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# Chapter 2

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This chapter introduce how to develope weaving plan and application to weaving machine.

This chapter introduce how to develope weaving plan and application to weaving machine.

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• 1. CHAPTER TWO: WEAVING PLAN
• 2.
• 3. 2.1 Methods of Weave Representation
• Divided into 2 type:
• Warp overlap
• Weft overlap
• 2 methods of weave representation:
• Linear Method 2. Canvas Method
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
• 4. 2.2 Repeat of Weave and Shift
• The repeat of weave is a complete element of the weave.
• Shift or move is the distance from a painted square on one horizontal space to the corresponding painted square on the next horizontal space
Warp repeat, R x = 5   Weft repeat, R y = 5 S y = Horizontal Shift S x = Vertical Shift   Fundamental weave: 5/2 sateen R x S y 10 9 8 7 6 5 R y 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
• 5. 2.3 Draft
• Technically it shows the sequence of raising and lowering the healdframes or healdshaft, a set called harness for the weave formation.
• The type of weave to be produced depends on the draft.
• The basic data for constructing the draft is the weave.
• The draft is usually shown at the top of the weave diagram.
• Drafts can be classified as follows:
• Straight draft
• Skip draft
• Pointed draft
• Broken draft
• Divided draft
• Grouped draft
• Curved draft
• Combined draft
• 6. 2.3.1 Straight draft
• The simplest draft, forms the basis for many drafts.
• Each successive yarn is drawn on successive shaft, the first warp yarn on the first shaft, the second shaft, and so on.
• The number of shafts equals the warp repeat, Draft repeat, R d = Warp repeat, R x = 5 (example above).
• 7. 2.3.2 Skip draft
• Used in weaving the fabrics with a high density of warp threads.
• Possible to use a number of shafts two or more times greater than the warp repeat and than the minimal necessary number of shafts for this weave.
• The density of healds on each shaft decreases, and friction thread against thread, and thread against heald reduces.
• 8. 2.3.3 Pointed draft
• This draft is used in weaving the fabrics with a symmetrical design, when the straight draft cannot be applied because of a large warp repeat.
• The pointed draft can be considered as a combination of straight drafts, constructed first in one direction and then in the other.
• The change of direction takes place on the first and last shafts of the draft, which are the points of reversal.
• These shafts contains only one heald each number of shafts used is about two times less than the warp repeat of the weave: N s = R x /2 + 1.
• A variety of derived twills, and also the diamond designs, which are symmetrical about their vertical and horizontal axes.
• 9. 2.3.4 Broken draft
• This draft can be considered as a modified pointed draft.
• A combination of straight drafts with different directions of constructing.
• The direction is reversed not on the last or the first shaft.
• When the direction is reversed the first threads of the next group is started higher or lower than the last thread of the preceding group.
• This small modification changes considerably the design by breaking the axis of symmetry.
• The broken draft is applied for producing hearringbone twills, diaper designs and some other designs.
• 10. 2.3.5 Divided draft
• This draft is employed for derived weaves, double-warp weaves, two ply weaves, pile weaves, and some others.
• The shafts are divided into two or more groups.
• A suitable type of draft is chosen for each group.
• 11. 2.3.6 Grouped draft
• This draft is employed for production of check and stripe designs, in which the stripes have different weaves or their combinations.
• The draft is used for producing the fabric with two different stripes containing 15 and 12 threads, respectively .
• 12. 2.3.7 Curved draft 2.3.8 Combined draft
• Curved drafts are irregular and cannot be classified.
• These draft are applied for fancy weaves having a large warp repeat with the purpose of reducing the number of shafts.
• The minimal number of shafts equals the numbers of threads in warp repeat with different order of interlacing.
• The drawing-in is done applying the rule: all warp threads which work alike are drawn on the same shaft.
• Oral instructions cannot be given to the drawer, as well as to the weaver.
• They should be supplied with drawings of the curved draft.
• Various methods of drawing-in can be combined in one draft for producing a certain type of fabric.
• Two or more drafts described above can be applied simultaneously, for example, straight and skip, grouped and curved, and so on.
• Combined draft is most complicated and can be chosen only if there are some technological or economical reasons.
• It can be done properly by the designer having a great experience.
• 13. 2.4 Requirements to Drawing-In
• Studied first using a straight draft then the simplest and suitable for the design.
• The number of shafts should be as small as possible, but the density of healds is to be calculated and should not exceed the standard value.
• The distribution of threads on different shafts should be as uniform as possible.
• Used the front shafts with minimal height of lifting for the threads with biggest number of intersections in the weave repeat and for a weaker system of warp threads.
• 14.
• 15. 1.2 Weaving Plan
• “ Weaving plan is a characteristic of process conditions of fabric production on the loom, expressed in graphical form”
• Consists of 3 elements placed in certain order:
• Repeat of weave, example plain, twill and sateen
• Draft or drawing-in
• lifting plan - Determines the order of lifting and lowering the shafts in the process of forming the weave; cam, dobby and jacquard.
• 16. Example of straight draft (arrangement of warp yarn on healdframe) Shaft No. 4 Shaft No. 3 Shaft No. 2 Shaft No. 1 Healdwire No. 4 Healdwire No. 1 Healdwire No. 2 Healdwire No. 3 Repeat No. 1 Repeat No. 2 To warp beam To cloth roller
• 17. Example of Weaving Plan Vs Dobby Weaving Machine Dobby Mechanism – controlling the healdframe/shaft to built the fabric design Weaving Plan; Lifting Plan Healdframe/Shaft – up and down motion for warp yarn to form shedding process Weaving Plan; Draft Fabric Formation – combination of warp and weft interlacing due to shedding motion (shaft), controlled by pattern controlled mechanism (dobby) Weaving Plan; Weave
• 18. 2.6 Relation between Weave, Draft and Lifting Plan. In the draft, there are 5 horizontal spaces which represent the shafts There are 10 vertical spaces in the lifting plan, equal to the number of weft threads in the weave repeats
• 19. 2.7 Elements Arrangement on Weaving Plan C B Lifting Plan on Left Position
• 20. Lifting Plan on Right Position
• 21. Task 1: Construct a weaving Plan from a Given Weave
• 22. Task 2: Construct a Weave from a Given Draft and Lifting Plan
• 23. Task 3: Construct a Draft from a Given Lifting Plan and Weave
• 24.