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  1. 1. La enseñanza de contenidos a través de la Lengua Extranjera (CLIL/AICLE). <ul><li>Daniel Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Facultad de Educación </li></ul><ul><li>(Universidad de Granada) </li></ul>
  2. 2. Variables fundamentales en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje de las lenguas 1. EL ALUMNO - Contexto social - Características individuales: estilos cognitivos, motivación, personalidad, ... 2. EL PROFESOR - Características individuales - Opiniones y creencias - Preparación, formación -  Personalidad, motivación 4. PROCESOS DE APRENDIZAJE/ APROPIACIÓN -   Procesos mentales -   Estrategias de aprendizaje: metacognitivas,   cognitivas afectivas, comunicativas 5. RESULTADOS / COMPETENCIA -    Principios , conceptos: gramática, funciones, aspectos culturales... - Procedimientos, destrezas , capacidades: listening, speaking, reading and writing - Actitudes y valores 3. LA CLASE (Tratamiento educativo: el currículo de LE: tareas, materiales) Contextos de: a) APRENDIZAJE DE LA LE Enfoque translingüístico, analítico, explícito b) ADQUISICIÓN DE LA LE Enfoque intralingual, global, implícit o     CONTEXTO (social, escolar) VARIABLES DE PRESAGIO VARIABLES DE PROCESO VARIABLES DE PRODUCTO VARIABLES DE CONTEXTO
  3. 3. El contexto y la naturaleza de la instrucción <ul><li>Variables that influence the successful teaching and learning of a target language (TL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>context variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>presage variables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>process variables: the nature of language instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some key issues are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructed FLL techniques vs. naturalistic SLA strategies. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crosslingual vs. intralingual techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analytic vs. integral methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Code vs. content-based programmes </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Naturaleza de la instrucción / Tipos de enseñanza (1) (Stern, 1992) <ul><li>The L2/TL is used as reference system. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are immersed in TL. </li></ul><ul><li>There's no translation from or into TL. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct method techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate bilingualism </li></ul><ul><li>L1 is used as reference system. </li></ul><ul><li>L1 and L2 are often compared; a contrastive analysis is often used. </li></ul><ul><li>Translation from and into L2 is often practised. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on from: grammar rules and its application in situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound bilingualism </li></ul>Intralingual techniques Crosslingual techniques
  5. 5. Crosslingual techniques Intralingual techniques
  6. 6. Naturaleza de la instrucción / Dimensiones de la enseñanza (2) (Stern, 1992) <ul><li>Subjective : connected with the learners' experience, life and interests </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on communicative situations ( pragmatics ) </li></ul><ul><li>Language use with emphasis on discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on topic and content </li></ul><ul><li>Informal teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Always contextualized </li></ul><ul><li>Skill-using ( productive skills and procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>Unrestricted and natural language forms </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic, authentic , genuine </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on tasks and project work </li></ul><ul><li>Objective </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on code and the L2 system ( Grammar ) </li></ul><ul><li>Language practice with emphasis on usage ( rules and their application) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on Language forms </li></ul><ul><li>Formal teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Often decontextualized </li></ul><ul><li>Skill-getting ( receptive skills and procedures) </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled activities and restricted language forms </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on accuracy </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberate, systematic, graded and structured </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on graded linguistic exercises </li></ul>Global and experiential techniques Analytic techniques
  7. 7. Analytic techniques (Ed. Anaya) Global/experiential technique ( D. Madrid & N. McLaren: Making Progress . Valladolid: La Calesa)
  8. 8. Naturaleza de la instrucción / Tipos de enseñanza (2) (Stern, 1992) <ul><li>Intuitive, subconscious . </li></ul><ul><li>Exposure to language use and subconscious acquisition through spontaneous capabilites. </li></ul><ul><li>More unreflective, informal and incidental. </li></ul><ul><li>Global understanding (whole language theory). </li></ul><ul><li>More behaviouristic. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop communicative , social and affective strategies . </li></ul><ul><li>Empiricist approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Rational, formal and intellectual. </li></ul><ul><li>Conscious learning through studial capabilities and rule learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Analytic . </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop metacognitive and metalinguistic strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Rationalist approach. </li></ul>Implicit techniques Explicit techniques
  9. 9. Definition and main characteristics of content-based instruction CBI/T : Content based instruction/teaching CLIL : Content and language integrated learning AICLE : Aprendizaje Integrado de Contenido y Lengua Extranjera EMILE : Enseignement de Matières par Integration D’une Langue Étrangère <ul><li>Brinton, Snow and Wesche (1989): </li></ul><ul><li>“ the integration of content with language-teaching aims&quot; (p. 2). </li></ul><ul><li>It involves the teaching of academic subject matter and second language skills. </li></ul><ul><li>The students receive curricular information and do their academic tasks in the TL and, at the same time, acquire the L2/TL in a very natural way. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners are encouraged to think and learn through the use of the TL by integrating the four traditional language skills (listening, speaking, reading and writing). </li></ul><ul><li>It primarily relies on intralingual , experiential and implicit teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>The separation between curricular development and the study of the L2 or TL is eliminated </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Forms of water </li></ul><ul><li>Notice that water takes many </li></ul><ul><li>different forms on Earth: </li></ul><ul><li>Where can you see water vapor ? And clouds? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can you see seawater? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there ice or snow ? Where? </li></ul><ul><li>When does water come from the sky? </li></ul><ul><li>Find examples of evaporation , precipitation , and runoff . </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>Example of CBI/T-CLIL-AICLE (D. Madrid & N. McLaren: Making Friends . Valladolid. La Calesa)
  11. 11. <ul><li>Langues officielles </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Espagnol (castillan) ¹ Catalan Basque Galicien . </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Capitale Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>Roi Juan Carlos I </li></ul><ul><li>Président du gouvernement </li></ul><ul><li>J osé Luis Rodríguez Zapatero </li></ul><ul><li>Superficie  - Totale 504 782 km²  - Eau (%) 1,04% </li></ul><ul><li>Population  - Totale ( 2006 ) 44 708 964 hab.  - Densité Classé 26e 88,39 hab./km² </li></ul><ul><li>Indépendance  - Union des royaumes de C astille , Aragon et Navarre   1512 </li></ul><ul><li>Gentilé Espagnol, Espagnole </li></ul><ul><li>Monnaie Euro ² ( EUR ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuseau horaire UTC +1 </li></ul><ul><li>Hymne national Marcha Real </li></ul><ul><li>Domaine internet .es </li></ul><ul><li>Indicatif téléphonique +34 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hypothesis and rationales of CBT/CLIL/EMILE <ul><li>It is assumed that the use of the TL for classroom instruction -if made comprehensible- is the most efficient way to improve the student's proficiency level. </li></ul><ul><li>This approach puts its emphasis on content and themes that develop the different curricular areas and tries to take into account the interests and needs of the learners. </li></ul><ul><li>The intralingual and curricular content dimension are integrated so that the students develop their linguistic competence and general education at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>It aims to provide meaningful learning by connecting the new information with the student's previous learning experiences (constructivism). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Rotation movement of the earth Rotation and Revolution The earth rotates from west to east about a line (its axis). The period of one complete rotation is a day; the rotation of the earth is responsible for the alternate periods of light and darkness (day and night). The earth revolves about the sun once in a period of a little more than 365 1/4 days (a year). - Find the rotation and revolution movement in the picture From: Ladybird Learners: Space From: D. Madrid & N. McLaren: Making Friends . La Calesa
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Antecedents and connections to the content-based instruction movement <ul><li>Natural methods along the history of LT. </li></ul><ul><li>The communicative approach (Widdowson, 1978; Brumfit and Johnson, 1979; Richard and Schmidt, 1983; Littlewood, 1981, Finocchiaro and Brumfit, 1983, Sánchez Pérez, 1993). </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive theories (Ausubel, 1968; Anderson, 1983; Chamot and O'Malley, 1994). </li></ul><ul><li>Natural approach (Krashen and Terrell, 1983). </li></ul><ul><li>ESP movement (Strevens, 1977; Mackey and Mountford, 1978; Hutchinson and Walters, 1987). </li></ul><ul><li>Bilingual programs (Lambert and Tucker, 1972; Mackey and Andersson, 1977; Genese, 1987; Hoffman, 1991; Swain and Cummins, 1982; Swain and Lapkin, 1982). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Immersion LT in the Middle Ages <ul><li>In the Middle Ages, the teaching of Latin -and to some extent Greek- were implemented by using the language taught as a means of instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine instructed and trained young boys to become priests and preachers in the Latin language. As early as 389 AD, St. Augustine stressed the need for a focus on meaning content in language learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Some children enjoyed a private tuition and the communication between the master and his pupil also took place entirely in the TL (Latin). </li></ul>
  17. 17. The natural methods tradition <ul><li>The direct method in LT fully exploits the intralingual techniques described in the previous sections, since classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the TL. </li></ul><ul><li>The direct method techniques found some precursors in M. Montaigne (1533-1592), J. Webbe (1560-1633), J. A. Comenius (1592-1670), L. Sauveur (1826-1907), Berlitz (1852-1921) and other proponents of naturalistic techniques in language teaching and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>In the XIXth century, the initiative was developed by C. Marcel (1793-1896) and F. Gouin (1831-1896). It was considered that L1 learning could be a good model to be reproduced with the TL learning. They emphasise the importance of meaning in learning and try to present the language in a context that makes their meaning clear. </li></ul><ul><li>More recently, Terrell (1977) and Krashen and Terrell (1983) have developed a natural approach , where the entire class period is devoted to communicative activities. This approach aims to develop basic personal oral and written communication skills: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The general goal is communication skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehension precedes production. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production emerges without forcing it, after a silent period . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning activities must promote subconscious acquisition rather than conscious learning. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Content-based roots in the communicative approach <ul><li>The communicative approach (CA) proposes to work with motivated activities, topics and themes which involve the learner in authentic communication. In general, the techniques used by the CA are predominantly holistic and global , experiential and non-analytic. </li></ul><ul><li>Communicative syllabuses tend to focus more on the message of the content than on the single formal aspects of the language used. In this sense it is message-orientated as is the CBT. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for authentic language use are sought. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the TL through the TL . The language class is considered an ideal setting to develop communication through the TL, so classroom instructions and management are conducted in the TL. </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant topics . The CA often seeks substantive topics which satisfy the student's interests and needs and that have some educational relevance. </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic emphasis . The emphasis that the CBA puts on the semantic aspects is also rooted in the CA that emphasises the expression of meaning, concepts and ideas above all. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Example of communicative activity
  20. 20. Influence of the language teaching through cross-curricular contents <ul><li>The language across the curriculum movement has influenced L2 instructional theory and practice. This movement puts a great emphasis on the teaching of the L1 across the curricular subjects (Maths, Science, Geography, History, etc.). </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish reform also introduces the teaching of cross-curricular contents (transversalidad curricular) (civic education, health education, etc.) through the TL. That has often implied some emphasis on contents. </li></ul>MATHS: Mental arithmetic
  21. 21. Notice that the colours red, yellow, and blue, known as primary colours , can be combined in varying proportions to produce all other colours ARTS: Where do colours come from? How can we obtain colours? Combine these colours and see what you obtain! MUSIC: Who was Beethoven?
  22. 22. Cross-curricular aspects: health education DO YOU WANT TO STOP SMOKING?
  23. 23. Educación ambiental/environmental education
  24. 24. Connection with the Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) movement <ul><li>CLIL also connects with the LSP movement, which aims to satisfy the students’ needs and interests. The content and aims of teaching are determined by the requirement of the learner. </li></ul><ul><li>The content is restricted to fit the learner's purposes, selected according to his/her interests, developed through themes and topics according to his/her needs and focused to satisfy his/her communicative needs . </li></ul>
  25. 25. ESP: EDUCATION  Structure of the new Spanish educational system 18 <ul><li>Technology “Bachillerato” : Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, Technology, Philosophy (Scientific theory), Technical Drawing, Introduction to Design. </li></ul><ul><li>- Humanities and Social Sciences “Bachillerato” : History and Geography of Spain, Latin I, Latin II or Adminis­tration and Management, History of Art, Sociology and Pychology, Philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>- Natural Sciences and Health “Bachillerato” : Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Natural Sciences, Philosophy (Scientific Theory). </li></ul><ul><li>Artistic : Drama, Design, Photography, Art. </li></ul>17 UPPER-SECONDARY EDUCATION (BACHILLERATO) (17-18) 16 Stage 2 15 14 <ul><li>Foreign languages </li></ul><ul><li>Language and literature </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul><ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Natural sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Physical education </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic and visual expression </li></ul><ul><li>Geography </li></ul><ul><li>History and social sciences </li></ul>Stage 1 13 STATUTORY SECONDARY EDUCATION (ESO 13-16) 11/12 Stage 3 10 9 Stage 2 8 7 <ul><li>Language and Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and social environment </li></ul><ul><li>Physical education </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign language (from age 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Religion (voluntary for students) </li></ul>Stage 1 6 PRIMARY EDUCATION (6-11/12) 5/6 progressive control of movement, development of language for communication and reflection, stimulation of curiosity, observation and creativity, ... Stage 2 4 3 2 coordination of movements, body control, independence, language for communication of thoughts and feelings, discovery of personal identity, ... Stage 1 1 PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION (0-5) CURRICULAR AREAS STAGES (PHASES) AGE PERIOD
  26. 26. ESP  Physical Education through English
  27. 27. <ul><li>Find more information about: </li></ul><ul><li>Gospel songs </li></ul><ul><li>Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>Rock and roll </li></ul><ul><li>American bands </li></ul><ul><li>Country music </li></ul><ul><li>Pop music </li></ul>From: N. McLaren & D. Madrid: Making Progress. La Calesa.
  28. 28. Similarities with bilingual education programs <ul><li>The CBA uses the TL as the means of instruction and, through it, a variety of curricular subjects are taught. This is a common feature of bilingual education programmes. Two well known examples are the bilingual programs in Canada (Lambert and Tucker, 1972; Swain, 1972; Stern, 1973; Swain and Lapkin, 1982) and in the USA (CDE, 1990; Stern, 1984). </li></ul><ul><li>These programs work according to the following principles: </li></ul><ul><li>A great emphasis must be put on thinking , communication and problem-solving. </li></ul><ul><li>A rich content in all curricular areas, including history , science and literature should be presented. </li></ul><ul><li>They must be content-based and emphasise central concepts, patterns and relationships from each discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>They must provide a holistic view of learning by integrating and connecting the curricular areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The approach followed in the presentation and organisation of contents must be sequentially and spirally organised , so that the concepts, skills and topics introduced in the first stages are cyclically exploited and treated in later stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of teaching strategies . It is recommended to use a wide range of techniques and strategies which satisfy the variety and diversity of students. </li></ul><ul><li>The skills and information provided must be relevant for the students, so that it keeps relation with the real-life situations that the students may encounter in society. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Bilingual programs in Canada <ul><li>Aims of the St Lambert Experiment: </li></ul><ul><li>    The children should: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Become competent in speaking, reading and writing French . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reach normal achievement levels throughout the curriculum including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the English language. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appreciate the traditions and culture of French speaking Canadians as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>well as English speaking Canadians. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>   In short, the aims were for children to become bilingual and bicultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>without loss of achievement . </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Bilingual schools in California (USA)
  31. 31. Relation with the Cognitive Academic Learning Approach (CALLA) <ul><li>The CBA keeps important similarities with the CALLA, designed by Chamot and O'Malley (1994). The CALLA, the same as the CBA, integrates language and content for L2 instruction as follows (1994: 10): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The content topics are aligned with an all-English curriculum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice is provided of the topics that the students will encounter in grade-level classrooms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning with science instruction is recommended because this context, rich in discovering and hands-on-techniques, easily supports the academic language development. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another content subject that can be introduced is mathematics, currently involved in solving word problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social studies is the third content subject introduced in a CALLA programme. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Cognitive Academic Learning Approach (CALLA) Example of science instruction
  33. 33. Cognitive Academic Learning Approach (CALLA) ( Matemáticas) Fracciones Dibujar
  34. 34. Características básicas del AICLE (2) <ul><li>La expresión Aprendizaje Integrado de Conocimientos Curriculares y Lengua Extranjera (AICLE) hace referencia a la enseñanza de cualquier materia (exceptuando las de lenguas) que utiliza como lengua vehicular una lengua extranjera o segunda lengua (L2). </li></ul><ul><li>AICLE propone un equilibrio entre el aprendizaje del contenido y el del idioma . Los contenidos no lingüísticos se desarrollan a través de la L2 y, a su vez, la L2 se desarrolla a través del contenido de la materia. </li></ul><ul><li>It has strong connections to project work , task based learning and a holistic approach to language instruction </li></ul><ul><li>The focus of a CBI lesson is on the topic or subject matter . This could be anything that interests them from a serious science subject to their favourite pop star or even a topical news story or film. </li></ul><ul><li>They learn about this subject using the language they are trying to learn, rather than their native language, as a tool for developing knowledge and so they develop their linguistic ability in the target language. </li></ul><ul><li>This is thought to be a more natural way of developing language ability and one that corresponds more to the way we originally learn our first language. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Ejemplo de “project work”: Spanish life
  36. 36. Ejemplo de CLIL/EMILE
  37. 37. What are the dimensions of CLIL in the classroom? <ul><li>A successful CLIL lesson should combine elements of the four principles below: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A) CONTENT Progression in knowledge, skills and understanding related to specific elements of a defined curriculum. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B) COMMUNICATION / LANGUAGE Using language to learn - whilst learning to use language. The key is interaction, NOT reaction . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C) COGNITION / LEARNING </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing thinking skills which link concept formation (abstract and concrete), understanding and language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D) CULTURE Exposure to alternative perspectives and shared understandings, which deepen awareness of otherness and self. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E) TRANSNATIONAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare for internationalisation, a ccess International Certification, ETC. </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. A) Content: Houses From: N. McLaren & D. Madrid: Making Progress . La Calesa.
  39. 39. B) Communication on the topics: ex. Houses <ul><li>Let’s talk about houses: </li></ul><ul><li>Where did primitive men live? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the first houses built with? </li></ul><ul><li>Where do Eskimos live? What are their </li></ul><ul><li>houses like? </li></ul><ul><li>- Where do nomads live? </li></ul><ul><li>… .. </li></ul>
  40. 40. C) Cognition: Developing thinking skills
  41. 41. D) Culture From: N. McLaren & D. Madrid: Making Progress . La Calesa)
  42. 42. E) Transnational dimension: Prepare for internationalisation, a ccess International Certification Europe is the world's second-smallest continent in terms of area , covering about 10,400,000  square kilometres (4,010,000 sq mi ) or 2.0% of the Earth's surface. The European Union (EU) comprises 27 member states , and it is the largest political and economic entity by area and population covering the European continent. The EU has the world's largest economy with an estimated nominal GDP* of 14.2 trillion USD (2006) accounting for 35% of world GDP. [1] <ul><li>GDP* = gross domestic product </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GDP = consumption + investment + ( government spending ) + ( exports − imports ) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. What are the practical implications of introducing CLIL into the school curriculum? <ul><li>The content subject should always be the primary focus of any materials used in the CLIL classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Constituye una tentativa para superar las limitaciones de los planes de estudio tradicionales, de la enseñanza de materias individuales, y representa un cambio hacia la integración curricular . </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons will need to be challenging cognitively, with comparatively light linguistic demands. </li></ul><ul><li>Schools need to design materials to suit the needs of their learners, and to enable them to develop until they are working at high levels of cognitive and linguistic challenge. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Integración curricular a través de la clase de L2
  45. 45. Metodología Enseñar en una lengua extranjera: Cómo utilizar lenguas extranjeras en la enseñanza de una asignatura (Maria Pavesi, Daniela Bertocchi, Marie Hofmannová, Monika Kazianka General editor: Gisella Langé) <ul><li>Algunas características de metodología comunes que se pueden vincular con los logros en el aprendizaje: </li></ul><ul><li>El input de los contenidos resulta más concreto y visual en AICLE. Importancia de un apoyo visual y multimedia para solventar problemas derivados de un lenguaje especializado. En la enseñanza primaria, es fundamental un aprendizaje holístico y de aprender a través de experiencias prácticas y palpables. </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Los estudiantes valoran la oportunidad de utilizar la lengua extranjera para una comunicación auténtica y poder concentrarse más en el significado y la interacción que solamente en estructuras y errores. </li></ul><ul><li>(c) El cambio de código es una estrategia natural en la comunicación, y los profesores deberían permitirlo, sobre todo en las primeras fases de AICLE. Esto no significa que el profesor deba utilizar la traducción para resolver cualquier dificultad o malentendido. Se deben utilizar otras estrategias de comunicación, por ejemplo una nueva formulación, simplificación y ejemplificación, recurriendo a la traducción solamente en última instancia. </li></ul><ul><li>(d) El profesor de AICLE debe analizar las características estructurales y léxicas del lenguaje especializado, en cooperación con un profesor de lengua. De esta manera se pueden prever y tratar algunas dificultades relacionadas con aspectos técnicos de la L2. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Experiencias prácticas Simplificación y apoyo visual
  47. 47. What about staffing? <ul><li>Availability of CLIL-trained teachers is limited . </li></ul><ul><li>Schools have adopted a wide variety of different approaches to staffing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Profesores cualificados en la asignatura y en la lengua extranjera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Profesores tutores que utilizan una lengua adicional (L2) en mayor o menor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medida, como medio de instrucción (en escuelas primarias) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) Profesores de idiomas que enseñan también otras materias curriculares </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>d) Un profesor de materia curricular y un profesor de idiomas trabajando </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>en equipo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e) Profesores de intercambio a través de Ministerios de Educación, autoridades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>educativas o programas europeos. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>f) Profesores nativos . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Several schools use their Foreign Language Assistants to team-teach or prepare suitable up-to-date resources. </li></ul>
  48. 48. How do schools tackle timetabling issues? <ul><li>CILT research revealed a range of different approaches to timetabling CLIL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>isolated lessons over the school year and 'bilingual days‘ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>modules and even occasionally a whole year's commitment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many schools are starting to combine such work with class visits and/or partnerships with link schools abroad. </li></ul><ul><li>Some schools offer lessons where the foreign language learning is integrated with another curriculum subject. </li></ul>
  49. 49. What about resources and materials? <ul><li>Most of the materials employed in CLIL lessons are teacher-generated . </li></ul><ul><li>There are insufficient commercially-produced resources to be easily available, or which are suitable. </li></ul><ul><li>English-language resources are sometimes translated directly into the target language, with modification as necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of foreign language textbooks can be very profitable, but the texts often require modification of style and / or content to take the age and language level of students into account (modified input ). </li></ul>
  50. 50. Materials from textbooks 2. Find the picture From: D. Madrid & N. McLaren: Let’s Write . Miñón.
  51. 51. Modified input <ul><li>What are these machines for? What do we do with them? </li></ul><ul><li>Calculators </li></ul><ul><li>Scanners </li></ul><ul><li>Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Spaceships </li></ul><ul><li>Communication satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Telephones and mobiles </li></ul>From: N. McLaren & D. Madrid: Making Progress 4 . La Calesa.
  52. 52. How does the CLIL approach benefit pupils? What are the advantages of content based instruction? <ul><li>They will progress at faster-than-usual rates in the content subject. </li></ul><ul><li>CLIL aims to improve performance in both the content subject and the foreign language. </li></ul><ul><li>Research indicates there should be no detrimental effects for the CLIL pupils (and often progress is demonstrably better). </li></ul><ul><li>Greater pupil confidence </li></ul><ul><li>It can make learning a language more interesting and motivating . Students can use the language to fulfil a real purpose. AICLE se basa en la motivación intrínseca, es decir, el alumno se involucra en actividades interesantes, llenas de sentido, al mismo tiempo que utiliza el idioma. </li></ul><ul><li>Students can also develop a much wider knowledge of the world and improve their general educational needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase student awareness of the value of transferable skills and Knowledge. Taking information from different sources can help students to develop very valuable thinking skills that can then be transferred to other subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>The inclusion of a group work element within the framework given above can also help students to develop their collaborative skills , which can have great social value. </li></ul><ul><li>Debido a la naturaleza interactiva y cooperativa del trabajo, con AICLE el alumno gana autoestima y confianza en sí mismo, y aprende a trabajar con independencia y a organizarse mejor. </li></ul><ul><li>A través de unas condiciones de aprendizaje más favorables (debido al uso de estrategias y habilidades de aprendizaje comunes tanto en contenido como en lengua), con AICLE el alumno aprende a estudiar (learning to learn) </li></ul><ul><li>Con la integración de contenidos y lengua y con la implicación del alumno en actividades exigentes desde el punto de vista académico y cognitivo, AICLE favorece los procesos de pensamiento creativos . </li></ul>
  53. 53. AICLE en la enseñanza primaria Enseñar en una lengua extranjera: Cómo utilizar lenguas extranjeras en la enseñanza de una asignatura (Maria Pavesi, Daniela Bertocchi, Marie Hofmannová, Monika Kazianka General editor: Gisella Langé) <ul><li>La instrucción en la L2 puede variar desde una pequeña “ducha lingüística” de 10 minutos diarios, hasta cubrir un 50 % de todas las asignaturas. </li></ul><ul><li>Un plan de estudios que incluye diariamente la instrucción en AICLE durante 10 – 20 minutos fomenta el interés en la L2, a la vez que el alumno adquiere un vocabulario básico y desarrolla sus habilidades para escuchar y hablar. </li></ul><ul><li>Con un plan de estudios que dedica más tiempo a AICLE, los alumnos adquieren gran soltura en escuchar y, en menor medida,en hablar. Como regla general podemos decir que en la enseñanza primaria se da prioridad al código oral. </li></ul>
  54. 54. AICLE en la enseñanza primaria (2) Enseñar en una lengua extranjera: Cómo utilizar lenguas extranjeras en la enseñanza de una asignatura (Maria Pavesi, Daniela Bertocchi, Marie Hofmannová, Monika Kazianka General editor: Gisella Langé) <ul><li>A la hora de elaborar el plan de estudios AICLE, hay que tener en cuenta los siguientes </li></ul><ul><li>aspectos: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) La disponibilidad de recursos en términos de: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>el profesorado y sus capacidades </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>apoyo administrativo del centro </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>material y recursos (manuales, libros en la L2, revistas, periódicos, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>material visual y multimedia, canales de televisión....) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>recursos en la propia comunidad (personas nativas de otros países, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>intercambio con otros países, actividades comerciales....) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) El número de estudiantes y su tipología: edad, necesidades, interés y aptitudes lingüísticas en general </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) El interés de los padres y la motivación de los estudiantes para aprender una lengua moderna específica (como instrumento para estudios profesionales, por ejemplo) y la sensibilidad hacia el plurilingüismo y la ciudadanía europea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(d) Objetivos específicos y resultados esperados </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e) La vinculación de AICLE a la materia curricular: por ejemplo los módulos de historia se pueden desarrollar en una segunda lengua; acontecimientos específicos y proyectos de enseñanza, como son el intercambio internacional , música, teatro, acontecimientos deportivos, exposiciones de arte, relación entre escuelas, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Habilidades, actividades y evaluación <ul><li>En algunas materias y para algunos alumnos es importante desarrollar la habilidad de leer y escribir textos generales y técnicos desde el mismo comienzo. </li></ul><ul><li>En otras materias es decisiva la comprensión oral , porque los alumnos participan en actividades que requieren una buena comprensión de las instrucciones: la educación física, la tecnología del diseño o la química son buenos ejemplos. </li></ul><ul><li>En la enseñanza primaria , la mayor parte del tiempo en AICLE sededicará a trabajo oral interactivo. </li></ul><ul><li>En la escuela secundaria , se trata sobre todo de adquirir la comprensión lectora utilizando diferentes estrategias (por ejemplo lectura a fondo). </li></ul><ul><li>Después de la edad de 10-12 años, a menudo resulta más fácil para los alumnos hacer referencia a material escrito además de la información oral recibida del profesor. Sin embargo, la comprensión de un texto leído en alguna materia puede resultar muy difícil y requiere mucho tiempo para un alumno que posee conocimientos parciales de la lengua extranjera y un conocimiento limitado del tema. El perfeccionamiento de la lectura es una habilidad que los alumnos deben desarrollar en su lengua materna. </li></ul>
  56. 56. What are the potential problems? <ul><li>Because CBI isn't explicitly focused on language learning, some students may feel confused or may even feel that they aren't improving their language skills . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(We can deal with this by including some form of language focused follow-up exercises to help draw attention to linguistic features within the materials and consolidate any difficult vocabulary or grammar points). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Particularly in monolingual classes, the overuse of the students' native language during parts of the lesson can be a problem. Because the lesson isn't explicitly focussed on language practice students find it much easier and quicker to use their mother tongue. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can try sharing your rationale with students and explain the benefits of using the target language rather than their mother tongue. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It can be hard to find adequate information sources and texts understand. Also the sharing of information in the target language may cause great difficulties. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A possible way around this at lower levels is either to use texts in the students' native language and then get them to use the target language for the sharing of information and end product, or to have texts in the target language, but allow the students to present the end product in their native language. These options should reduce the level of challenge. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some students may copy directly from the source texts they use to get their information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can avoid this by designing tasks that demand students evaluate the information in some way, to draw conclusions or actually to put it to some practical use. Having information sources that have conflicting information can also be helpful as students have to decide which information they agree with or most believe. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>La formación puede ser inicial y/o continua (reciclaje). </li></ul><ul><li>Puede darse en forma de curso conjunto de profesores de lengua y profesores de materia curricular. </li></ul><ul><li>La formación debe incluir componentes relativos a la conciencia de lengua y a la adquisición de una segunda lengua , al igual que observaciones en clase y microsesiones de impartir clases. </li></ul><ul><li>Finalmente los profesores de lengua deben familiarizarse con el contenido de la materia y conocer las características típicas de los lenguajes especializados que se usarán al impartir la materia en cuestión. </li></ul>La formación de profesores para AICLE
  58. 58. Habilidades del profesorado de CLIL <ul><li>Aplicación de la materia curricular </li></ul><ul><li>Un profesor cualificado debe ser capaz de: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentar planes de estudios coherentes que tengan en cuenta los objetivos de AICLE, las necesidades y los rasgos específicos de la materia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planificar y organizar clases teniendo en cuenta los requerimientos de tipo lingüístico y cognitivo de las diversas actividades que se llevan a cabo en la L2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garantizar la continuidad y progresión dentro de la materia curricular y de la lengua extranjera o L2 utilizada, y garantizar la integración entre ambos aspectos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aplicar una serie de estrategias de enseñanza apropiadas a la edad, a las aptitudes lingüísticas, a las habilidades en general y al nivel de conocimientos de los alumnos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentar la materia en un lenguaje claro y contextualizado y de manera estimulante e interactiva </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribuir al desarrollo de las habilidades del alumno en cuanto a lenguaje y contenido . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demostrar habilidad para seleccionar y utilizar los recursos adecuados , incluyendo la tecnología de la información. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. Actividades de AICLE From: N. McLaren & D. Madrid: Making Friends ,. La Calesa.
  60. 60. From: N. McLaren & D. Madrid (1983): Let’s Write . Miñón.
  61. 61. Pollution is the release of environmental contaminants. The major forms of pollution include: Air pollution , the release of chemicals and particulates into the atmosphere. Soil contamination occurs when chemicals are released by spill or underground storage tank leakage. Radioactive contamination , added in the wake of 20th-century discoveries in atomic physics . Noise pollution , which encompasses roadway noise , aircraft noise , industrial noise . Light pollution , includes light trespass and over-illumination Visual pollution , which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines , motorway indications, etc. Thermal Pollution , is a temperature change in natural water bodies caused by human influence Find the different types of pollution in the pictures From: D. Madrid & N. McLaren. Making Progress . La Calesa.