from such securities, if any, may fluctuate and that each securitys price or value may riseor fall. Accordingly, investors may receive back less than originally invested. Past performance is not necessarily a guide tofuture performance. Neither the information nor any opinion expressed constitutes an offer to buy or sell any securities oroptions or futures contracts. CBDM.T SARL accepts no responsibility or liability whatsoever for any expense, loss ordamages arising out of or in any way connected with the use of all or any part of this report. CBDM.T SARL does not havelong or short position in any securities or options of this issue(s). www.cbdmt.com
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  • 3. Philippe TramoyPhilippe Tramoy is a market and business intelligence expert and has a background in conductingResearch and Business Development projects. He holds a Masters in Finance, a Masters inIntelligence Marketing, an MSc in Biochemistry and an MSc in Genetics & Immunology. In 2000, hejoined Rhodia Chirex as Europe Business Development Manager for biotechnology andbiopharmaceutical companies.In 2004, he founded CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence. CBDM.T® is a market and businessintelligence company with offices in France, Switzerland and Israel. As an advisory servicescompany, CBDM.T® boosts companies to develop revenue and growth by providing business andmarketing services in the life science and biotech markets (market surveys, market scouting,business development and strategic supports).http://fr.linkedin.com/in/philippetramoywww.cbdmt.com Special thanks to Emilie Hilpert and Elodie Laurençon Copyright©2011 CBDM.T SARL – This Report is published by CBDM.T Market and Business Intelligence SARL. Reproduction or redistribution of this report in any form for any purpose is expressly prohibited without the prior consent of CBDM.T SARL. CBDM.T accepts no liability for the accuracy or completeness of the information, advice or comment contained in this report, nor for any actions taken in reliance thereon. While information, advice or comment is believed to be correct at the time of publication, no responsibility can be accepted by CBDM.T for its completeness or accuracy.CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 3/209
  • 4. Table of ContentPreamble ............................................................................................................................................. 16Executive Summary ............................................................................................................................. 171 Generalities ................................................................................................................................. 18 1.1 Definition ............................................................................................................................. 18 1.2 Characteristics ..................................................................................................................... 19 1.3 History ................................................................................................................................. 212 Production technologies ............................................................................................................. 23 2.1 Open Ponds ......................................................................................................................... 24 2.2 Photobioreactors (PBR) ....................................................................................................... 28 2.3 Fermentation Process.......................................................................................................... 34 2.4 Harvesting of microalgae..................................................................................................... 34 2.5 Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 353 Microalgae ................................................................................................................................... 40 3.1 Spirulina ............................................................................................................................... 41 3.1.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 41 3.1.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 42 3.1.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 44 3.1.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 47 3.1.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 58 3.2 Crypthecodinium cohnii ...................................................................................................... 60 3.2.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 60 3.2.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 60 3.2.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 60 3.2.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 61 3.2.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 61 3.3 Chlorella............................................................................................................................... 62 3.3.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 62 3.3.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 62 3.3.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 64CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 4/209
  • 5. 3.3.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 64 3.3.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 68 3.4 Dunaliella salina................................................................................................................... 69 3.4.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 69 3.4.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 69 3.4.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 71 3.4.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 72 3.4.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 74 3.5 Ulkenia sp. ........................................................................................................................... 76 3.5.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 76 3.5.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 76 3.5.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 77 3.5.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 78 3.5.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 78 3.6 Haematococcus pluvialis ..................................................................................................... 79 3.6.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 79 3.6.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 79 3.6.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 80 3.6.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 81 3.6.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 81 3.7 Schizochytrium .................................................................................................................... 83 3.7.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 83 3.7.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 83 3.7.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 83 3.7.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 84 3.7.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 84 3.8 Aphanizomenon flos-aquae ................................................................................................ 85 3.8.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 85 3.8.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 85 3.8.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 85 3.8.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 86 3.8.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 87CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 5/209
  • 6. 3.9 Euglena ................................................................................................................................ 88 3.9.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 88 3.9.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 88 3.9.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 88 3.9.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 90 3.9.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 92 3.10 Odontella aurita .................................................................................................................. 93 3.10.1 Generalities ................................................................................................................. 93 3.10.2 Production ................................................................................................................... 93 3.10.3 Products....................................................................................................................... 93 3.10.4 Applications ................................................................................................................. 93 3.10.5 Market ......................................................................................................................... 94 3.11 Others microalgae ............................................................................................................... 94 3.11.1 Nostoc.......................................................................................................................... 94 3.11.2 Porphyridium cruentum .............................................................................................. 95 3.12 Global market analysis by microalgae ................................................................................. 954 By products .................................................................................................................................. 97 4.1 Whole-cell microalgae biomass........................................................................................... 97 4.2 Microalgae extracts ............................................................................................................. 98 4.2.1 Carotenoids ................................................................................................................. 99 4.2.2 Phycobiliproteins ....................................................................................................... 103 4.2.3 Antioxidants............................................................................................................... 1045 Applications ............................................................................................................................... 107 5.1 Food ................................................................................................................................... 108 5.1.1 Functional food.......................................................................................................... 110 5.1.2 Dietary supplements ................................................................................................. 112 5.2 Feed ................................................................................................................................... 115 5.2.1 Used Species .............................................................................................................. 116 5.2.2 Products..................................................................................................................... 118 5.3 Cosmetics .......................................................................................................................... 120 5.3.1 Players ....................................................................................................................... 122 5.3.2 Market ....................................................................................................................... 123CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 6/209
  • 7. 5.4 Research ............................................................................................................................ 1246 Applications in development..................................................................................................... 125 6.1 Energy ................................................................................................................................ 125 6.1.1 Transport biofuels ..................................................................................................... 125 6.1.2 Biogas ........................................................................................................................ 133 6.1.3 Market value.............................................................................................................. 134 6.2 Environment ...................................................................................................................... 137 6.2.1 Water treatment and Soil Detoxification .................................................................. 138 6.2.2 Carbon capture .......................................................................................................... 1397 New products in development and innovations ....................................................................... 139 7.1 Evolution of the research on microalgae .......................................................................... 140 7.2 Pharmaceuticals ................................................................................................................ 142 7.3 Materials............................................................................................................................ 1438 Microalgae Market Players........................................................................................................ 145 8.1 Spirulina key players .......................................................................................................... 146 8.2 Chlorella key players.......................................................................................................... 149 8.3 Dunaliella key players ........................................................................................................ 150 8.4 Haematococcus key players .............................................................................................. 1519 Key players profiles ................................................................................................................... 152 9.1 Cyanotech Profile .............................................................................................................. 152 9.1.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 152 9.1.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 153 9.1.3 Patents, Trademarks and Licenses ............................................................................ 153 9.1.4 Research and Development ...................................................................................... 154 9.1.5 Products and Markets ............................................................................................... 154 9.1.6 Production ................................................................................................................. 155 9.1.7 Sales and production by products ............................................................................. 156 9.1.8 Major Customers ....................................................................................................... 157 9.1.9 Alliance and collaboration ......................................................................................... 157 9.2 Earthrise Nutritionals LLC. ................................................................................................. 159 9.2.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 159 9.2.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 159CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 7/209
  • 8. 9.2.3 Patents, Trademarks and Licenses ............................................................................ 160 9.2.4 Products and Markets ............................................................................................... 160 9.2.5 Production ................................................................................................................. 161 9.2.6 Sales and production by products ............................................................................. 161 9.2.7 Alliance and collaboration ......................................................................................... 161 9.3 Martek Profile.................................................................................................................... 162 9.3.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 162 9.3.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 162 9.3.3 Patents ....................................................................................................................... 163 9.3.4 Research and Development ...................................................................................... 165 9.3.5 Products and Markets ............................................................................................... 165 9.3.6 Production ................................................................................................................. 166 9.3.7 Sales by products ....................................................................................................... 166 9.3.8 Major Customers ....................................................................................................... 167 9.3.9 Alliance, collaboration and licensing ......................................................................... 167 9.4 Roquette Profile ................................................................................................................ 169 9.4.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 169 9.4.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 169 9.4.3 Patents, Trademarks and Licenses ............................................................................ 170 9.4.4 Research and Development ...................................................................................... 170 9.4.5 Products and Markets ............................................................................................... 171 9.4.6 Production ................................................................................................................. 172 9.4.7 Sales and production by products ............................................................................. 173 9.4.8 Alliance and collaboration ......................................................................................... 173 9.5 Sapphire Energy Profile ..................................................................................................... 174 9.5.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 174 9.5.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 175 9.5.3 Patents ....................................................................................................................... 175 9.5.4 Research and Development ...................................................................................... 175 9.5.5 Products and Market ................................................................................................. 176 9.5.6 Production ................................................................................................................. 176 9.5.7 Alliance and collaboration ......................................................................................... 177CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 8/209
  • 9. 9.6 Seambiotic Ltd. Profile ...................................................................................................... 179 9.6.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 179 9.6.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 180 9.6.3 Patents, Trademarks and Licenses ............................................................................ 180 9.6.4 Research and Development ...................................................................................... 180 9.6.5 Products and Markets ............................................................................................... 181 9.6.6 Production ................................................................................................................. 182 9.6.7 Alliance and collaboration ......................................................................................... 184 9.7 Solazyme Profile ................................................................................................................ 186 9.7.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 186 9.7.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 186 9.7.3 Patents, Trademarks and Licenses ............................................................................ 186 9.7.4 Research and Development ...................................................................................... 187 9.7.5 Products..................................................................................................................... 187 9.7.6 Production ................................................................................................................. 189 9.7.7 Alliance and collaboration ......................................................................................... 189 9.8 Soliance Profile .................................................................................................................. 191 9.8.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 191 9.8.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 191 9.8.3 Patents, Trademarks and Licenses ............................................................................ 192 9.8.4 Research and Development ...................................................................................... 192 9.8.5 Products and Markets ............................................................................................... 192 9.8.6 Production ................................................................................................................. 194 9.8.7 Alliance and collaboration ......................................................................................... 194 9.9 BFS bio fuel systems Profile............................................................................................... 195 9.9.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 195 9.9.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 196 9.9.3 Patents, Trademarks and Licenses ............................................................................ 196 9.9.4 Research and Development ...................................................................................... 196 9.9.5 Products..................................................................................................................... 196 9.9.6 Production ................................................................................................................. 197 9.10 Fuji chemicals .................................................................................................................... 198CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 9/209
  • 10. 9.10.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 198 9.10.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 198 9.10.3 Patent, Trademarks and Licenses .............................................................................. 199 9.10.4 Products and Markets ............................................................................................... 199 9.10.5 Production ................................................................................................................. 201 9.11 EID Parry (India) ................................................................................................................. 202 9.11.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 202 9.11.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 202 9.11.3 Research and development ....................................................................................... 203 9.11.4 Patent, Trademarks and Licenses .............................................................................. 203 9.11.5 Products and markets................................................................................................ 204 9.11.6 Production and Sales ................................................................................................. 204 9.11.7 Alliance and Collaboration ........................................................................................ 205 9.12 Cognis ................................................................................................................................ 206 9.12.1 Company Information ............................................................................................... 206 9.12.2 Company Overview ................................................................................................... 207 9.12.3 Products and markets................................................................................................ 207 9.12.4 Production ................................................................................................................. 208 9.12.5 Prize Awarded............................................................................................................ 208CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 10/209
  • 11. List of FiguresFigure 1: Microalgae classification ...................................................................................................... 18Figure 2: Conditions of alga growth .................................................................................................... 20Figure 3: Annual average sunshine map ............................................................................................. 25Figure 4: Open ponds raceways .......................................................................................................... 25Figure 5: Earthrise Farms microalgal production process ................................................................... 26Figure 6: Different types of open ponds ............................................................................................. 27Figure 7: Different types of PBRs......................................................................................................... 31Figure 8: Different PBR models ........................................................................................................... 32Figure 9: Cyanotech process for drying microalgae biomass .............................................................. 35Figure 10: Biomass production by microalgae .................................................................................... 40Figure 11: Spirulina cells ...................................................................................................................... 41Figure 12: Evolution of the global production of Spirulina (dry biomass) .......................................... 42Figure 13: Production of Spirulina by continent ................................................................................. 43Figure 14: Utilization of Spirulina biomass .......................................................................................... 45Figure 15: Whole Spirulina biomass production used by application ................................................. 46Figure 16: Spirulina biomass production for extraction used by application ..................................... 47Figure 17: Volume of consumed Spirulina by application ................................................................... 47Figure 18: Percentage of the Spirulina sales by type of biomass uses ................................................ 58Figure 19: Spirulina turnover by application ....................................................................................... 58Figure 20: Spirulina key players and market share ............................................................................. 59Figure 21: Crypthcodinium cells .......................................................................................................... 60Figure 22: Consumption of Crypthecodinium cohnii biomass by application..................................... 61Figure 23: Spirulina turnover by application ....................................................................................... 61Figure 25: Utilization of Chlorella biomass.......................................................................................... 62Figure 24: Chlorella cells...................................................................................................................... 62Figure 26: Chlorella production repartition by countries.................................................................... 63Figure 27: Chlorella production by application ................................................................................... 64Figure 28: Chlorella turnover by application ....................................................................................... 68Figure 29: Chlorella key players .......................................................................................................... 69Figure 30: Utilization of Dunaliella biomass ........................................................................................ 70Figure 31: Dunaliella production by country ....................................................................................... 70Figure 32: Whole Dunaliella biomass by application .......................................................................... 71Figure 33: Dunaliella biomass for extraction used by application ...................................................... 72Figure 34: Dunaliella production by application ................................................................................. 72Figure 35: Dunaliella turnover by types of biomass uses .................................................................... 74Figure 36: Dunaliella turnover by application ..................................................................................... 75Figure 37: Dunaliella key players ......................................................................................................... 75Figure 38: Schematic overview of the fermentation process of Ulkenia DHA oil ............................... 76Figure 39: Ulkenia biomass production by application ....................................................................... 78CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 11/209
  • 12. Figure 40: Ulkenia turnover by application ......................................................................................... 78Figure 41: Culture ponds (500,000 liters) at Cyanotech Corporation (HI, USA).................................. 79Figure 42: Utilization of Haematococcus biomass .............................................................................. 80Figure 43: Haematococcus biomass for extraction used by application ............................................. 81Figure 44: Haematococcus turnover by application ........................................................................... 82Figure 45: Haematococcus key players ............................................................................................... 82Figure 46: Schizochytrium biomass for extraction used by application .............................................. 84Figure 47: Schizochytrium turnover by application ............................................................................ 84Figure 48: Aphanizomenon production by application ....................................................................... 86Figure 49: Aphanizomenon turnover by application........................................................................... 87Figure 50: Utilization of Euglena biomass ........................................................................................... 88Figure 51: Whole Euglena biomass by application.............................................................................. 89Figure 52: Euglena biomass for extraction by application .................................................................. 89Figure 53: Euglena production by application..................................................................................... 90Figure 54: Percentage of Euglena sales by type of biomass uses ....................................................... 92Figure 55: Euglena turnover by application ........................................................................................ 92Figure 56: Odontella production by application ................................................................................. 93Figure 57: Odontella turnover by application ..................................................................................... 94Figure 58: Microalgae sales by type of microalgae (2009) .................................................................. 96Figure 59: Percentage of the total microalgae production dedicated to extraction and biomassproductions (2009) .............................................................................................................................. 97Figure 60: Percentage of the microalgae biomass sales by market application (2009) ...................... 98Figure 61: Percentage of microalgae extracts sales by market application (2009) ............................ 99Figure 62: Flow chart of production and utilization of Dunaliella..................................................... 100Figure 63: Typical process flowsheet for the commercial production of natural astaxanthin byHaematococcus ................................................................................................................................. 101Figure 64: Docosahexaenoic acid C22:6(n-3) formula ...................................................................... 105Figure 65: DHA production by microalgae ........................................................................................ 106Figure 66: DHA turnover by application ............................................................................................ 107Figure 67: Total microalgae production by applications ................................................................... 107Figure 68: Microalgae producers’ turnover by application ............................................................... 108Figure 69: Biomass for functional food by microalgae...................................................................... 111Figure 70: Turnover for functional food by microalgae .................................................................... 112Figure 71: Biomass for dietary supplements by microalgae ............................................................. 113Figure 72: Turnover for dietary supplements by microalgae ............................................................ 114Figure 73: Biomass for feed by microalgae ....................................................................................... 115Figure 74: Turnover for feed by microalgae ...................................................................................... 115Figure 75: Biomass for cosmetic by microalgae ................................................................................ 120Figure 76: Turnover for cosmetic by microalgae............................................................................... 120Figure 77: World transport biofuel production between 1975 and 2015......................................... 126Figure 78: Nationality of companies which work on the production of microalgae biofuel ............ 126Figure 79: Date of creation of algal biofuel companies .................................................................... 127Figure 80: Companies classified by technologies .............................................................................. 128CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 12/209
  • 13. Figure 81: Three generations of bioethanol development ............................................................... 130Figure 82: Trans-esterification of oil to biodiesel.............................................................................. 131Figure 83: Expected trends of new car sales between 2000 and 2030 ............................................. 135Figure 84: Annual investment in algal biofuel ................................................................................... 135Figure 85: Number of scientific articles on microalgae since 1925................................................... 140Figure 86: Evolution of articles about chlorella, spirulina, dunaliella and heamatococcus since 1925........................................................................................................................................................... 141Figure 87: Number of patents for Spirulina and chlorella since 1979............................................... 142Figure 88: Global distribution of different organizations .................................................................. 145Figure 89: Worldwide repartition of companies ............................................................................... 145Figure 90: Worldwide repartition of research laboratories .............................................................. 146CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 13/209
  • 14. List of TablesTable 1: Advantages and disadvantages of various algal culture techniques ..................................... 24Table 2: Description of the different types of PBR .............................................................................. 33Table 3: Comparison of the 2 main production systems (adapted from: Pulz 2001) ......................... 35Table 4: Photosynthetic efficiency and productivity of open ponds................................................... 36Table 5: Photosynthetic efficiency and productivity of Photobioreactor ........................................... 37Table 6: Production costs of algal biomass in raceway ponds ............................................................ 38Table 7: Production costs of algal biomass in photobioreactors ........................................................ 39Table 8: Production of main species of microalgae ............................................................................ 40Table 9: Spirulina production by countries ......................................................................................... 43Table 10: Top 5 Spirulina producers .................................................................................................... 44Table 11: Marketed products with or from Spirulina.......................................................................... 45Table 12: Nutritional content in Spirulina ........................................................................................... 48Table 13: Spirulina in food segmentation ........................................................................................... 48Table 14: Spirulina in dietary supplement segmentation ................................................................... 54Table 15: Segmentation of cosmetics market ..................................................................................... 55Table 16: Marketed products with or from Crypthecodinium cohnii ................................................. 60Table 17: Top 5 Chlorella producers.................................................................................................... 63Table 18: Marketed products with or from Chlorella ......................................................................... 64Table 19: Chlorella in food segmentation ........................................................................................... 65Table 20: Chlorella in cosmetic segmentation .................................................................................... 67Table 21: Marketed products with or from Dunaliella........................................................................ 71Table 22: Dunaliella in dietary supplement segmentation ................................................................. 73Table 23: Marketed products with or from Ulkenia sp. ...................................................................... 77Table 24: Marketed products with or from Haematococcus .............................................................. 80Table 25: Marketed products with or from Schizochytrium ............................................................... 83Table 26: Marketed products with or from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae ........................................... 85Table 27: Marketed products with or from Euglena ........................................................................... 88Table 28: Euglena in food segmentation ............................................................................................. 91Table 29: Marketed products with or from Odontella ........................................................................ 93Table 30: Microalgae market sales by microalgae (2009) ................................................................... 95Table 31: Microalgae value chain and market size by level from producer to retailers (2009).......... 96Table 32: Microalgae used as a whole (2009) ..................................................................................... 98Table 33: Microalgae used for extract production (2009) .................................................................. 99Table 34: Producers of astaxanthin with Haematococcus pluvialis .................................................. 102Table 35: Microalgal PUFA ................................................................................................................ 105Table 36: DHA turnover by producers ............................................................................................... 106Table 37: GRAS submittal of microalgae products ............................................................................ 109Table 38: Segmentation of conventional food market ..................................................................... 110Table 39: Top 3 microalgae most used for functional food application ........................................... 112CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 14/209
  • 15. Table 40: Top 3 most used microalgae for dietary supplements application ................................... 113Table 41: Upper and lower estimates of microalgae dry weight biomass production required by thepost-larvae of world aquaculture. Adapted from FAO...................................................................... 118Table 42: Microalgae commonly used in aquaculture, either as individual diets or components ofmixed diets. (++ denotes more popular than +)................................................................................ 118Table 43: Examples of cosmetic ingredients from microalgae.......................................................... 121Table 44: Main microalgae cosmetic ingredients producers ............................................................ 123Table 45: Comparison between the different ways of crude oil production .................................... 128Table 46: Oil contents in selected microalgae species ...................................................................... 132Table 47: Main partnership of algal fuel companies ......................................................................... 136Table 48: Algal Fuel Players ............................................................................................................... 144Table 49: Spirulina Players ................................................................................................................ 146Table 50: Chlorella Players ................................................................................................................ 149Table 51: Dunaliella Players .............................................................................................................. 150Table 52: Haematococcus Players ..................................................................................................... 151CBDMT – Market & Business Intelligence © 2011 www.cbdmt.com 15/209