Abc plurilingualism romania


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Abc plurilingualism romania

  2. 2. ROMANIA
  3. 3. ROMANIA
  5. 5. • Education is a national priority• Education is based on democratic values• Romania endorses the principle of equal chances ineducation regardless of gender, individualcharacteristics – physical or mental impairments, culturalor socio-economic background, mother tongue, ethnicorigin, religion etc.• Minorities have a right to education in their ownlanguage• Public education is tax freeEducation ActBasic principles
  6. 6. Pre-university education• Beginning of compulsory education at the age of 6• 10 grades of compulsory education: I - XConsequence:Young people leave compulsory education at theage of 16, when the law allows them to integrate thework market• Change in the structure of secondary education,giving young people the opportunity to entervocational education and training inside compulsoryeducation, through the art and trades school• A vocational path with progressive certification
  7. 7. University educationrecent changes* Introduction, in the legal provisions, of theBologna decisions:• First cycle (3-4 years), leading to bachelordegree• Second cycle (1-2 years), leading to masterdegree• Third cycle (3 years), leading to PhD* Implementation of the European transferablecredits system* Restructuring of university specializations
  8. 8. 4Post high schoolTertiaryeducation-non university3Noncompulsory18 XIII3High school- upper cycle -Uppersecondary317 XIIHigh school-upper cycle-216 XICompletion year15 X2High school-lower cycle-Arts and trades schoolLowersecondary1Compulsory14 IX13 VIIIGeneral school-12 VII11 VI110 V10-11 IVPrimary schoolPrimaryeducation9-10 III8-9 II7-8 I6-7 05-6 Big group4-5 Middlegroup 0 KindergartenPre schooleducationNoncompulsory3-4 BeginnersAge Grade ISCED Education levels Qual. Type>1965University - master Tertiaryeducation -university54NoncompulsoryUniversity - bachelor
  9. 9. CurriculumThe curricular framework includes:• The core curriculum (common core and differentiated curriculum),containing the compulsory subjects and the number of allocatedhours, designed and approved at national level• The school based curriculum, designed at the level of the schoolThe syllabus• for the core curriculum subjects, the syllabus is elaborated bycommissions of specialists, it is endorsed by the National Board forCurriculum and approved by the minister of education• For school based curriculum, the syllabus is designed at the level ofthe school and approved by the specialty inspector of each countyText books• Alternative textbooks can be elaborated for the same syllabus• The ministry approves the textbooks which can be used in schools• The teachers have the right to choose the appropriate textbook,from the approved listTeacher guidelines are usually elaborated by the National Board forCurriculum
  10. 10. FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING ANDLEARNING IN ROMANIA• The study of the first language begins in 3rdgrade, at the age of 9• The second language is introduced in the5thgrade, at the age of 11• Children can begin the study of the firstlanguage in 1stgrade, as an optionalcourse• At parents request, one language can bestudied in kindergarten
  11. 11. Foreign languages taught in theRomanian education system• English - 2,500,000 students• French - 1,885,207 students• German - 240,000 students• Russian - 90,000 students• Italian - 11,428• Spanish - 11,019• Portuguese, Modern Greek, Japanese
  12. 12. Number of compulsory languagehoursLevel Optional/compulsory1stlanguage2ndlanguagePre-school OptionalPrimary schoolgrades I –IIgrades III –IVOptionalCompulsory1h / week2h / week-General school(grades V - VIII)Compulsory 2h / week 2h / weekHigh school(grades IX-XII)Compulsory 2h / week 2h / weekVET schools(grades IX-X)Compulsory 2h / week -
  13. 13. Number of language hours- intensive study classes -• Begins in 5thgrade, can continue until 12thgrade• 4 hours of foreign language study/ week• Students pass a language test, in order tobe admitted
  14. 14. Bilingual study of a foreignlanguageAims :Cross-curricular approach to languages,history, geography, culture and civilizationObjectives :• higher proficiency in a foreign language• education for a new Europe• increasing tolerance, smoothing culturaldifferences
  15. 15. Bilingual study of a foreignlanguageTarget group:• High school students (15-19 years old) in alltypes of schools, submitted to a language test,before admissionNumber of hours:• 4 - 6 hours of foreign language study/ week• History, geography and culture of the foreigncountry studied in the respective language• Other subjects might be studied in the foreignlanguage (CLIL)
  16. 16. Bilingual study of a foreignlanguageTeachers:• use of native speakers as teachers and languageassistantsCertification:• At the end of high school, students can obtain acertificate of language competencyResults:• students have reached C1- C2 levels and are able totake international language exams (Cambridge,Deutsches Sprachdiplom, DELF, DALF)• many students enrol in universities with tuition in aforeign language, in Romania or abroad
  17. 17. Textbooks and educationalmaterials for language study• Textbooks for all levels have been issued byRomanian and foreign publishing houses• Auxiliary materials (dictionaries, video andaudio cassettes, leaflets, posters) areavailable• Radio and TV support, informally, languageteaching and learning
  18. 18. The study of mother tongue forminoritiesPossible ways to study mother tongue forchildren coming from minority groups• Study of all the subjects in the mothertongue• Study of the mother tongue and of severalsubjects in the mother tongue, accordingto the human resources available• Study of the mother tongue and study ofthe other subjects in Romanian
  19. 19. European linguistic concepts andinstruments inRomanian education system
  20. 20. The process Education and Training 2010Romania has adopted and explicitly mentioned in thecurriculum the 8 domains of key competences:- Communication in the mother tongue- Communication in foreign languages- Mathematical literacy and basic competences in scienceand technology- ICT skills- Learning to learn- Interpersonal and social competences- Entrepreneurship- Cultural awareness
  21. 21. Consequences• Introducing the second foreign language in alltypes of high schools, from 9thto 12thgrade• The existence of a compulsory foreign language,in the curriculum for the arts and trades schools• The existence, for qualifications such ascommerce or tourism, of a module, integrated inthe specialty area: Communication forprofessional aims, in a second foreign language• The existence, in each qualification in the VETsystem, of a unit of competency : communicatingin a foreign language
  22. 22. Plurilingualism• Romania is a multilingual country, as a variety oflanguages are present in its regions• Romanian education encourages plurilingualism,valuing and developing the ability of allindividuals to learn and use several languagesAim:Creation of respect and understanding of thelanguages and language varieties of others as abasis for democratic citizenship.
  23. 23. Specific measures (1)• Introduction of the study of the first foreignlanguage in primary education – 3rdgrade• Possibility for children coming from minoritygroups to study their / in their mother tongue inschool• Study of 2 foreign languages in compulsoryeducation, achieving the EU principle:mother tongue + two other languages• Possibility to study a third foreign language inhigh school
  24. 24. Specific measures (2)• A compulsory oral examination of one of thestudied languages at the baccalaureate exam,for all students• Study of foreign languages in universities• Development of departments in universities,which deliver studies in the mother tongue ofminorities• Development of departments in universities, withcomplete tuition in a foreign language
  25. 25. Language education and values ofdemocratic citizenshipRecognition of the diversity of speakers’plurilingual repertoires leads to:• respect for linguistic differences• respect for the linguistic rights of individuals and groupsin their relations with the state and linguistic majorities(stated by law)• respect for linguistic minoritiesLanguage teaching is the ideal locus for interculturalcontact and in which education for democratic life, inits intercultural dimensions, can be included
  26. 26. Common European framework ofreference for languages• The foreign language syllabus mentionsexplicitly the Common European Framework ofReference for Languages (CEFR)• The foreign language syllabus mentions thelevel to be attained at the end of compulsoryeducation, according to the CEFR• In 2003, the specialists in the Institute forEducational Sciences translated the CEFR inRomanian language, including the selfevaluation grid, which specifies the standardizedlevels of competence (A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, C2).
  27. 27. European Language Portfolio• Recommendation nr. R (98) 6, regarding modernlanguages recommends the development of theEuropean Portfolio for Modern Languages, as a supportinstrument for developing plurilingualism andpluriculturalism• The aim: to record significant linguistic and culturalexperiences, in a transparent and internationallyrecognized way• Author: the Modern Language Division of the Council ofEurope• Developed and piloted: between 1998 and 2000• Launched in 2001, during the European year oflanguages
  28. 28. European Language Portfolio- components -• Linguistic passport, mentioning the formalqualifications. It includes the self evaluation oflinguistic competencies, according to the gridproposed by the CEFR• A linguistic biography, with details, describingthe learning experiences in each language andaiming to guide the planning process and theevaluation of progress in language learning• A dossier, containing examples of materials,illustrating learning experiences, the objectiveschosen by the owner, samples of personal workand other documents
  29. 29. European Language PortfolioRomanian situation (1)• In 2002, the secretary of state nominated the Romanian NationalCommittee for ELP (inspectors, teachers of Romanian and foreignlanguages, specialists in didactics etc)• In 2001, the Prosper – ASE Center, member of QUEST – Romania,translated the Linguistic Passport, of the European LanguagePortfolio for adults elaborated by EAQUALS-ALTE• In 2002, the Romanian National Committee for ELP analyzed andapproved, the Romanian version of the European LanguagePortfolio for adults, elaborated by Prosper – ASE Center• In 2003, the Council of Europe validated the Romanian version ofthe European Language Portfolio for adults, elaborated by Prosper– ASE Center• In 2004, each school inspectorate in the country received from theMoER the first copies of the Romanian version of the ELP for adults
  30. 30. European Language PortfolioRomanian situation (2)• Introducing a set of methodologicalrecommendations regarding the use of the ELPelaborated by EAQUALS – ALTE, in the syllabusfor modern languages for lower cycle of highschools, art and trades schools and completionyear• Introducing in the modern languages syllabi ofthe level specifications, according to the CEFR,standard specifications present in the selfevaluation grid, integrated in the LinguisticPassport
  31. 31. European Language PortfolioRomanian situation (3)• Training activities in Modern languages Centersand in the Foreign Cultural Institutes, in order toprepare trainers and managers in themethodology of the ELP for adults QUESTRomania• Between 2001and 2003, the preparatory stagesfor the elaboration of the Junior ELP (8-11years) took place• On the website of the National center forVocational Orientation, one can find informationabout Europass, including the English version ofthe Linguistic Passport Europass