10. Impacts of climate change on aquaculture and fisheries in the Mekong region


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Dr. Luca Micciche, ICAFIS Vietnam

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10. Impacts of climate change on aquaculture and fisheries in the Mekong region

  1. 1. Impacts of climate change on aquaculture andfisheries in the Mekong regionand main adaptive activitiesCan Tho, June 4, 20131International Collaborating CentreFor Aquaculture and FisheriesSustainability
  2. 2. Presentation outline• Introduction: ICAFIS• Fisheries sector in Vietnam• Climate Change impacts, policies andinitiatives in Vietnam• Developing a project to address CCadaptive activities in the fisheries sector2
  3. 3. ICAFIS• Registered (March 2010) as a non-profit org. butwith strong links with the Government• Sustainability arm of the Vietnam FisheriesSociety (VINAFIS)– >800 local branches– 34,000 members (farmers/fishers)• Global focus, capacitybuilding, research….
  4. 4. Production• 2,671,800 Tonnes (FAO )2010Consumption• Apparent per-capita 17.2 kg/yearEmployment• Livelihood for > half million peopleThe aquaculture sector in Vietnam
  5. 5. Inland fisheries in the Delta• 40% to the country’s inland capture fisheriesnearly 850,000 t/yr (based on consump. est.)• The bulk of it being from the floodplains of theDelta• Fishery mainly artisanal and more intense in theflood period (seasonality)• Mainly non-mainstream• Livelihoods, food security, generating revenue• Used also for aquaculture (feed)• Impact from CC very difficult to predict
  6. 6. Climate Change: What impact?1. Temperature increase of +1.10C by 21002. Increase average sea surface temperature3. Sea level rise at least +0.6m by 21004. Marine primary productivity +0.7-8.1% by 20505. Increase ocean acidification due to CO26. Impacts on freshwater systems (reduced water levels andflow rates)7. Increase in water run-off8. Intensification extreme weather events (floods,typhoons)(IPCC, 2007; Nicholls et al., 2007; FAO, 2009; Nellemann et al., 2009)
  7. 7. The impact of CC on fisheriesWater temperature increase by +1.10Cby 2100Sea level to rise at least +0.6m by 2100Marine primary productivity (microorganisms) +0.7-8.1% by 2050Increased ocean acidificationImpacts on freshwater systems (reducedwater levels and flow rates)Intensification of extreme weathereventsChanges in rainfall and run-offShift distribution of many fish andshellfishChange in ocean fish productivityDisappearance of coral reef ecosystemsReduced oxygen in the oceansPossible impact on fisher’s safety at seaand livelihoodsShrinking of inland watersSalinization of river basinsImpact on inland fisheries(IPCC, 2007; Nicholls et al., 2007; FAO, 2009; Nellemann et al., 2009; SPC, 2008; Daw et all, 2009)
  8. 8. The impacts of CC on aquaculturePhysical changeSea level riseSalinity intrusionOcean currentsTemperature riseOcean acidificationRiver flowsRainfall patternsStorm severityWave surgesCoastal erosionDroughtsEnhanced stratificationImpactsDirectIndirectProduction and yield (+/-)Stress on CaCO3 organisms (shellfish)New diseasesIncreased diseases susceptibilityPhysical damageChanges in spawning patternsFish kills (from upswellings)Fish oil & meal supplyTrash fish supplyReduction in productivityLoss of farming sitesLoss of livelihoods/increased vulnerabilityIncreased competition for scarce resourcesEconomicviabilitySocial impact+: increased growth ratesFood conversion efficiencyDecrease of some existing diseases (WSD)Extended growing season(Daw et al., 2009; De Silva, 2010 modified)ClimateChange
  9. 9. F/A impacts on CCF/A make a minor, but still significantcontribution to global greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions throughout the sectors’ supplychain(FAO, 2009)Fisheries•Fuel inefficient fishing methods•Emissions associated with trading productsworldwide, including air freight and shippingAquaculture•Carbon footprint is lower than other farm-raised protein industry e.g. livestock•LCA: shrimp farming produces 11,10 kgCO2/kg•Tilapia, carps, bivalves – 1.67, 0.80, 0.01kg CO2/kg(Davies, 2010)
  10. 10. Capture fisheries• Global annual loss in landed value between US$ 17 and 41 bln(World Bank, 2010)• Mostly in LDCs countries (Allison et al, 2009)Aquaculture• No global data• Vietnam with +1m slr scenario:– 11% of the population affected especially in Mekong and Red RiverDeltas– impact on 7% of agriculture land– reduce GDP by 10%– Pangasius industry reduction in margins US$ 145,000/ha by 2020– Shrimp profit fall by US$ 6,500/ha in 2020, and by US$ 47,500/ha in 2050Economic impact(Dasgupta et al, 2007, Kam et al, 2010)
  11. 11. Vietnam CC Policy• National communications to UNFCC (2003/2010)• National Target Programme to Respond to CC(2009-2015)/(2012-2015) Pilot provinces: QuangNam and Ben Tre with priority interventions• National Action Plan on CC 2012-2020• MONRE Climate Change, Sea Level RiseScenarios (2009/2012)• MONRE National Climate Change Strategy withpriority (2011-2015) and plans (2016-2025)• MARD Action Plan CC agric. dev. 2011-15 &vision to 2050
  12. 12. Global research & projects focus1. Diagnosing F/A dependent communities’ vulnerability toclimate change2. Understanding & documenting current F/A communities’coping mechanisms and adaptive responses3. Identifying and testing effective measures to improvingadaptability and enabling mitigation4. Building the capacity to respond,adapt and increase resilience
  13. 13. Major CC Initiatives in the MD13Agency - Institute - Donor Central LocalCBCC project (MONRE, MARD, UNDP)DANIDA CC Programme to support NTP-RCCGIZ Integrated Coastal and Mangrove Forest Protectionfor the Adaptation to Climate Change (ICMP) ClimateChange and Coastal Ecosystem Program (CCCEP)CARE Integrated Community-based Adaptation in theMekong (ICAMAquaClimate project (NACA & Can Tho University)Research Institute of Aquaculture (1; 2); MARD; MONRE;ISPONRE; VASI;NGOs and Int’l research (IUCN, WWF, CARE, OXFAM,MCD, SNV, ACIAR, etc.)NORAD; FAO; DANIDA; UNDP; JICA; World Bank; ADB;CIDA; GEF; DfID, AusAID, several governments, etc.
  14. 14. Major CC Initiatives in the MD14Province Aquaculture InlandFisheriesAgriculture ICMP Infrastr. Cap BuildingAn GiangBen TreBac LieuCa MauCan ThoDongThapKienGiangSoc TrangTra Vinh
  15. 15. Developing a Project to Address ClimateChange Adaptation Needs in Aquaculture andInland Fisheries in the Mekong Delta – Vietnam15
  16. 16. Key issues considered in the projectdevelopmentAquaculture and inland fisheries have beenunderestimated in their contribution to foodsecurity and poverty alleviationMany initiatives including strategies related toCC but very few fully integrating aquacultureand even less inland fisheriesAquaculture and inland fisheries have not beenconsidered in their potential for adaptation forother sectors16
  17. 17. The Mekong Delta (potential areas of focus)17SS SPPPSIFSSPIFIFIFIFIF
  18. 18. Project characteristicsTarget species/systems:Shrimp and clams systemsPangasius et al.Inland fisheriesProject components: 4Time frame: 5 yearsOverall development goal: Poverty alleviation andfood security focus including gender andethnicityImplementation Strategy: Ecosystem approach tofisheries and aquaculture 18
  19. 19. Ensuring ecologicalwell beingEnsuring humanwellbeingEnsuring the abilityto achieve(governance)The EAF/EAA have these three objectives at the coree.g. integration withother sectorsEAF & EAA
  20. 20. Vulnerability framework(adapted from Allison et al., 2005)Exposure (E)The nature and degree to which fisheriesproduction systems are exposed to climatechangeSensitivity (S)Degree to which national economies aredependent on fisheries and thereforesensitive to any change in the sectorPotential impacts (PI)All impacts that may occur without takinginto account planned adaptationAdaptive capacity (AC)Ability or capacity of a system to modify orchange to cope with changes in actual orexpected climate stress+=VulnerabilityV = f(PI, AC)
  21. 21. Funding and operational structureFunds: SCCF and other donorsGEF Agency: FAOPotential implementing agenciesMARD, MONRE, OCCA, D-Fish, DARD, DONRE,Research Institutes and Universities, NGOs and IGOsPotential cooperation with ongoing and futureprojects/programmesSNV, IFAD, NORAD, CARE, Oxfam, IUCN, WWF,NACA, SEAFDEC, GIZ, World Bank etc.21
  22. 22. OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECTStrengthening adaptive capacity andresilience of rural communities in theMekong Delta to critical risks posed byclimate change to the sustainability of theaquaculture and fisheries sectors22
  23. 23. 1: Supporting national policies through communities’vulnerability assessment (including risk mapping oftarget pilot areas)2: Developing adaptation measures within anecosystem approach perspective (Plan)3: Building/strengthening adaptive capacity (includingtesting implementation)4: Project Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E)23Summary project components• Some elements are cross-cutting to all project components: increasing equity,gender, mitigation considered along adaptation measure (CSA – Climate SmartAquaculture)
  24. 24. Component 124Supporting national fisheries and aquaculture policies and planning as wellas inter-sectoral development and climate change programmes with keyelements related to inland capture fisheries and aquaculture sectors•Outcome 1.1Provincial and national competent authorities aware of risks posed by achanging climate on the aquaculture and fisheries sectors and vulnerabilityof communities living in the Mekong DeltaOutput 1: Vulnerability assessmentOutput 2: Risk mappingOutput 3: Innovative climate proof adaptation measures
  25. 25. Component 125•Outcome 1.2Climate change adaptation for vulnerable communities relying onaquaculture and inland capture fisheries mainstreamed into nationaland provincial broader sectoral, food-security, disaster riskpreparedness and reduction, integrated coastal zone managementand climate change frameworksOutput 1: Individuation of Gaps and opportunities to mainstreamclimate change adaptations into national and provincial policiesOutput 2: Develop cross-sectoral synergetic collaborations onvulnerability and adaptation requirements
  26. 26. Component 226Piloting innovative adaptation measures for inland capture fisheriesand aquaculture within an ecosystem approach perspective•Outcome 2.1Strengthened resilience to climate change threats in vulnerableinland fishing communities and aquaculture farmers identified asbeing at high risksOutput 1: Adaptive action research.Output 2: Stakeholders and communities-based action plansOutput 3: Innovative micro-finance and micro-insurance schemesOutput 4: Farmers’ advocacy strengthened and co-managementarrangements fostered
  27. 27. Component 227• Outcome 2.2National and provincial authorities are well prepared and have thecapabilities to integrate viable climate change adaptation (CCA)into inland capture fisheries and aquaculture practices and basedon highly participatory and comprehensive consultative processesOutput 1: Fisheries and aquaculture managements plans andwatershed management system developed or strengthenedOutput 2: An integrated and early-warning monitoring system onextreme weather events developed or strengthened
  28. 28. Component 328Building and strengthening capacity to understand and implementadaptation measuresOutcome 3.1At least 60% of targeted communities, government authorities andother relevant stakeholders have moderate to high understandingand awareness of the problems caused to inland fisheries andaquaculture sectors by a changing climate, adaptation best practicesand coping strategiesOutput 1: Specific and user friendly communication material on therisks associated to climate change developed and disseminated
  29. 29. Component 329Outcome 3.2Strengthened capacity of national and provincial authorities toincrease resilience to impacts from climate change by includingadaptation measuresOutput 1: Communities knowledge and climate risks understandingstrengthenedOutput 2: Officers, extension workers and other relevant stakeholdersknowledge and climate risks understanding strengthenedOutput3: Adaptation, best practices and lesson learned derived frompilot action and researches, synthesised and disseminated
  30. 30. Component 430Project monitoring and evaluation (M&E)Outcome 4.1Implementation of the project driven by the continue assessmentbased on the SCCF/LDCF AMAT in order to achieve the projectoutputs, outcomes and objectiveOutput 1: Project M&E system developedOutput 2: Mid-term and final evaluation performed
  31. 31. Component 431Outcome 4.2Application in future planning and operations of project findings andlessons learned facilitatedOutput 1: A database of project’s lesson learned, best practices andstrategies to face a changing climate developedOutput 2: A website containing the project main features, activitiesand reports developed and updated
  32. 32. Thank you!Comments?32luca.micciche@icafis.orgInternational Collaborating CentreFor Aquaculture and FisheriesSustainability