Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
The Plant Kingdom
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

The Plant Kingdom

4,517

Published on

Bilingüismo IES Góngora

Bilingüismo IES Góngora

1 Comment
5 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Basic knowledge really is important..for you to be able to understand complicated one..:)
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
4,517
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
4
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
5
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. THE PLANT KINGDOM I.E.S. “Luis de Góngora” (Córdoba); Dept. Biology and Geology Juan Manuel Barroso Fernández Bilingual Educational Project. Science 1º ESO – Unit 11
  • 2. WHAT IS A PLANT? Plants are organisms that… <ul><li>… are made up of EUKARYOTIC CELLS with a cellulose cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>… are organised forming MULTI-CELLULAR organisms, with TISSUES </li></ul><ul><li>… are PRODUCERS . It is to say, they have AUTOTROPHIC NUTRITION </li></ul>
  • 3. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS <ul><ul><ul><li>Plants are adapted to terrestrial environment , so they have different parts: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a root to get water and mineral salts from the soil </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leaves to get light and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stems to communicate the other two parts. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants are sessile organisms . They cannot move themselves because they are fixed to the ground. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plants are autotrophic organisms (“producers”) . They produce their own food thanks to a process called photosynthesis which takes place in the chloroplasts (certain organelles containing a green substance called chlorophyll ). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 4. LEAVES ROOT STEM
  • 5. PLANT CLASSIFICATION Nonvascular plants Vascular plants BRYOPHYTES PTERIDOPHYTES SPERMATOPHYTES GYMNOSPERMS ANGIOSPERMS
  • 6. TISSUES (with no vascular system) VASCULAR SYSTEM SEEDS (nude) SEEDS (inside a fruit) FORMER GREEN ALGAE BRYOPHYTES PTERIDOPHYTES GYMNOSPERMS ANGIOSPERMS THE PLANT FAMILY TREE
  • 7. BRYOPHYTES, like mosses <ul><li>They are the simplest plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to lack of a vascular system, they cannot get a big size and all of them are very small plants. </li></ul><ul><li>They live in damp places , because they need liquid water to reproduce. </li></ul>
  • 8. MOSSES Photo:donegan-wildlife.blogspot.com Photo: www.jerryrig.com
  • 9. PTERIDOPHYTES, like ferns <ul><li>They have a vascular system to carry up and down raw and elaborated sap, so they can get a big size like trees, as they did in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>They still need liquid water to reproduce. That&apos;s why ferns live in damp places. </li></ul>
  • 10. FERNS Photo: wikipedia Photo: users.rcn.com
  • 11. MOSSES and FERNS Photo: cnice
  • 12. SPERMATOPHYTES <ul><li>They are vascular plants which reproduce by using flowers and seeds. </li></ul><ul><li>They can live in almost every terrestrial environments , because its reproduction is not bound to liquid water. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two groups of spermatophytes: </li></ul>GYMNOSPERMS ANGIOSPERMS
  • 13. GYMNOSPERMS <ul><li>They have seeds but no fruit , so seeds are nude (actually, gymnosperm means “nude seed”). </li></ul><ul><li>Most of them are bushes or trees . </li></ul><ul><li>This is the case of conifers (with “cones” which are false fruits), like pines and cypress. The sequoia is the largest tree in the world. </li></ul>
  • 14. GYMNOSPERMS Photo: cnice
  • 15. Pine’s flower Photo: cnice
  • 16. Pine’s cones Photo: cnice
  • 17. More gymnosperms Photo: cnice ← A fir ↓ A sequoia
  • 18. Angiosperms Photos: jmbf
  • 19. ANGIOSPERMS <ul><li>They have complete flowers and fruits with seeds inside. </li></ul><ul><li>They include a wide variety of trees , bushes and grasses , like apple trees, rose bushes, or dandelions </li></ul>
  • 20. Almond tree: from flowers to seeds 1 4 3 2 Photo: cnice
  • 21. Apple tree Photo: cnice Photo: cnice Photo: guilwoodgardens.com
  • 22. A GRASS PLANT: Dandelion Photo: Photoeverywhere.co.uk Photo: wikipedia Photo: cnice
  • 23. NUTRITION IN PLANTS <ul><ul><li>How do plant cells get their nutrients? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plants are photosynthetic organisms that produce their own organic molecules according to the following reaction: </li></ul><ul><li> ( Photosynthesis ) </li></ul>Inorganic molecules (H 2 O, CO 2 …) Light energy organic molecules (glucose, fats…) + + O 2
  • 24. PHOTOSYNTHESIS CO 2 FROM THE AIR WATER, M. SALTS FROM THE SOIL ORGANIC MOLECULES LIGHT ENERGY O 2
  • 25. This process has the following stages: <ul><li>Raw sap formation : Plants absorb water and mineral salts through their roots, giving way to the raw sap. </li></ul><ul><li>Raw sap transportation : The raw sap moves upwards through the vascular system up to the leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis : The raw sap reaches the leaves, where carbon dioxide and solar radiation is absorbed. Then, the inorganic molecules are changed into organic ones and oxygen, which is released to the atmosphere. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution of the elaborated sap : Once the organic molecules have been synthesized, the elaborated sap ( a mixture of organic molecules and water) is distributed throughout the plant, to feed the plant cells. </li></ul>
  • 26. &nbsp;
  • 27. 1. RAW SAP FORMATION 2. RAW SAP TRANSPORTATION 3. PHOTOSYNTHESIS 4. DISTRIBUTION OF ELABORATED SAP replay
  • 28. PLANT RESPIRATION <ul><li>All living cells need energy to carry out their processes. That energy is released from the nutrients through a process called cellular respiration , which is just the opposite to the process of photosynthesis : </li></ul>Inorganic molecules (H 2 O, CO 2 …) Chemical energy organic molecules (glucose, fats…) + + O 2
  • 29. PLANT RESPIRATION (II) <ul><li>Plant respiration takes place continuously . </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, photosynthesis occurs only when plants are illuminated </li></ul><ul><li>so plants: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>get CO 2 and release O 2 during the daytime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>get O 2 and release CO 2 at night </li></ul></ul>+
  • 30. PLANT CELLULAR RESPIRATION PHOTO- SYNTHESIS CYTOPLASM AND MITOCHONDRIA CHLOROPLASTS SUN ENERGY DURING DAYTIME: CO 2 H 2 O glucose O 2 O 2 glucose CO 2 H 2 O CO 2 H 2 O O 2 glucose H 2 O CO 2
  • 31. PLANT CELLULAR RESPIRATION PHOTO- SYNTHESIS CYTOPLASM AND MITOCHONDRIA SUN NO PHOTO- SYNTHESIS ENERGY CHLOROPLASTS DURING NIGHT TIME: O 2 glucose CO 2 H 2 O
  • 32. PLANT REPRODUCTION <ul><li>Plants can reproduce either sexually or asexually : </li></ul><ul><li>ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION : through the process of vegetative reproduction, a new plant can be formed from a part of other plant </li></ul><ul><li>SEXUAL REPRODUCTION : That happens when plants reproduce throuhg flowers </li></ul>
  • 33. Vegetative reproduction
  • 34. FLOWERS <ul><li>Flowers are the reproductive organs of spermatophytes. </li></ul><ul><li>The complete flowers are adapted to be pollinated by means of insects . That&apos;s why they have appealing colours and smells. </li></ul><ul><li>A flower is made up of a stem with four parts of modified leaves . </li></ul>
  • 35. FLOWER STRUCTURE <ul><li>Protective parts : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The calyx , made up of petals (it protects the future flower) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The corolla , made up of sepals (it protects the flower and it attracts insects by using its colours) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reproductive parts : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The androceium , made up of stamens . Each one is made up of a filament and a bag called the anther where pollen is produced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The gynoecium , made up of carpels which may be fused in a pistil that consists of an ovary, a style and a tip called the stigma. Ovules are inside the ovary. </li></ul></ul>
  • 36. THE PARTS OF A FLOWER peduncle CALIX (made up of “sepals”) COROLLA (made up of “petals”) ANDROCEIUM (made up of “stamens”) GYNOECIUM (made up of “carpels”)
  • 37. THE REPRODUCTIVE PARTS peduncle CALIX (made up of “sepals”) COROLLA (made up of “petals”) ANDROCEIUM (made up of “stamens”) GYNOECIUM (made up of “carpels”)
  • 38. THE REPRODUCTIVE PARTS STAMEN ( ♂ ) GYNOECIUM ( ♀ ) ANDROCEIUM (made up of “stamens”) GYNOECIUM (made up of “carpels”) filament anther ovary stigma stilus OVULE (inside the ovary) GRAINS OF POLLEN (inside the anther)
  • 39. THE REPRODUCTION PROCESS STAMEN ( ♂ ) GYNOECIUM ( ♀ ) WIND 1. Pollination (through wind or insects) 2. Fertilisation (A grain of pollen makes a tube and it reaches the ovule) 3. The forming of fruit (The gynoecium becomes a fruit, and the ovule becomes a seed) 4. The germination of seeds (After the fruit is eaten or fallen to the ground, seeds germinate, and a new plant appears) filament anther ovary stigma stilus OVULE (inside the ovary) GRAINS OF POLLEN (inside the anther) SEED (the former ovule) FRUIT (the former gynoecium)

×