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Chapter 2

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This chapter introduce how to develope weaving plan and application to weaving machine.

This chapter introduce how to develope weaving plan and application to weaving machine.

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  • 2.  
  • 3. 2.1 Methods of Weave Representation
    • Divided into 2 type:
      • Warp overlap
      • Weft overlap
    • 2 methods of weave representation:
      • Linear Method 2. Canvas Method
    8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
  • 4. 2.2 Repeat of Weave and Shift
        • The repeat of weave is a complete element of the weave.
        • Shift or move is the distance from a painted square on one horizontal space to the corresponding painted square on the next horizontal space
    Warp repeat, R x = 5   Weft repeat, R y = 5 S y = Horizontal Shift S x = Vertical Shift   Fundamental weave: 5/2 sateen R x S y 10 9 8 7 6 5 R y 4 3 2 1 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  • 5. 2.3 Draft
    • Technically it shows the sequence of raising and lowering the healdframes or healdshaft, a set called harness for the weave formation.
    • The type of weave to be produced depends on the draft.
    • The basic data for constructing the draft is the weave.
    • The draft is usually shown at the top of the weave diagram.
    • Drafts can be classified as follows:
      • Straight draft
      • Skip draft
      • Pointed draft
      • Broken draft
      • Divided draft
      • Grouped draft
      • Curved draft
      • Combined draft
  • 6. 2.3.1 Straight draft
    • The simplest draft, forms the basis for many drafts.
    • Each successive yarn is drawn on successive shaft, the first warp yarn on the first shaft, the second shaft, and so on.
    • The number of shafts equals the warp repeat, Draft repeat, R d = Warp repeat, R x = 5 (example above).
  • 7. 2.3.2 Skip draft
    • Used in weaving the fabrics with a high density of warp threads.
    • Possible to use a number of shafts two or more times greater than the warp repeat and than the minimal necessary number of shafts for this weave.
    • The density of healds on each shaft decreases, and friction thread against thread, and thread against heald reduces.
  • 8. 2.3.3 Pointed draft
    • This draft is used in weaving the fabrics with a symmetrical design, when the straight draft cannot be applied because of a large warp repeat.
    • The pointed draft can be considered as a combination of straight drafts, constructed first in one direction and then in the other.
    • The change of direction takes place on the first and last shafts of the draft, which are the points of reversal.
    • These shafts contains only one heald each number of shafts used is about two times less than the warp repeat of the weave: N s = R x /2 + 1.
    • A variety of derived twills, and also the diamond designs, which are symmetrical about their vertical and horizontal axes.
  • 9. 2.3.4 Broken draft
    • This draft can be considered as a modified pointed draft.
    • A combination of straight drafts with different directions of constructing.
    • The direction is reversed not on the last or the first shaft.
    • When the direction is reversed the first threads of the next group is started higher or lower than the last thread of the preceding group.
    • This small modification changes considerably the design by breaking the axis of symmetry.
    • The broken draft is applied for producing hearringbone twills, diaper designs and some other designs.
  • 10. 2.3.5 Divided draft
    • This draft is employed for derived weaves, double-warp weaves, two ply weaves, pile weaves, and some others.
    • The shafts are divided into two or more groups.
    • A suitable type of draft is chosen for each group.
  • 11. 2.3.6 Grouped draft
    • This draft is employed for production of check and stripe designs, in which the stripes have different weaves or their combinations.
    • The draft is used for producing the fabric with two different stripes containing 15 and 12 threads, respectively .
  • 12. 2.3.7 Curved draft 2.3.8 Combined draft
    • Curved drafts are irregular and cannot be classified.
    • These draft are applied for fancy weaves having a large warp repeat with the purpose of reducing the number of shafts.
    • The minimal number of shafts equals the numbers of threads in warp repeat with different order of interlacing.
    • The drawing-in is done applying the rule: all warp threads which work alike are drawn on the same shaft.
    • Oral instructions cannot be given to the drawer, as well as to the weaver.
    • They should be supplied with drawings of the curved draft.
    • Various methods of drawing-in can be combined in one draft for producing a certain type of fabric.
    • Two or more drafts described above can be applied simultaneously, for example, straight and skip, grouped and curved, and so on.
    • Combined draft is most complicated and can be chosen only if there are some technological or economical reasons.
    • It can be done properly by the designer having a great experience.
  • 13. 2.4 Requirements to Drawing-In
    • Studied first using a straight draft then the simplest and suitable for the design.
    • The number of shafts should be as small as possible, but the density of healds is to be calculated and should not exceed the standard value.
    • The distribution of threads on different shafts should be as uniform as possible.
    • Used the front shafts with minimal height of lifting for the threads with biggest number of intersections in the weave repeat and for a weaker system of warp threads.
  • 14.  
  • 15. 1.2 Weaving Plan
    • “ Weaving plan is a characteristic of process conditions of fabric production on the loom, expressed in graphical form”
    • Consists of 3 elements placed in certain order:
      • Repeat of weave, example plain, twill and sateen
      • Draft or drawing-in
      • lifting plan - Determines the order of lifting and lowering the shafts in the process of forming the weave; cam, dobby and jacquard.
  • 16. Example of straight draft (arrangement of warp yarn on healdframe) Shaft No. 4 Shaft No. 3 Shaft No. 2 Shaft No. 1 Healdwire No. 4 Healdwire No. 1 Healdwire No. 2 Healdwire No. 3 Repeat No. 1 Repeat No. 2 To warp beam To cloth roller
  • 17. Example of Weaving Plan Vs Dobby Weaving Machine Dobby Mechanism – controlling the healdframe/shaft to built the fabric design Weaving Plan; Lifting Plan Healdframe/Shaft – up and down motion for warp yarn to form shedding process Weaving Plan; Draft Fabric Formation – combination of warp and weft interlacing due to shedding motion (shaft), controlled by pattern controlled mechanism (dobby) Weaving Plan; Weave
  • 18. 2.6 Relation between Weave, Draft and Lifting Plan. In the draft, there are 5 horizontal spaces which represent the shafts There are 10 vertical spaces in the lifting plan, equal to the number of weft threads in the weave repeats
  • 19. 2.7 Elements Arrangement on Weaving Plan C B Lifting Plan on Left Position
  • 20. Lifting Plan on Right Position
  • 21. Task 1: Construct a weaving Plan from a Given Weave
  • 22. Task 2: Construct a Weave from a Given Draft and Lifting Plan
  • 23. Task 3: Construct a Draft from a Given Lifting Plan and Weave
  • 24.