8.1 Innovations in rice cultivation - Systems of rice intensification

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Dr. Georg Deichert, GIZ PARA Tra Vinh

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8.1 Innovations in rice cultivation - Systems of rice intensification

  1. 1. Page 1company presentation 201229/05/2013Poverty Alleviation in Rural Areas (PARA)Adaptation to climate change within pro-poorvalue chains – Experiences from Tra Vinh
  2. 2. Page 229.05.2013Using Value Chain ApproachInputsupplyProduction Processing Trading Marketing ConsumptionProducers remain a key player in a value-chain approach• Producers represent the poor in most value chains• Producers will be most affected by climate change impacts• How can the value share for the producer be increased?
  3. 3. Page 3Options for addressing the challenges throughValue Chain Interventions29.05.2013InputsupplyProduction Processing Trading Marketing ConsumptionImproving market linkagesForming of groups
  4. 4. Page 4There is a need for green pro-poor and profitabletechnology options• A great potential lies in sustainable agriculture• This implies a paradigm shift from:more input more output to:less input more output• Is it possible????SRI is one example for a climate smart option29.05.2013
  5. 5. Page 5SRI is a flexible set ofpractices aiming toprovide the bestenvironment for the riceplant to utilize itspotential, therebyimproving the productiveefficiency of land, labour,water, nutrients andcapital.
  6. 6. Page 6SRIbenefitsReduced seed(up to 90%)Reduced or nochemical fertilizerReduced or nopesticidesReduced wateruse (up to 50%)Reduced methaneemissionRecoverbiodiversityReduced risksof crop failureIncrease yieldand incomeImproved soilquality
  7. 7. Page 7Where can SRI be applied?• SRI can be applied in anyplaces where rice is grown• Apply SRI especially inareas with• Difficult production conditions,• Affected by climate changeimpacts (salinity, drought,storms, etc)• High poverty rates (farmerswith small production area)• Traditional cultivation methodsConventional rice plants collapsedafter the strong rain while SRI ricestayed still
  8. 8. Page 8Conventional methods SRI in Tra VinhSoil preparation Normal levelling and drainages Normal levelling and drainages, withsupplement of micro-organismNursery None Tray nurseryTransplanting /Sowing- Direct sowing: 150 - 200 kg/ha- Row sowing: 100 - 120 kg/ha- Single seedling- Seedling age: 8 - 12 days- 17x17 cm (ca. 5 kg/ha)Weed control Herbicides Manual weederPest control Multiple preventive spraying IPM recommendedSoil nutrition Chemical fertilizer Chemical fertilizer, with micro-organism supplementAeration None At least twice with manual weederWater management Keep fields flooded- Drain for pesticide andherbicide spraying- Keep drained 7 - 10 daysbefore harvestingIntermittent irrigation, retain soilmoisture without flooding- Flood only for fertilizer applications- Create aerobic soil conditions
  9. 9. Page 9Farmers do field gridmarking, seedlings care,and weeding/ aerationwhen implement SRIFor more information on SRI techniques in Tra Vinh, please refer to thisYouTube link http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y8niRXa2k5c
  10. 10. Page 10SRI plants are about 18, 30 and 85 days old
  11. 11. Page 11Sample GHG emissionon rice fieldsToT training on SRI forprovincial Extension staff
  12. 12. Page 12Tieu Can district(Half brackish water)Cau Ke district(Fresh water )Cau Ngang district(Insufficient water)SRI Control SRI Control SRI ControlNo. of plants/m2 35 352 35 365 35 382No. of tillers/m2439 869 385 950 434 890No. of panicles/m2347 517 280 510 335 433No. of goodgrains/panicle103 65 108 52 90 53Yield (t/ha) 8.7 8.0 7.0 6.5 6.4 5.0Production cost(USD/ha)833 1,024 733 865 806 999CM (USD/ha) 1,590 776 1,016 630 1,760 404Input cost (USD/kg) 0.10 0.13 0.10 0.13 0.13 0.20Implementation results (4th round)Results of the Winter-Spring crop (Dec 2012 – March 2013), in different conditions
  13. 13. Page 13Economic table in March 2013SRI Control of SRI tothe controlSeed (USD/ha) 18 60 -70%Fertilizers (USD/ha) 203.5 312.5 -35%Plant protection drugs (USD/ha) 26 198.5 -87%Hired services (USD/ha) 227 205.5 10%Labour (USD/ha) 307.5 237.5 29%Total production cost (USD/ha) 782 1,014 -23%Yield (t/ha) 7.4 6.5 14%Paddy price (USD/kg) 0.30 0.25 20%Revenue (USD/ha) 2,220 1,625 37%Contribution margin (USD/ha) 1,438 611 135%Hired services: plough, leveling, dig drainages, pump water, harvestingCurrency exchange rate: 1 USD = 20,000 VND
  14. 14. Page 14Comparison table in labour days per haField work SRI (days) Conventional direct(days)Nursery preparation 6.5 0Transplanting 30 0Re-transplanting 5 12.5Weeding/aeration 10 5Fertilizer application 7.5 15Pesticide application 2.5 15Total 61.5 47.5Labour was calculated for one person doing 8 hrs/day,average labour cost was 5 USD/day
  15. 15. Page 15Compared to the conventional method, SRI has demonstratedoutstanding results of the development of the single plant, the rice grainquality, the productivity and the profit in different conditions.
  16. 16. Page 16Social impacts on farmers• Promote unity of the community, illustrated by farmer groupspracticing “rotation labour” in transplanting and exchangeexperiences• Awareness raised that less inputs can produce higher profit• Though farmer field schools (FFS), farmers have• Experienced proof of resilient SRI fields (pests, storm)• Improved the recording of household economic data (financial literacy)• Enhanced field management (fertilizer, water, pest and routine caring)
  17. 17. Page 17SRI farmers discussabout the practices withspecialistsFarmer’s exchange onSRI experiences
  18. 18. Page 18Challenges for SRI application• Insecure market linkages• Scarcity of labor forces in rural areas poseschallenges to transplanting practice• “Modern” farmers are reluctant to spend intensivelabour on field management• Farmers’ knowledge about the direct effects of fieldpractices on the environment is still limited
  19. 19. Page 19Challenges for SRI application (cont.)• Big agro chemical companies have huge advertisingcampaigns, big support schemes for trial farmers anddense approaching networks to influence farmers• Lack of experienced Agri. Extension Officials andgovernment’s support budget• Farmers do not have clear orientation and soundknowledge to identify good/not good applications
  20. 20. Page 20Up-scaling SRI: options• Promote SRI for seedproduction• Explore SRI potentials byproducing certified rice
  21. 21. Page 21Potential measures• Plan “seed productionarea” to supply for highquality rice production• Support seed buyers andcooperatives to developstrategy to buy SRI riceseeds• Government departmentsand mass organizationsshould propagate SRI riceas a safe food productLãnh ñ o B NN&PTNT thăm ru ngSRI ngày 18/04/2013
  22. 22. Page 22Potential measures (cont.)• Initial support for newimplementing farmers:• part of inputs• and consultancy fromDARD officersthroughout the crop.• Introduce the model tostrong operationalCooperative groups
  23. 23. Page 23SRI has been successful on over 50 countries in the world. Itis and will be further developed in places growing rice.Thank you very much for your attention

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