Pilot mangrove co-management in Soc Trang

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Presentation at the Roundtable workshop 16.07.2013, University of Architect, HCMC

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  • GIZ - German International Cooperation for Development The coastal zone is not only at risk from the negative ecological consequences of shrimp farming and the destruction of the protection function of the mangrove forests, it will also be affected by the impacts of climate change. Climate change will cause increased intensity and frequency of storms, floods and droughts, increased saline intrusion, higher rainfall during the rainy season and rising sea levels.
  • The GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Internationale Zusammenarbeit) project ‘Management of Natural Resources in the Coastal Zone of Soc Trang Province, Viet Nam’ aims to protect and sustainably use the coastal wetlands for the benefit of the local population through mangrove rehabilitation and management with emphasis on resilience to climate change. The importance of mangroves Mangroves provide a wide range of ecosystem services. The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) groups these services under four categories: • Regulating services: protection of beaches and coastlines from storm surges, waves and floods; reduction of beach and soil erosion; stabilisation of land by trapping sediments; water quality maintenance; sequestration of carbon dioxide; and climate regulation. • Provisioning services: subsistence and commercial fisheries (food, habitat and nursery ground for aquatic life); aquaculture; honey; fuel-wood; building materials (timber); and traditional medicines. • Cultural services: tourism and recreation; and spiritual appreciation. • Supporting services: cycling of nutrients; and habitats for species. Appropriate selection of species for the different sites along the coast of Soc Trang Province and the best planting times are described in detail in the tool box. In addition to traditional planting techniques, the tool box covers testing of new approaches for mangrove planting which mimic nature, or in other words, imitate the successful regeneration of nature. It also includes techniques which can be used to transform existing even-aged mangrove plantations into more diverse forests. These techniques aim to create diverse coastal forests in terms of species composition as well as horizontal and vertical structure, thus increasing their resilience to the negative effects of climate change. ICAM also requires risk management over space and time by looking at the coastal zone as a whole – and not for example only at isolated erosion sites – by considering different options depending on site specific conditions and by putting in place risk spreading strategies to address uncertainties, such as dealing with predicted negative impacts of climate change. The project is therefore piloting new approaches to both mangrove rehabilitation/planting and to effective mangrove management and protection. These key activities are supported by capacity building and environmental awareness raising for staff of local authorities and people living in the coastal zone.
  • Assessments by Joffre and Luu (2007) and Pham Trong Thinh (2011) concluded that individual household based forest protection contracts do not work in the narrow mangrove belt of Soc Trang Province and are financially unsustainable. The project therefore introduced co-management as a new form of mangrove management because co-management has been used successfully for management of natural resources worldwide (Borrini-Feyerabend 2004a). The different forms of control and power-sharing in co-management compared with state and community management are shown in the Table. Governance, in contrast to management (which is about what to do), is about who decides what to do.  Co-management includes shared-governance. Shared governance is the type of management/governance in which decision-making power, responsibility and accountability are shared between governmental agencies and other stakeholders, in particular the local communities who depend on the natural resources for their livelihoods. Co-management can be achieved through a process of negotiation where representatives of governments, communities and other actors meet, exchange their views, find an agreement about aims and solutions and develop a more or less formal co-management agreement about sharing authority, responsibility, accountability regarding the territory, area of natural resources. A shared governance institution will ensure that stakeholders not only deal with technical and practical matters when implementing the agreement (what to do with the natural resource at stake), but also about decision making process and institutions. Community forestry has a clear emphasis on management and, in addition in Vietnam, on forest land allocation. In community forestry, the government’s role is often that of a technical advisor, not a joint decision-maker. It is not about shared governance, it is about management. However in recent years, issues related to governance have become more and more important in community forestry  a form of community governance. Community forestry and land allocation does not work effectively in every situation. Transfer of tenure possesses little value if forest protection obligations are more important than rights to forest management. This is the case when looking at mangrove forests. Here co-management is an effective way of maintaining and enhancing the protection function of the mangrove forest while at the same time providing livelihoods for local communities. In such a situation, community forestry does not work. Co-management in the context of natural resource management in mangrove forests of Viet Nam is a partnership agreement in which a resource user group gets the right to sustainably use natural resources on a defined area of state owned land (Protection Forest) along with the responsibility to sustainably manage and protect these resources. All stakeholders share the responsibility and authority for the management of a given area or set of natural resources. Resource users and local authorities jointly negotiate a formal agreement on their respective roles, responsibilities and rights in management.
  • Co-management is based upon negotiation, joint decision-making, a degree of power-sharing and fair distribution of benefits among all stakeholders. The key concept of co-management in a natural resource context is that resource users and local authorities share the responsibility and authority for the management of a given area of natural resources through a negotiated agreement. Its aim is to provide local communities with benefits through legal and secured access to natural resources in protection forests and at the same time ensure sustainable use of the resources and effective protection of the mangroves. The co-management process Consultation and organisation The initial phase of co-management in Soc Trang began in mid-2007 with capacity building of local authorities at the provincial, district and commune levels. Understanding and acceptance of co-management concepts and process were developed through workshops, a study tour, meetings and coaching (Primmer 2007; PMU CZM 2008). A prerequisite for the start of the co-management process is its acceptance by local authorities at all levels. An information poster on the co-management process was developed and awareness raising meetings with the local community were held. Data of land use and natural resource use were collected as part of a participatory land-use mapping exercise (Dang Thanh Liem 2008) and data collection has continued throughout the process of co-management. a start-up group was established, comprising project staff and local authority representatives. This group held a number of consultation meetings with local authorities to improve their understanding of the process and assisted the Au Tho B resource users to organise themselves into a formally recognised resource user group. Negotiation and agreement The agreement contains seven chapters: Objectives; Where and to Who this Regulation Applies; General Provisions; Natural Resource Management; Rewards and Penalties; Report Schedule; and Implementing Provisions. Article 10 of the agreement covers regulations on what can and cannot be done in each zone. It specifies the ‘six W’: who can do what, where, when, how and how much. Implementation Awareness raising about environmental issues, understanding of the agreement and effective communication between stakeholders, are important prerequisites for the successful implementation of co-management. The project therefore started the early stages of the implementation with the dissemination of the regulations, setting up of information panels and demarcation of the forest boundary and the boundaries of the zones within the mangrove forest. A pluralistic governance body for joint decision-making, the co-management board, was set up comprising the resource user group, local authorities and the technical department responsible for mangrove management. Monitoring and evaluation Participatory resource use monitoring by the resource users themselves has been tested and is now carried out in a systematic way. This monitoring programme uses two indices4 to monitor sustainability of the resource harvest, namely (1) the amount of resources harvested, and (2) the effort required for the harvest of a defined quantity. If the amount harvested per month remains more or less constant over time (or closely follows a seasonal harvest pattern) one might conclude that there is enough natural regeneration to sustainably support the current harvest volume. If at the same time the effort (i.e. the time needed) to harvest a given amount increases significantly this may indicate that natural regeneration does not support the current harvest volume and that the resource off-take is therefore unsustainable. The information obtained from monitoring enables the co-management board to make informed and joint decisions and carry out adaptive management and protection of the mangrove forest. This is also supported by the monitoring of compliance with the co-management agreement by the resource users. Key principles of the co-management process The co-management process needs to incorporate four key principles in its application to maximise its potential for success: ICAM, participation, zonation and monitoring. Integrated coastal area management ICAM, in contrast to a traditional sectoral approach to management, is a holistic, cross-sectoral, multi-disciplinary approach in which land and sea areas of the coastal zones are managed as an integrated unit. Participation The co-management process must be undertaken in a participatory manner with all stakeholders involved. Zonation Co-management, in contrast to household-based contracts, involves fairly large areas of land which can be divided into zones (areas) in which different management regimes are applied. Zoning allows areas to be set aside for particular activities such as protection of key habitats, nursery areas/breeding sites and resource use. It also helps to reduce or eliminate conflict between different users and to facilitate compliance. Certain areas can be set aside for protection to allow natural regeneration to take place. In a mangrove protection zone, the regeneration of aquatic species will contribute to an increase of species for sustainable harvest in the other zones of the co-management area. Furthermore, protection of mangroves in specific zones will contribute to better protection of the coast from the impacts of storms, flooding and erosion. The zones must be jointly identified during the negotiation step of the co-management process. The stakeholders must ensure they delineate areas where certain resources are in need of some level of protection, rehabilitation or can be sustainably used. Specific rules are attached to each of the zones in terms of who can do what, where, when, how and how much, to ensure the main aim of the zone is achieved and to enable the effective protection, rehabilitation and sustainable use of resources. Zonation is not a static concept. In the pilot site of Au Tho B monitoring the sustainability of resource-use by the resource users and monitoring the condition of the mangrove forests by the Forest Protection Sub-department will provide important information about possible changes in zonation over time. Such changes need to be part of an adaptive management by the joint decision-making body, the co-management board. Monitoring is one of the key principles of the co-management process and at the same time part of the four steps described
  • Figure shows an example of a zonation concept. It includes four zones, the paths for access to the mud flats and sandbanks, the location of the dyke and the six sub-group areas.
  • Benefits of mangrove co-management, which transfers (resource-use) rights and responsibilities to local people, include: effective protection of mangrove forests through zonation and ownership; livelihood improvement through secure and sustainable resource use; resource users are involved in joint monitoring-based management decision-making; reduced workload for authorities; and benefit sharing as part of an ICAM approach. Effective protection of mangroves will ensure that benefits of key mangrove ecosystem services will be maintained, such as protection of the coast from waves, erosion, storms and flooding (particularly important in the context of climate change) and food, shelter and nursery ground for aquatic species. Effective protection of mangrove forests Through the jointly agreed co-management regulations the resource users are given clear and secure user rights to sustainably use resources with the responsibility to manage the resources sustainably and protect the mangrove forests. This increases the sense of resource ownership by the resource users and results in improved and more effective protection of the resources (Erdman et al . 2004). Under co-management, resource users manage an area large enough to allow implementation of an effective management strategy which uses zonation to apply different resource management regimes in different areas enabling effective protection, conservation and sustainable use at the same time. The implementation of a systematic monitoring programme further contributes to the effective management and protection of the mangroves providing the results from the monitoring are used for adaptive management decision-making. The effective protection of mangrove forests and the exclusion of resource use in a protection zone leads to an increase in aquatic resources (Laegdsgaard and Johnson 1995, Mumby et al . 2004, Mumby 2006). This secures the long-term availability of natural resources if combined with the sustainable use of resources in accordance with the negotiated agreement. In addition to the increase in resources for harvest, which is a clear and tangible benefit of co-management, restriction of legal access to only members of the resource user group further contributes to reducing overexploitation, particularly if coupled with the resource users’ increased sense of ownership and monitoring. Resource users involved in resource management decision-making Co-management enables resource users to be directly involved in joint decision-making through negotiation and agreement with the local authorities and other stakeholders, and through the pluralistic governance body for joint decision-making, i.e. the co-management board. Reduced workload for authorities forest protection and policing of resource use will be undertaken by resource users reducing the workload of the authorities and costs for patrolling and forest protection. There is also less need for conflict resolution as clear resource use rules, which include comprehensive resource use monitoring, have been jointly agreed
  • Au Tho B, Vinh Chau: started 2007-2008, opening ceremony September 2009; Bamboo walkway Mo O, Tran De: started at end of 2011, opening ceremony April 2013; meeting shelters Vo Thanh Van, Cu Lao Dung, started at end of 2012, planned for opening ceremony August 2013 Awareness raising about environmental issues, understanding of the agreement and effective communication between stakeholders, are important prerequisites for the successful implementation of co-management.
  • A prerequisite for the start of the co-management process is its acceptance by local authorities at all levels. Awareness raising about environmental issues, understanding of the agreement and effective communication between stakeholders, are important prerequisites for the successful implementation of co-management. Only once the four co-management steps have been undertaken and the principles applied can the key benefits of co-management be achieved. An independent facilitator is needed to facilitate meetings. Both the local authorities and RUG have their own vested interests and there would likely be a conflict of interest if a facilitator from either party was used and a lack of impartiality could occur. Key community members should be included in study tours to areas where co-management is being successfully implemented early in the process to assist understanding. Messages about co-management must be simple and continually repeated as new concepts will not be understood by all stakeholders straight away. This is also important because community consultation meetings will rarely always have the same people attending due to family/work commitments. Community consultation meetings must be participatory particularly in determining, identification of issues/problems and leadership selection otherwise there will be little sense of ownership. The organisation and consultation step takes time to implement. This step is only complete once all stakeholders have a clear understanding of co-management and both the resource users and local authorities are properly organised and in a position to start negotiations. Development of a joint vision for the future at the start of negotiations establishes a useful focus for discussions. Dissemination of the draft agreement with RUG members for understanding and comment before finalising the agreement ensures that the process is fully participative.
  • A prerequisite for the start of the co-management process is its acceptance by local authorities at all levels. Only once the four co-management steps have been undertaken and the principles applied can the key benefits of co-management be achieved. An independent facilitator is needed to facilitate meetings. Both the local authorities and RUG have their own vested interests and there would likely be a conflict of interest if a facilitator from either party was used and a lack of impartiality could occur. Key community members should be included in study tours to areas where co-management is being successfully implemented early in the process to assist understanding. Messages about co-management must be simple and continually repeated as new concepts will not be understood by all stakeholders straight away. This is also important because community consultation meetings will rarely always have the same people attending due to family/work commitments. Community consultation meetings must be participatory particularly in determining, identification of issues/problems and leadership selection otherwise there will be little sense of ownership. The organisation and consultation step takes time to implement. This step is only complete once all stakeholders have a clear understanding of co-management and both the resource users and local authorities are properly organised and in a position to start negotiations. Development of a joint vision for the future at the start of negotiations establishes a useful focus for discussions. Dissemination of the draft agreement with RUG members for understanding and comment before finalising the agreement ensures that the process is fully participative. Joint signing of the agreement should be at a public ceremony so the agreement is publicised and is recognised by the broader local community and authorities. Resource users and local authorities negotiate a formal agreement on their respective management roles, responsibilities and rights (joint governance) Based on 3 years of experience in the Mekong Delta: Co-management is an effective way of maintaining and enhancing the protection function of the mangrove forest belt Co-management provides livelihood for local communities Co-management contributes to better governance
  • A prerequisite for the start of the co-management process is its acceptance by local authorities at all levels. Only once the four co-management steps have been undertaken and the principles applied can the key benefits of co-management be achieved. An independent facilitator is needed to facilitate meetings. Both the local authorities and RUG have their own vested interests and there would likely be a conflict of interest if a facilitator from either party was used and a lack of impartiality could occur. Key community members should be included in study tours to areas where co-management is being successfully implemented early in the process to assist understanding. Messages about co-management must be simple and continually repeated as new concepts will not be understood by all stakeholders straight away. This is also important because community consultation meetings will rarely always have the same people attending due to family/work commitments. Community consultation meetings must be participatory particularly in determining, identification of issues/problems and leadership selection otherwise there will be little sense of ownership. The organisation and consultation step takes time to implement. This step is only complete once all stakeholders have a clear understanding of co-management and both the resource users and local authorities are properly organised and in a position to start negotiations. Development of a joint vision for the future at the start of negotiations establishes a useful focus for discussions. Dissemination of the draft agreement with RUG members for understanding and comment before finalising the agreement ensures that the process is fully participative. Joint signing of the agreement should be at a public ceremony so the agreement is publicised and is recognised by the broader local community and authorities. Resource users and local authorities negotiate a formal agreement on their respective management roles, responsibilities and rights (joint governance) Based on 3 years of experience in the Mekong Delta: Co-management is an effective way of maintaining and enhancing the protection function of the mangrove forest belt Co-management provides livelihood for local communities Co-management contributes to better governance
  • Pilot mangrove co-management in Soc Trang

    1. 1. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 1 Pilot mangrove co-management in Soc Trang GIZ ProjectGIZ Project http://czm-soctrang.org.vn/en/home.aspxhttp://czm-soctrang.org.vn/en/home.aspx
    2. 2. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 2 Aim: protect and sustainably use the coastal wetlands for the benefit of the local population site specific approaches to adaptation to climate change Effective mangrove management and protection with emphasis on resilience to climate change Mangrove rehabilitation Mangrove management Environmental awareness Tool box, mimic nature, erosion protection Planting alone is of little use, co-management, ICAM
    3. 3. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 3 Test new approaches to mangrove management:  Land allocation and forest protection contracts did not work in a setting where we have a narrow belt of mangroves along a highly dynamic coast. State management control by government agency e.g. Forest Ranger Co-management shared governance (government agency & stakeholders) negotiating specific agreements sharing authority and responsibility in a formal way Community management community control transferring authority and responsibility to communities/ households (green book)
    4. 4. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 4 Mangrove co-management  Co-management is based upon participatory negotiation, joint decision-making, a degree of power-sharing and fair distribution of benefits among all stakeholders.  Participatory process  Agreement  Pluralistic governance body 3 key elements 4 steps  Consultation & organisation  Negotiation & agreement  Implementation  Monitoring & evaluation 4 principles  ICAM  Participation  Zonation  Monitoring  Site specific 1 prerequisite  CM = 12  CM = 3 + 4 +4 + 1
    5. 5. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 5 Implementation & results
    6. 6. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 6 Key benefits of co-management Ecosystem services from effectively managed and protected mangrove forests. They include:  protection from waves, erosion, storm and flooding (particularly important in the context of climate change)  food, shelter and nursery ground for aquatic species Effective protection of the mangrove forests Livelihood improvement through secure sustainable resource use Resource users involved in resource management decision-making Reduced workload for authorities Strengthened community’s sense
    7. 7. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 7 Implementation & replication Au Tho B Mo O Vo Thanh Van
    8. 8. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 8 Lessons learned (1) For co-management to be successful, it is essential that there is full politicalfull political support from all levelssupport from all levels and agreementagreement from all stakeholdersfrom all stakeholders. To ensure that co-management concepts and benefits are clearly understood can take a lot of time. The use of intersectoral structures during the co-management process enables effective dissemination of information. An independent facilitator is needed to facilitate meetings.
    9. 9. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 9 Lessons learned (2) Development of a joint vision for the future at the start of negotiations establishes a useful focus for discussions. Messages must be simple and continually repeated. Joint signing of the agreement should be at a public ceremony so that the agreement is publicised and is recognised by the broader local community and authorities.
    10. 10. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 10 Lessons learned (3) Co-management is a learning experience for all parties involved. Interactive learning – thinking, discussing and acting together – is crucial for shared governance initiatives. Learning by doing implies that most of the lessons are drawn during the actual phase of implementing the agreement, through a process of on- going reflection, revision and improvement.
    11. 11. Pham Thuy Duong duong.pham@giz.de Just Bottom-Up is not Enough! Part II Roundtable Workshop – HCMUARCH 16 July 2013 Page 11
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