3Introduction Welcome to Global Transfer Market 2012 – Highlights, a preview of the FIFA Transfer Matching System GmbH (FIFA TMS) annual review of the international transfer market. We are extremely pleased to be able to present, for the second consecutive year, data and analysis covering the international transfers of professional football players. This report is unique as it provides a global view of player transfers covering six regions, over 200 countries and 5,600 professional clubs around the world. For the first time, we have also been in a position to measure some of the key trends in the market based on 2011 transfer data. There is even more in our full report – Global Transfer Market 2012 – including a detailed view of transfer streams between countries as well as statistics on player positions and salaries for the most active countries. It also provides case studies offering additional insights into the international transfer environment and a full appendix with data featuring over 190 countries. The FIFA TMS vision is to foster and sustain a transparent global transfer market based on integrity, accountability and innovation. The full participation of all member associations and professional clubs in the FIFA Transfer Matching System greatly contributes to this vision and we would like to thank them for their continued support. I hope you enjoy this edition of Global Transfer Market 2012 – Highlights. If you have any feedback or suggestions, please visit our website at www. fifatms.com. Mark Goddard General Manager FIFA Transfer Matching System GmbH
Highlights of the 2012 key indicatorsMarket activity and mobility patterns Contracts 70% 14%4 511,552 -10%Number of international transfers completed in 2012 Average number of minutes between each transfer on the two busiest days (31 January and 31 August) Percentage of international transfers involving ‘out of contract’ players Percentage of transfers involving club-to-club compensationPlayer characteristics 24 Club-to-club compensationThe most represented nationality in the transfer market years USD Percentage change in total club-to-club compensation versus 2011 and 2.53 billion 10 months Total value of international transfer-related Average age of players transferred internationally club-to-club compensation
USD 80,000SalariesUSD 720,0006Average fixed annual salary of players moving into Italy,the highest average salary of the world’s six most active countriesAverage fixed annual salary of players moving into Brazil,the world’s most active country in 2012Intermediaries USDPercentage change in club intermediaries’ involvement ininternational transfers 59 million Total club intermediary compensation paid by English clubs on international transfers, the highest worldwide
9The nature ofinternational transfersThis chapter provides an introduction for the benefit of FIFA’s regulations stipulate that international transfersreaders new to this report or those wishing to learn more are only permitted if the player is over the age of 184.about the key processes involved in international player Exceptions to this rule exist to allow a certain appropriatetransfers. flexibility in specific situations, however. Therefore, this report focuses on the international movement ofThe transfer matching service provided by FIFA TMS professional players aged 18 or older.involves the following stakeholders: It is worth repeating that an international player transfer the player represents the movement of a player between two clubs the releasing club in two different countries. So, from an association or the releasing club’s association country perspective, transfer activity can be separated the engaging club into incoming transfers (players joining a country’s the engaging club’s association clubs) and outgoing transfers (players leaving a country’s and FIFA TMS clubs). Together, these add up to a country’s overall transfer market involvement5. Along the same lines,FIFA TMS is responsible for providing an electronic transfer activity can be aggregated at a confederation orplatform and processes which support the provision of regional level6.an International Transfer Certificate (ITC)1. This report examines the patterns and trends that haveWithin the scope of this report, an international player developed in the international transfer market over thetransfer refers to the movement of a professional player’s year 2012 from a global-, regional- and country-levelregistration from one association to another, perspective.accompanying a change of a player’s club affiliation2.Players can only be registered with a new associationduring one of two annual registration periods3. There areexceptions to this rule. For example, a professional playercan move outside a registration period if his contractwith his former club has expired prior to the end of that 1 FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012,registration period. Annexe 3: A professional is not eligible to play in official matches for his new club until an ITC has been issued by the former association and received by the new association, or the new association has registered the professional with the new club on a provisional basis. 2 Throughout this report, the term ‘transfer’ covers international transfers where players move across country borders, but excludes domestic transfers within country borders. 3 FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, art. 6 4 FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, art. 19 5 Throughout this report, the terms ‘association’ and ‘country’ are used interchangeably to denote the national football associations that represent FIFA in their countries. 6 Throughout this report, the terms ‘confederation’ and ‘region’ are used interchangeably to denote confederations as the umbrella organisations of the national football associations on each continent.
2012 The 2012 global transfer market Market activity and mobility patterns 1.0 Player characteristics 2.0 Contracts 3.0 Club-to-club transfer compensation 4.0 Salaries 5.0 Intermediaries 6.0 The following analyses identify top-level characteristics and trends in the 2012 global transfer market. Each chapter takes a different perspective on players’ movements to draw a comprehensive overview of the market.
Most active countries 1.3 Timing of transfers 1.2 Overall market activity 1.1 mobility patterns Market activity and 11 Market activity and mobility patterns 2 Player characteristics 3 Contracts 4 Club-to-club transfer compensation 5 Salaries 6 Intermediaries
14 1.1 Figure 1: Overall market activity 15 6 Intermediaries Overall market activity 5 Salaries Europe 4 Club-to-club transfer compensation 6,387 incoming transfers 6,543 2 012 saw a 1% increase During 2012, professional football clubs conducted outgoing transfers a total of 11,552 international transfers, a 1% North America Asia From a global perspective, there was little growth in the 804 in international transfers increase (71 transfers) compared to 2011. incoming transfers 1,608 2012 international transfer market. The growth was 666 outgoing transfers Africa incoming transfers 1,180 mainly down to European clubs – the market’s most compared to 2011. 761 incoming transfers outgoing transfers dominating actors involved in 6,387 incoming and 6,543 1,133 outgoing transfers outgoing player movements across country borders. The European clubs were the 3 Contracts European countries’ transfer market involvement in South America terms of the total of incoming and outgoing player most active participants 1,992 incoming transfers movements grew by 1% (166 transfers). Oceania 2,014 outgoing transfers 0 2 Player characteristics incoming transfers in the market. 16 The market activity of North American, African, and outgoing transfers South American countries revealed a more dynamic picture, with clear changes compared to 2011: North America: countries reported increased market 1 Market activity and mobility patterns involvement by 6% (88 transfers). Incoming transfer activity increased by 11% (80 transfers). Total number of transfers globally Africa: incoming transfers were up by 12% (79 transfers) while outgoing transfers increased by 3% (35 transfers). African countries still reported more outgoing (1,133 Figure 1 (see also the following page) illustrates the transfers) than incoming player movements (761 +1% 11,552 total number of international transfers conducted from a global perspective. It also displays key transfers). figures on incoming and outgoing transfers of countries grouped by region. Transfer market +71 involvement is calculated as the total of incoming South America: the second most active region behind and outgoing transfers by country. Fluctuations in Europe, South American countries reduced their figures for 2012 compared to 2011 are indicated in absolute and percentage numbers. 11,481 involvement in the market by 4% (178 transfers). This was driven by 4% (78 transfers) fewer incoming and 5% (100 transfers) fewer outgoing transfers. transfers transfers Source: FIFA TMS, 2012 20 20 11 12
18 1.2 19 6 Intermediaries Timing of transfers Figure 3: Number of countries with open and closed registration periods per month 5 Salaries 4 Club-to-club transfer compensation 190 191 182 183 169 64% of transfer activity Most of the transfer activity took place in January, 155 139 143 136 July and August. Together, these months accounted 130 122 took place in January, for 64% (7,391 transfers) of 2012’s overall market 111 98 activity. 31 January and 31 August were the busiest 79 87 70 73 July and August. days of the year, with an international transfer 66 54 As highlighted in Figure 3, the peaks of transfer market conducted every five minutes during those 48 hours. 40 activity in January, July and August correspond with the 27 26 July was the busiest 19 18 3 Contracts number of countries with an open registration period during these months. Jan Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se Oc No De month for transfers. ua br rch ril y ne ly gu pt to ve ce ry ua st em be mb mb ry be r er er r 2 Player characteristics Countries with closed registration periods Countries with open registration periods Figure 3 illustrates the number of countries with open and closed registration periods per month of the 2012 Source for figures 2 – 3: FIFA TMS, 2012 calendar year. The figure considers a country as having an open registration period if a registration period was open on one day in a given month. 1 Market activity and mobility patterns Figure 2: Timing of transfers 83 81 75 2,565 2,504 2,322 Transfers per day (average) 31 January 300 transfers 31 August 266 transfers 47 Transfers per month 1,354 25 25 780 754 18 530 8 8 230 3 240 4 2 92 109 72 Jan Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Ju Au Se Oc No De ua br rch ril y ne ly gu pt to ve c Figure 2 illustrates the number of transfers conducted ry ua ry st em be r mb emb be er er per month and highlights the two most active days in r the 2012 transfer year. The figure also shows the daily average of conducted transfers for each month.
20 1.3 Figure 4: Most active countries England Germany 21 6 Intermediaries Hungary Most active Spain countries Tunisia 5 Salaries 4 Club-to-club transfer compensation Europe Russia Brazilian clubs were Figure 4 shows that some non-European and non- South American countries had high increases in North America Asia involved in 11% of all incoming or outgoing transfers compared to 2011. With equal numbers as English clubs, Tunisian clubs international transfers. showed the highest increase in incoming transfers. Nigerian clubs ranked second in terms of increased Nigeria Africa The top three countries with the highest increase in transfer activity from an outgoing perspective. 3 Contracts incoming transfers by percentage, taking numbers The global transfer market was dominated by clubs Brazil he ten most active countries for player incomings relative to 2011, and excluding cases with zero transfers, from a group of highly active countries. South America were: T Oceania Iraq (+342%, +41 transfers), 2 Player characteristics accounted for 28% (3,251 transfers) of the overall Argentina Côte d’Ivoire (+322%, +29 transfers), and market activity. The top five accounted for 18% he top ten countries for outgoing transfers Liberia (+300%, +3 transfers). Countries within the top-3 in (2,080 transfers). the respective category T The top three countries with the highest percentage accounted for 34% (3,870 transfers). The top five increase in outgoing transfers were: Countries with most Countries with most Countries with highest Countries with highest 1 Market activity and mobility patterns accounted for 20% (2,363 transfers). incoming transfers outgoing transfers increase of incoming increase of outgoing Most of the countries with high numbers of incoming Gabon (+75%, +12 transfers), transfers transfers transfers were also amongst the ones with high numbers Hong Kong (+72%, +18 transfers), and of outgoing transfers, with Brazil the most active country Malaysia (+69%, +11 transfers). Country Number of Country Number of Country Increase in Country Increase in transfers transfers number of number of in both rankings. Brazilian clubs were involved in 11% transfers transfers (1,314 transfers) of all international transfers, as either the engaging or releasing party. England (8%, or 978 Brazil 696 Brazil 618 England +52 Spain +91 transfers) and Argentina (6%, or 725 transfers) were England 501 England 477 Tunisia +52 Nigeria +64 just behind. Germany 307 Argentina 436 Hungary +48 Russia +39 Argentina 289 Spain 432 Norway +42 Switzerland +38 Clubs from 67% (140) of FIFA’s member associations Portugal 287 Portugal 400 Iraq +41 Egypt +37 conducted at least one incoming transfer. Clubs from Italy 263 France 359 Czech Republic +38 Italy +34 79% (165) of member associations were involved in at Uruguay 233 Italy 339 USA +35 Croatia +33 least one transfer as the releasing side. France 227 Germany 311 Bulgaria +34 Costa Rica +31 9 associations did not report a single incoming 6 USA 225 Uruguay 256 China PR +32 Côte dIvoire +30 international transfer. Belgium 223 Russia 242 Mexico +32 Wales +28 4 associations did not report a single outgoing 4 Source: FIFA TMS, 2012 movement of a professional player. associations reported neither incoming nor 43 Figure 4 lists the ten most active countries in terms of their clubs’ total number of incoming and outgoing transfers. outgoing player movements. Countries with the highest increase in incoming and outgoing transfers are identified versus 2011 numbers. The figure shows the absolute change in the number of incoming and outgoing transfers.
Player nationality 2.2 Player age 2.1 characteristics Player 21 Market activity and mobility patterns 2 Player characteristics 3 Contracts 4 Club-to-club transfer compensation 5 Salaries 6 Intermediaries
24 2.1 25 6 Intermediaries Player age 5 Salaries 4 Club-to-club transfer compensation The average age of professional players transferred Figure 5 shows that the frequency of players transferred internationally in 2012 was 24 years and 10 months, the per year increases until players turn 23. It then steadily The average age of same as in 2011. A number of transfers involved players decreases as players enter their mid-30s. aged 16 or 17. Generally, FIFA’s regulations do not allow professional players international transfers of minors (i.e. players who have The under-20 age group accounted for 10% of all not yet reached the age of 18) or the first registration of international transfers. Players aged between 20 and 24 transferred foreign minors in an association7. This group of 16- and accounted for 39% of all international transfers. Players 17-year-olds transferred in 2012 refers to players aged between 25 and 29 accounted for 36% and those internationally 3 Contracts acquiring the status of professionals early in their careers aged 30 and older accounted for 14%8. who were allowed to move internationally on the basis of was 24 years and one of the following exceptions: 2 Player characteristics 10 months. he minor’s home and the club are both within 50km T of a common border, and the distance between the minor’s home and the club does not exceed 100km. The minor’s parents are moving to another country for Figure 5: Age distribution of players in international transfers a reason not linked to football. 1 Market activity and mobility patterns The transfer is within the European Union (EU) or the European Economic Area (EEA) and the player is over 16 (and certain stringent conditions are met, such as the level of academic and football training). 1,040 Figure 5 shows the number of internationally 978 943 943 transferred players per player age. 915 847 A further option is made possible by the jurisprudence of 829 771 742 the sub-committee appointed by the Players’ Status 668 590 Committee for the purpose of the protection of minors. It 505 463 regularly grants authorisation for the first registration of 405 a foreign minor player if the latter has been living for at 301 204 least five years in the country where he wishes to be 100 118 54 77 registered. The sub-committee deems that under such 26 14 10 5 3 circumstances, the minor should be considered a national 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 of that country from a sporting point of view. Age of players Source: FIFA TMS, 2012 7 FIFA, Regulations on the Status and Transfer of Players, Zurich, 27 September 2012, art. 19 8 The total does not add up to 100% because of the rounding procedures applied.