Recommendations For Nigerias Position


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Recommendations For Nigerias Position

  1. 1. Recommendations for Nigeria’s position in Copenhagen (Photo by Dr. Stefan Cramer) 1
  2. 2. Contributors: i. Prof F.A. Adesina – Study Coordinator ii. Dr. A.I. Tanko – Mitigation iii. Dr H. Ayuba - Adaptation iv. Dr T.O. Odekunle - Technology Transfer v. Prof E Orji - Finance vi. Mr. Korede Adeyemi - Governance and mobilization of internal resource and CDM vii. Mr. Peter Tarfa - Past and current Nigeria positions on the Bali Plan of Action Impressum: Heinrich Böll Foundation, Nigeria 16a, Oladipo Diya Street, 2nd Avenue Extension, Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria P.O. Box 60046, Alagbo Close, Ikoyi, Lagos, Nigeria +234-(01)1-7612353 2
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENT Content Page Preface 3 Preambles 4 1. General Background 6 2. Climate Change Adaptation 8 2.1 Nigeria‟s situation 8 2.2 Nigeria‟s commitment on Climate Change Agreements 9 2.3 Constraints to climate change adaptation in Nigeria 10 2.4 Effective adaptation in Africa 10 2.5 Recent African efforts: African position on adaptation 11 3. Reduced emission from deforestation and degradation 12 3.1 Forests as natural carbon sinks 13 3.2 Forest Degradation and Socioeconomic Impacts in Nigeria 13 3.3 Mitigation and Adaptation through REDD 14 4.0 Governance and mobilization of internal resources and CDM 16 4.1 The Clean Development Mechanism 16 4.2 Progress so far in Nigeria and Africa 16 4.3 Nigeria‟s Challenges in CDM 17 5. Technology Transfer 18 5.1 National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP) 18 5.2 Climate change and technology transfer 19 5.3 Barriers/Gaps/Challenges 19 6. The Position of Nigeria’s Government 22 6.1. Global negotiations 22 6.2 Key Elements of AWG-LCA Negotiation Text 23 6.3 Adaptation and means of implementation 24 6.4 Mitigation and means of implementation 25 6.5 Finance, technology and capacity building 26 6.6 Contentious Issues 27 7. Recommendations On Issues for Negotiations 29 Annex 1 Financing Climate Change Response 34 Annex 2 Regional Organizations, Groups and Networks 37 Bibliographie 41 3
  4. 4. PREFACE In 2007, the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) organized an annual meeting of Conference of Parties in Bali to discuss a lasting and future effort for controlling the impacts of climate change around the world. It recognized the need to negotiate a new global treaty to replace the Kyoto Protocol. The key outcome of the conference was the production of the Bali Action Plan, which provides Africa with the opportunity to build a consensus on how to deal with the complex issues of climate change and sustainable development. It mandates both annex 1 and annex 11 towards global emission reduction and intends to provide funding support for climate change responses in developing countries. Within the international context, the plan provides the core area of negotiations between the developed and developing countries on finance for adaptation and mitigation, capacity building and technological transfer. In the course of the negotiations, African countries, including Nigeria, which is prone to major ecological challenges such as deforestation, desertification and land degradation began to develop their understanding on how to respond to climate change vulnerability with relevant adaptation strategies. During the past years, concerted efforts are being made by the civil society organizations in Nigeria to support both the Federal and State Governments to develop climate change adaptation strategies that will help reduce the impacts of climate change on sustainable livelihood and the concentration of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The Government is increasing its efforts to integrate climate change adaptation measures into its national and regional development plans and policies. The Heinrich Böll Stiftung, Nigeria, has in the past three years supported both the Federal (Special Climate Change Unit) and State Ministries of Environment, especially in the Northern part of the country, the environmental movement and the media to build and increase the knowledge of Nigerians on climate change. The Foundation facilitated the discussion and capacity building of Nigeria‟s negotiators, developed a working document on a possible climate change adaptation strategy and reviewed pre- and post-UNFCCC negotiation meetings. In an effort to continue this support and to engage the Nigerian Government in its responsiveness to the yearning of the vulnerable groups in Nigeria at the international negotiation process, the Foundation commissioned this study to examine Nigeria‟s position in Copenhagen. The study looks at Nigeria‟s current negotiation position and identifies strategic gaps and opportunities that can form an additional input into the on-going negotiations for Nigeria and the African group. On 3 September 2009, the draft report of this study was presented at a policy dialogue meeting in Abuja with the representatives of the Federal Ministry of Environment, with members of the inter-ministerial committee on climate change, CSOs and the media. Finally, concrete recommendations for Nigeria‟s position during the negotiations as well as for actions in its future environmental policies were made and incorporated into the report. 4
  5. 5. We wish to thank the research team led by Prof. Francis Adeyinka Adesina and all facilitators and resource persons who participated in the discussion process as well as the members of the Inter-ministerial Committee on Climate Change for their support and contributions into this study. We also recognize the endless support given by the Head, Special Climate Change Unit of the Ministry of Environment, Dr. Victor Fodeke and his entire committed team. We remain grateful to you all. Lagos, October 2009 Agbojo Adewale Enoch Program Manager, Governance and Sustainable Programme Heinrich Böll Stiftung, Nigeria office 5
  6. 6. 1. GENERAL BACKGROUND The Bali Action Plan and Bali Roadmap offered Africa the opportunity to build consensus on the complex issues of climate change and sustainable development, to the benefit of the continent. The Poznan conference in December 2008 also became a mid- point of the process that started in Bali and will continue in Copenhagen in December, 2009. Copenhagen, in Denmark, will host a major gathering of representatives from countries around the globe – Conference of Parties (COP) - in December 2009. This Conference, which is under the auspices of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), will be a major global event whose impacts are likely to inform to a large extent, the future efforts in controlling climate change. Very significantly, it is expected to be a terminal meeting on various negotiations including the Kyoto Protocol which had been functional for nearly two decades. Two key areas of concern are likely to dominate the Conference. First is the fact that many critical issues for the achievement of the primary objectives of the Convention remain poorly negotiated and implemented. Such issues range from the common but differentiated commitments of Parties with respect to reducing emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) from various sources to securing funds for Climate Change response in the developing countries. Four main issues may be identified in this regard. These are Readiness of the industrialized countries (mainly Annex 1 countries) to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases: Willingness of the major developing countries such as China, India, South Africa and Brazil to limit the growth of their emissions even as sustainable growth and development; Securing financial support to address the burgeoning adaptation needs of many developing countries; and Managing the resources for adaptation. To these may be added the need to support technological transfer in developing countries to address the likely severe challenges of climate change. All of these require thorough negotiations and commitment or re-commitment of developed countries to move the global effort at fighting climate change forward without compromising the interests of the various countries. As shown by IPCC (2007), global GHG emissions must peak by 2020 and they must be reduced by at least 50% as compared with 1990 levels by 2050 in order to restore a livable environment for humans. Developed countries must continue to take the lead and should collectively reduce their emissions from all sources by 25 to 40% by 2020 and by 80 to 95% by 2050. Among the developing countries, the emerging economies must ensure a deviation of 15-30% from their “Business As Usual” (BAU) emissions scenarios by 2020 Closely connected with the above is the need to negotiate a new global treaty to replace the Kyoto Protocol. As jointly agreed by the Parties, the Kyoto Protocol would cease to 6
  7. 7. be functional from 2012 and another treaty is expected to be put in force in order that the global community might continue to purposefully address the climate change problem. This development will be of importance to all Parties as it is capable of setting a new agenda with respect to commitments for global emission reductions. It is therefore most pertinent that all countries prepare for the event. This is why a proper articulation of Nigeria‟s position in the December meeting becomes important. In the chapters that follow, we attempt to look at the issues for negotiations from the core area of interests most of which have engaged the attention of the COPs overtime. 7
  8. 8. 2. CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION According to the Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (2001), adaptation refers to “adjustments in natural or human systems to actual or expected climatic stimuli or their effects”. It is now generally understood to be a major strategy by which countries particularly the developing ones, can respond to climate change. While it is impossible to stop climate change at least in the immediate, communities and individuals can live with it by developing and or amplifying extant adaptive strategies. Effective adaptation requires an analysis of current exposure to climate shocks and stresses, and future impacts. It also demands an understanding of the existing vulnerability of individuals, households, and communities. On the basis of this, adaptation strategies can be designed and implemented. Humans are highly resilient and have adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions over the ages. Evidences are legion that they for instance, survived the Ice Age. However, it appears that the rate of changes in the past was never as high and impacting as the present. For instance, neither population pressure nor depletion of natural environmental resources was ever so serious as it is under the present climate change settings (Adesina 2009). Consequently, the level of adaptation that is required may be far higher than what historically, humans may ordinarily be able to provide and incisive actions using sociological, economic and technological options are required. 2.1. Nigeria’s Situation Nigeria like many other developing countries particularly in Africa is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change and climate variability. This derives primarily form her weak economy, fragile political institutions and structures, and her many volatile communities. These conditions together with the country‟s ecological diversity and enormous environmental problems (UNEP 2008) make the requirement for adaptation quite considerable. The major ecological challenges include desertification, deforestation and biodiversity loss, pollution and land degradation resulting from use and misuse of land and erosion. Virtually all of these are visible in every part of the country although certain locations have more of each. For example, erosion is more phenomena in the south eastern parts of the country than else where. As at 1997 (Country Profile 1997), Anambra and Enugu states alone have more than 50 active gullies, many as wide as 200metres. Desertification is more of a north east problem with more and more visible impacts towards the Sudan Savanna; while deforestation is more meaningful when one compares the forest of western Nigeria 20years ago with what is now obtainable. As documented by HBF (2008a) in the documentary titled “Nigeria under attack”, the gullies of south eastern Nigeria are worryingly expanding and almost out of control. Several billions of Naira has been spent on terminating gully erosion in Nigeria. control The coastal areas of the country are similarly under severe erosion (Okude and Ademiluyi 2006). 8
  9. 9. All of these are already threatening development processes in the country. As noted in HBF (2008b), loss of biodiversity and agricultural land, and depletion as well as pollution of water resources, are creating serious challenges everywhere. In recognition of these many interrelated problems, the Government is committing 60% (more than N20bn) to fighting desertification this year alone. These problems are expected to be amplified with severe consequences as climates become hostile in the country. Nigeria‟s adaptation needs are thus enormous. They will need to be coordinated within existing social and economic development framework such as the President‟s Seven-Point Agenda. HBF (2008b) already outlined in detail, adaptation strategies by sector and ecological regions. Policy and decision makers must begin to look at this as a guide in pursuing development agendas in Nigeria. To be effective as is most desirable now, the process of adaptation must recognize and take on-board indigenous knowledge and practices in articulating and implementing rapid response. Adaptable local practices such of water conservation practices, farming methods and indigenous early warning systems have great potentials as they do not take communities away from what they are used to. Gender considerations are also crucial. To achieve meaningful development, all stakeholders including women and other vulnerable groups must be equally targeted. These vulnerable groups including pregnant women and nursing mothers, children, elderly men and women as well as the physically challenged, who are often sidelined in development programmes are more than half of Nigeria‟s population (NPC 2006). Properly targeting these groups would ensure effective climate change adaptation. We must be guided by the fact that adapting to climate change entails taking the right measures to reduce the negative effects of climate change (or exploit the positive ones) by making the appropriate adjustments and changes. 2.2. Nigeria’s Commitments on Climate Change Agreements Nigeria was a signatory to the UNFCC Convention in 1994 under the Non-Annex 1 Parties. As a signatory, Nigeria‟s obligations are to: Produce four key National Communications Produce four in-depth review/summaries Produce a demonstrable progress report Produce the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) Produce a Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Report These obligations and commitments are aimed primarily at controlling climate change by reducing to the minimum the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. At the local level, the core challenge is to develop the framework and capacity to (a) assess the vulnerability of sectors and sections to different scenarios of climate change impact, (b) develop, assess and implement mitigation and adaptation options, and (c) strengthen the negotiating ability in climate change transactions. 9
  10. 10. Nigeria‟s major achievement in responding to the Kyoto Protocol and Convention obligations is the production of the First National Communication in November, 2003 (FME 2003). A range of adaptation actions have been put forward in the First National Communication to be adopted in response to the current and anticipated climate change impacts on the various sectors of the Nigerian economy. The Second National Communication is being prepared. It is useful to note that the National Assembly has been brought into the picture of what climate change is and the urgency to respond. There is now a Committee of the House on Climate Change. As a non-Annex 1 country, Nigeria, is expected to focus on adaptation to the change. Through some collaborative effort with Henrich Boll Foundation Foundation (Nigeria) a strategy of action document has been prepared (HBF 2008b). Nigeria also created a Special Climate Change Unit (SCCU) within the Federal Ministry of Environment with the Secretariat in Abuja, Nigeria. The Unit is created to implement the Convention and the Protocol activities including the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). On Wednesday, July 22nd the Senate of the Federal Government of Nigeria passed a bill that will establish a Climate Change Commission for the country. The Commission would be saddled with the responsibility of coordinating resources, policies and actions in the field of Climate Change, providing advice to the Federal Government and developing a national strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and a low carbon economy. The Commission will also act as designated National Authority for the purpose of the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent international agreements that Nigeria may accede to. 2.3. Constraints to Climate Change adaptation in Nigeria A number of constraints exist that Nigeria must address to effectively respond to climate change. These include Institutional issues especially with respect to overlapping functions in development activities; Low level of awareness of climate change issues Limited funds to pursue climate change activities Weak articulation and organization of technical capacities 2.4. Effective adaptation in Africa A number of steps are crucial to achieving adaptation objectives in Africa: Understanding climate and climate change processes, vulnerability and risks, including but not limited to, monitoring and observation systems; Understanding the economics of adaptation; Understanding the social and cultural dimensions of adaptation; 10
  11. 11. Policy setting and planning, including climate-proofing of future development; Piloting and demonstrating; and Full-scale implementation In line with the Bali Action Plan, there is the need for developing countries to receive new and additional, sustainable and predictable financial resources and investment to undertake adaptation action and meet the additional costs posed by climate change; as well as on the need for action on technology development and transfer and capacity- building, to support action on adaptation. With regard to the activities to be supported, there is convergence on the view that financial resources could be used, including through programmatic approaches, to support adaptation actions such as: Preparation and implementation of national adaptation plans in developing countries. This would involve supporting activities encompassed at all adaptation stages, including climate change risk, impact and vulnerability assessment, planning, implementation and monitoring; Integration of adaptation into sectoral and national planning; Risk reduction and management; Technologies for adaptation; Creation and sustenance of enabling environments, including funding of capacity- building; Economic diversification in response to the impact of climate change; Activities to enhance knowledge sharing. 2.5. Recent African efforts: African position on adaptation As a continent, countries of Africa have been relating as a block because of the similarity in their state with respect to climate change impact. Recently, the Ministers of Environment from African countries met in Nairobi from May 25th to 29th, 2009 at the special session of the African Ministerial Conference on the Environment. Some of their critical decisions border on enabling effective adaptation to climate change. The decisions include amongst others to: Urge all Parties and the international community that increased support to Africa under the future climate regime should be based on the priorities determined by Africa. These are adaptation, capacity-building, research, financing and technology development and transfer, including support for South-South transfer of knowledge, in particular indigenous knowledge; Reaffirm their strong commitment that adaptation for climate change is the first priority at the national and regional levels and to work with developed countries to strengthen South-South and North-South cooperation to build adaptive capacity and improve resilience to climate change; Integrate climate change adaptation measures into national and regional development plans, policies and strategies and, where appropriate with a view to ensuring adequate adaptation to climate change, in such areas as water resources, 11
  12. 12. agriculture, health, infrastructure, biodiversity and ecosystems, forests, urban management, tourism, food, land, environment, energy, security and management of coastal and marine resources, taking into account cross-sectoral implications; Include in a legally binding instrument or protocol clear and comprehensive mechanisms on adaptation that should respond to African priorities. 12
  13. 13. 3. REDUCED EMISSION FROM DEFORESTATION AND DEGRADATION (REED) One of the issues that developed as a follow up on to the Bali Convention is the greater recognition of the significance of land use and forestry in Adaptation and Mitigation. Earlier on, land use and tropical deforestation was not viewed as major factors of GHG concentration in the atmosphere on the basis of which there could be negotiations. Today tropical countries like Nigeria with the rainforest ecosystem have prospects of securing credits and funds for efforts at cutting back deforestation. 3.1. Forests as natural carbon sinks Forests are natural sinks for carbon. The stronger the forest growth and perseveration a country has, the more carbon it stores. As shown by Adesina et a (1999), Nigeria has great potential of carbon storage in biomass but this is greater targeting wood products as sawlogs and pulp, in which trees grow for many decades before they are harvested. The potentials span across the various ecological systems but are much more in the humid parts up to the mangroves along the coast. Also, as climate change becomes ever more evident, the significance of forests and wetlands in moderating temperature and protection against storm damage cannot be exaggerated. Forests of multiple species which are exemplified in the tropics are more resilient to climate change, and their ecosystem services of temperature control under their canopy helps modulate the rise. Many other ecosystem services are provided by Nigeria‟s natural areas. The reservation of tracts of forests around the country as forest reserves was in realization of the economic values of forests. Many endemic plant species and commercially valuable species like mahogany and other hardwoods are encouraged in the reserves. These reserves however, continue to be subjected to unsustainable logging and virtually unrestrained firewood and plant collecting (USAID, 2008). Much of Nigeria‟s remaining forest resources are located in protected areas, but sadly many of these areas lack real protection. Nigeria currently has seven national parks spread around the country. In addition to these there are many Game Reserves that are managed by different states in an effort to preserve wildlife species. States also manage forest reserves with the intention of preserving trees and other plant species along with associated wildlife. A number of specialized reserves under the stricter protection of NGOs or other agencies still contain good amounts of biodiversity, but these are generally much smaller than government reserves. Additionally, some areas have been accorded global significance through international treaties, but the protection of these areas still remains to be seen. 3.2. Forest Degradation and Socioeconomic Impacts in Nigeria The demand for urban space and agricultural land among others has continued to expand as populations and human activities in Africa grow. There have generally therefore been greater reasons for more deforestation. If greenhouse gas emissions continue through 13
  14. 14. deforestation at the present rate, Africa can only be expected to continue more to global warming. This in combination with the emissions from the developed economies will cause warmer climates as the world will expect an increase of 3–7ºC (5.4–12.6ºF), depending on where they live (PEW Centre, 2007). In general, scientists expect Nigeria to see overall increases in precipitation (along with decreases in some areas), including increases in the intensity of insolation and winds velocities as well as more intense heavy rainfalls. Projections also indicate more land areas affected by drought and desertification. Sea-level rise will affect the coastlines of Nigeria to varying degrees, with the most severe impacts being significant losses of mangroves and coastal towns, villages and wetlands. All of these impacts will affect food and water supplies, natural resources, ecosystems, and human life (as there will be heightened poverty) and property (IPCC 2007). Especially hard hit will be plants and animals, as they will have more difficulty adapting to large-scale, rapid changes in climate, compared to human societies. Where the climate changes at a rate or to a level beyond their ability to adapt, many species will not survive. While models can project levels of drought, precipitation and severe weather events within very large regions (as northern Nigeria or Niger Delta), these models typically do not yet provide reliable projections at smaller scales, such as for individual towns or local ecosystems. As a result, the exact location and timing of these events cannot be forecasted with certainty. The end result of all these are likely to be more conflicts leading to loss of lives and properties. 3.3. Mitigation and Adaptation through REDD With emissions through deforestation and degradation continuing to rise, tropical countries like Nigeria need to contribute positively to cutting down emission through reduction of deforestation. Integrative adaptation and mitigation efforts (Nyong, et al. 2007) are necessary to reduce the cost and depth of both mitigation and climate change impacts for decades to come. From projections, it is clear that adapting to climate change will become much harder, and more expensive, to the extent that the changes happen faster, or on a larger scale, than expected. Acting now to limit the potential damage from climate change is smarter, and costs less in the long run, than acting later. One special area where quick and pointed efforts are expected is in the tropical forest preservation for carbon storage and Nigeria has a huge role to play. The negotiation on REDD may yet reach a dead lock as the G8 failed in July 2009 to reach a firm agreement over carbon emissions reductions targets. There will thus be the need to give REDD a greater attention in Copenhagen. As already indicated, the REDD approach is a newcomer in the UNFCCC negotiations, and its yet in its final shape. The discussions on whose responsibility it is to protect the tropical forests started in the 1970s without much progress. A major effort to make it an issue under climate negotiations came up in COP 11 in 2005, when the Coalition for Rainforest Nations made a proposal for a market-based scheme in tropical forest carbon. REDD was interpreted as 14
  15. 15. a concrete signal by some developing countries of willingness to commit to verifiable reduction measures. In 2006, seven member states of the Coalition (Bolivia, Central African Republic, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands) argued for financial mechanisms and technical support to developing countries „to effectively and significantly reduce emissions from deforestation‟. The effort of the Coalition led to the establishment of the World Bank‟s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF), the United Nation‟s UN-REDD program and the pledges made by various industrialized countries (including Norway, the UK, Germany, France, Japan, Australia, Finland, and others) towards capacity building and incentives to reduce rates of deforestation in participating developing countries ( Some of the industrialized developing countries led by Brazil, with significant forest resources opposed including a carbon trading mechanism in a post-Kyoto agreement, arguing instead for non-market based initiatives to reduce carbon emissions. Brazil favours international public funding-based approaches, both bilateral official development assistance (ODA) and a multilateral fund made up of voluntary donations from developed states. This position is one that Nigeria should look out for in Copenhagen. At Bali, the prospect of payment for carbon locked up in tropical forests opened the possibility of substantial transfers of money from the historical emitters of greenhouse gases to participating developing countries. Since then, however, a major global recession has set in, and has put a damper on these hopes. 15
  16. 16. 4. GOVERNANCE, MOBILISATION OF INTERNAL RESOURCES AND CDM 4.1. The Clean Development Mechanism As already noted the Bali Action Plan (BAP) is centered on four main building blocks – mitigation, adaptation, technology and financing. The BAP in line with previous Conventions also agreed that the negotiations on a long-term agreement should address a shared vision for long-term cooperative action, including a long-term global goal for emission reductions. A major plank for combating mitigation, adaptation and financing in developing countries is through the Kyoto Protocol‟s CDM while technology serves as a major input into developing a sustainable CDM in the developing countries. The CDM is a project- based mechanism that allows cooperative action between countries that have a cap on emissions and those that do not. Appropriating the CDM beyond just being project tool will not only guarantee a commitment to reduce emissions domestically, but will support adaptation and provide the requisite financial support for climate actions in developing countries. As developing and participating countries of the UNFCCC, the African countries are eligible to benefits from the CDM established under Kyoto Protocol. The CDM is designed to promote a win-win solution between developed and developing countries in addressing global climate change. It allows the developed countries listed in Annex I of the UNFCCC to fulfill their GHG emission reduction obligations through investment or participation in GHG emission reduction projects in developing countries, where the costs for emission reduction are relatively low. By obtaining certified emission reduction (CERs) from projects located in developing countries, the developed countries can meet their GHG emission reduction targets at lower cost, while promoting sustainable development in developing countries. According to a recent study by the World Bank, Nigeria could implement GHG reduction projects that would annually generate $2.0billion worth of CER credits annually. The CDM could assist Nigeria to gain financial support and new technology from developed countries to complement local efforts to promote sustainable development and address climate change concerns on national, continental and global basis. 4.2. Progress so far in Nigeria and Africa Performance of Nigeria and Africa as a continent in CDM is still low. The August 2009 figures still show that Africa hosts only 31 CDM projects out of 1739 (i.e. 1.78%) registered so far with South Africa leading the pack with 15 projects; Egypt and Morocco with 4 projects each; Tunisia and Nigeria with 2 projects each; while Uganda, Tanzania, Ivory Coast and Kenya have 1 project each. 16
  17. 17. 4.3. Nigeria’s Challenges in CDM The major challenges facing the development of CDM in Nigeria can be summarized briefly as follows: To achieve meaningful result on CDM and Climate Change generally, there must be appropriate and effective governance to drive mobilization of resources on a grid platform of internal/external and public/private levels. The external Governance is on the part of the COP while internal Governance is on the part of the country‟s leadership. China‟s present success on CDM is as result of concerted efforts undertaken by the Country in 2005. According to an Asian Development Bank Report; “… the Government of the People‟s Republic of China (PRC) requested technical assistance (TA) from the Asian Development Bank (ADB) for establishment of the Clean Development Mechanism Fund (the CDM Fund) in the PRC. At the request of the Government, ADB sent a mission to the PRC to undertake reconnaissance about the CDM Fund from 18 to 20 January 2006. National experts were engaged as staff consultants to provide a background analysis concerning the institutional structure and operational modalities of the proposed CDM Fund. A joint review meeting was held at ADB on 15–17 February 2006 between the Government, ADB and staff consultants to discuss the consultant report. Based on findings of the reconnaissance mission and staff consultants‟ study, the ADB Fact-Finding Mission visited the PRC from 4 to 7 April 2006 and reached agreement with the Government regarding the TA‟s impact, outcome, outputs, implementation arrangements, cost, financing arrangements, and terms of reference.” On the submission of ADB‟s Report, the Government immediately established an inter- ministerial national policy coordination group, headed by the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), to provide oversight for policy development and decision making on climate change-related activities. This was the beginning of the success that China has recorded on CDM to date. The second factor affecting CDM implementation in Nigeria is the general lack of funds to conceptualize and develop meaningful projects. In Africa, development and project funds are mainly externally driven and the flow is a function of purely political risk on the part of investors while returns take the back-seat. Another critical factor is the lack of awareness on the part of local project promoters both in the public and private sectors of the economy. Examples abound of several projects that have been and are still being conceptualized and developed by Governments (Federal, State and local) without any CDM input. Tied to the issue of awareness is also that of limited human capacity to assist in pushing the frontiers of the mechanism. Hitherto and until the last two years, there was little or no information at all on CDM in Nigeria and therefore there has been no visible interest local by professionals. Thanks to the recent activities of the SCCU of the FME. 17
  18. 18. 5. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER “Technology transfer” has been defined as the diffusion and adoption of technology and know-how between parties, typically private companies, universities, financial institutions, governments and non-governmental organizations (Shephard, 2007). It connotes the transfer from one party, an organization or institution that developed the technology, to another that adopts, adapts, and uses it (Adam, 2009). As defined by IPCC, Technology Transfer covers a broad set of processes covering the flows of know- how, experience and equipment for mitigating and adapting to climate change amongst different stakeholders such as governments, private sector entities, financial institutions, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), and research/education institutions. The transfer may involve transfer of patented, (so-called “hard” technology) and/or unprotected (“soft” technology), such as know-how (Adam, 2009). It is generally understood that technology transfer is crucial to accelerating socio- economic development in the developing countries. It is also crucial to addressing various aspects of climate change so that it is more or less a cross-cutting issue. Technology transfer has been singled out here to facilitate a global view of it in the context of the forth coming COP meeting in Copenhagen. 5.1. National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP) Technology transfer as a tool for development has attracted considerable attention in Nigeria. As a matter of fact, there is an agency under the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology that has been charged with the responsibility of overseeing the acquisition, promotion and development of technology in the country. We review the activities of the agency here as an important platform for accelerating technology transfer for climate change activities. The agency set up for managing technology transfer in the country is known as National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP). It was originally established by Decree No. 70 of 1979 as the National Office of Industrial Property (NOIP). The vision of the agency is to move Nigeria from the periphery to the centre of global industrial power structure within the shortest possible time and make her a major global power house of the 21st Century through an efficient Technology Acquisition Strategy and a vibrant innovation and R&D commercialization program. Its mission is to ensure the acceleration of Nigeria's drive towards a rapid technological revolution by an efficient acquisition/absorption of foreign technology and a concerted development of indigenous technological capability through a proactive promotion of innovation and commercialization of technology. NOTAP is mandated to encourage a more efficient process for the identification and selection of foreign technology, develop negotiating skills of Nigerians with a view to ensuring the acquisition of the best contractual terms and conditions in the transfer of foreign technology agreements and to provide a more proficient process for the adaptation of imported technology. 18
  19. 19. NOTAP has had a number of accomplishments that are already bringing profits. These include the establishment of intellectual property technology transfer offices (IPTTOs), Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) Awareness Program, Promotion of Patenting of Inventions, establishment of the Patent Information and Documentation Centre (PIDC) - WIPONET Computerized Registry Information System (CORIS), Evaluation and Registration of Technology Transfer Agreements, and Monitoring the Implementation of Technology Transfer Agreements. 5.2. Climate change and technology transfer The intent and primary purpose of Climate Change Technology Transfer (CCTT) is to promote sustainable development among the world‟s developing countries so that the environmental degradation accompanying industrialization can be circumvented (Deal, 2007). The process is to disseminate the knowledge gained by the developed nations during their development and the technology efficiency gains that have since occurred. Through this, technology transfer programs can be used to bring sustainable economic growth to developing nations while helping developed nations to increase their exports. As observed by Barton (2008), technology forms one of the pillars of the Bali „Road Map‟ agreed in December 2007, and thus calls for „enhanced action on technology development and transfer, to be provided „in a measurable, reportable, and verifiable manner‟(Barton, 2008). It has however been observed that the developed countries, have largely failed to provide measurable, reportable, verifiable, and effective transfer of environmentally sound climate-related technologies (Deal, 2007). This failure is likely to constitute one of the foremost bones of debate in Copenhagen. 5.3. Barriers/Gaps/Challenges As desirable as technology transfer in addressing the issue of global climate change, the international transfer of technology did not significantly increase between 1978 and 2003. Also, three quarters of the technology transfer observed is between developed countries and less than a fifth between developed countries and developing countries (Meyer- Ohlendorf and Gerstetter 2009). This implies that there are some forms of barriers to technology transfer especially between developed and developing countries. Therefore, as suggested by Meyer-Ohlendorf and Gerstetter (2009) efforts additional to existing initiatives are needed to boost technology transfer. Several factors are responsible for this weak transfer of technology. A few of these barriers deserve deeper examination and are provided below: 5.3.1. Intellectual Property Rights Intellectual Property (IP) has been observed to be potentially both an incentive and an obstacle to the transfer of technology. Intellectual Property rights (IPRs) were seen as private rights to reward innovation and promote the dissemination of knowledge in the context of broader societal goals (International Centre for Trade and Sustainable 19
  20. 20. Development (ICTSD), 2008). From a view point of offering protection against a loss of control of information in technology-related transactions, IP is partly an instrument aimed at facilitating the transfer of technology. Studies such as those of Maskus et al. (2003) have shown that such a positive impact could exist, including by establishing a link between stronger patent rights and productivity, trade flows, foreign direct investment and the sophistication of the technologies transferred. In Maskus et al.‟s (2003) view however, the existence of IP protection does not guarantee effective transfer of technology. IP rights need to be strengthened by appropriate infrastructures, governance and competition systems in order to be effective. Foray (2008) corroborated this view. He observed that there may be circumstances in which IP rights are not incentives at all. For instance, the market power provided by patents and other IP rights over certain technologies may result in prices that exceed the socially optimal level and hamper the transfer of the technologies (Hoekman et al., 2004). While developing countries continue to emphasize the negative role that IPR play in technology transfer, developed countries have a keen interest to protect patents developed by their domestic industries (Meyer-Ohlendorf and Gerstetter, 2009). As a result of the tension between IP protection and the transfer of technology, a “balancing act” is necessary to ensure international IP rules advance broader public policy objectives (Maskus, 2003). Such balance has been evaluated to be particularly important in the context of the TRIPS Agreement, which establishes the most comprehensive minimum standards of IP protection, both in terms of covered areas and their applicability to all Members of the WTO (ICTSD, 2008). 5.3.2. Tariffs and Trade Barriers Tariff imposition is naturally part and parcel of International Trade. Therefore Climate Change Technology Transfer is not immune to tariffs and other trade barriers. Any products that are transported internationally, from solar photovoltaic panels to wind turbine components, are taxed with tariffs (Mani, 2007). The tariff rate which increase costs of transfer and makes transfer unattractive depends on the country and the technology being transferred. 5.3.3. Subsidies to Fossil Fuels Studies (e.g. Meyer-Ohlendorf and Gerstetter, 2009) have established that subsidies for fossil fuels are rampant in many countries and have various negative effects. For instance, they distort international trade, impede innovation, significantly hamper the deployment of clean energy production and absorb scarce resources for other policies that are vital for development, e.g. education, health, infrastructure or environmental protection (Meyer-Ohlendorf and Gerstetter, 2009). Given that fossil fuel subsidies can act as barrier to climate technology transfer, the reduction, and ultimately the abolishment of subsidies for fossil fuels has been identified as a key measure for protecting the environment and liberalizing international trade, while enhancing long term development goals (Meyer-Ohlendorf and Gerstetter, 2009). It is however important for governments to note that the social side of energy prices and are subject to considerable domestic 20
  21. 21. pressure when reducing subsidies and therefore have to take proper care of them. “Addressing this dilemma, governments and other relevant stakeholders should explore ways to reduce and abolish subsidies for fossil fuels. This would likely have to involve offering some compensation for increased energy prices. In developed countries, this may include such measures as reducing income taxes or lowering contributions to social security. In developing countries, these measures should also be considered, provided a functioning tax and welfare system is in place; if not, direct compensation for health or education costs could be another possibility” (Meyer-Ohlendorf and Gerstetter, 2009). 21
  22. 22. 6.0 THE POSITION OF NIGERIA’S GOVERNMENT This section attempts to give an overview of fundamental demands of Nigeria within the African Group in the climate change negotiations building up to Copenhagen. However, it must be noted that positions are not static, but are generally modified in response to negotiations. Fully aware of the seriousness and urgency of climate change and with a deep sense of responsibility for the long-term development of mankind, Nigeria‟s government is firmly committed to sustainable development that takes cognizance of the need to mainstream climate change into its development process and plans, including the 7-Point Agenda of President Yar‟Adua‟s administration and the Vision 20:2020, which is to position the country to become one of the top 20 economies in the world by 2020. 6.1. Global Negotiations Since 2007, Nigeria has been participating in a series of climate change meetings, talks and negotiations at the regional (Africa, G77+China, ECOWAS) and international levels. The country played a lead role in a series of meetings (Naivasha – Kenya, Abuja - Nigeria, Dakar – Sénégal, Bonn – Germany, AMCEN Meeting in Johannesburg – South Africa and Accra – Ghana, Algiers - Algeria; Nairobi - Kenya) that led to the development of the African Climate Platform towards Copenhagen. At the COP14 in Poznan, Poland in December 2008, the international community decided to shift into full negotiating mode in 2009 in order to shape an ambitious and effective international response to climate change, to be agreed in Copenhagen at the end of 2009. Finishing touches were put to the Kyoto Protocol‟s Adaptation Fund, with parties agreeing that the Adaptation Fund Board should have legal capacity to grant direct access for developing countries. The first draft of a concrete negotiating text was made available at a UNFCCC Climate Change Talks in Bonn, Germany in June 2009. Further informal consultations were also held in August 2009 in Bonn, Germany to revise the negotiating text and build upon the earlier preparation towards the final negotiation in December 2009 in Copenhagen. As the implementation of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol comes to an end in 2012. Nigeria with other countries of the world will begin to negotiate for the second commitment period in Copenhagen. In 2007, Nigeria participated in the 13th session of Conference of Parties (COP13) of the UNFCCC in Bali, Indonesia, during which the international community agreed upon a comprehensive 2-year process in order to reach an agreed outcome and adopt a decision at the 15th session of the COP (COP15) in Copenhagen, Denmark in December 2009. The outcome of the Bali meeting is a Bali Action Plan (also known as the Bali Roadmap). The Plan is based upon “a shared vision for long-term cooperative action (LCA), including a long-term global goal for emission reductions, to achieve the ultimate objective of the Convention, in accordance with the provisions and principles of the Convention, in particular the 22
  23. 23. principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, and taking into account social and economic conditions and other relevant factors”. Some progress has been made already in some key areas of a global agreement, such as adaptation, technology and capacity-building in developing countries. However, there is lack of clarity on a number of issues that are critical to success in Copenhagen. The most contentious include: Emission reduction targets for developed countries Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMA) for developing countries Financial support for climate change action in developing countries REDD-plus (reduced emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries) Inequitable geographic distribution of CDM projects 6.2. Key Elements of AWG-LCA Negotiation Text A shared vision under the Convention is one of the building blocks of the Bali Action Plan which noted the need for a long-term cooperative action among all parties to enable the full and sustained implementation of the Convention now, up to and beyond 2012. Nigeria‟s government position on the shared vision for long-term cooperative action, which is in line with the African position, should be guided by the ultimate objective of the Convention and its principles, in particular the principles of equity and of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, as well as the precautionary principle, that are enshrined in the Convention to guide the international community in addressing climate change. It should also take into account social and economic conditions and other relevant factors and ensure that global crises, such as the financial crises, should not constitute an obstacle to the provision of financial assistance to developing countries in accordance with the Convention. In developing the elements and principles of a shared vision, Nigeria along with the African Group indicated that the shared vision must: Unite the countries of the world in further building an inclusive, fair and effective climate regime, recognizing that solving the climate problem will only be possible if it is undertaken in the context of developing countries need for development space; Address the full, effective and sustained implementation of the Convention through long term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012; Address all the building blocks of the Bali Action Plan; Reflect the urgent need for new and predictable means of implementation including, in particular, support for financing, capacity building and technology for developing countries. 23
  24. 24. Include a long-term goal for global greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions reductions of at least halving global emissions relative to historical levels by mid-century, underpinned by ambitious mid-term targets, based on sound science Address gender equity, and reflect the special needs and interests of the youth. 6.3. Adaptation and means of implementation As highlighted in previous chapters, Nigeria like all developing countries faces not only the additional challenge of adaptation but also the need to put its economy on a sustainable path. Nigeria agrees that Africa is the most vulnerable continent to climate change and faces serious adverse effects as well as threats to its future economic potential due to insufficient access to shared global atmospheric resources. Consequently, international cooperation on implementation of adaptation action in Africa is urgent and must be accorded the same level of priority and emphasis as that given to mitigation. A comprehensive and action oriented programme on the implementation of adaptation actions must be established. This programme must implement, support and facilitate urgent and immediate adaptation action that reduces vulnerability and builds resilience of developing countries to impacts that are already occurring, including impacts of increasing numbers of extreme weather events, and impacts that are expected to occur in the future. The programme should provide access to means of implementation (finance, technology and capacity building) for implementing urgent and immediate adaptation action, at regional and country level; It should facilitate the implementation of an urgent and immediate adaptation action at national, regional and global levels It should promote coherence and linkages with other international, regional and national programmes, bodies and stakeholders that are implementing adaptation and related activities, including the Nairobi Work Programme The Adaptation Action Programme must: Be undertaken in the context of the principles and commitments of the Convention Be country driven Address the concerns of all vulnerable groups whose adaptive capacity is low Reflect indigenous knowledge and practice The provision of financial and technical support by developed country Parties for adaptation programmes in developing countries is a commitment under the Convention that must be urgently fulfilled, recognizing that climate change is an additional burden to sustainable development, and a threat to achieving the Millennium Development Goals. The Adaptation Action Programme must provide scaled up new, additional, adequate, predictable and sustainable financial, technological and capacity building support to address all key areas of the Adaptation Action Programme in a manner that is holistic, and consistent with national and regional development objectives, programmes and plans. 24
  25. 25. By 2020 the scale of financial flows to support adaptation in developing countries must be at least $ 67 billion / year 6.4. Mitigation and Means of Implementation A firewall must be maintained between mitigation commitments by all developed countries and mitigation actions by developing countries. As for mitigation commitments by developed countries the following principles should be observed: Quantified emission reduction commitments are established for all developed country parties “Measurable, reportable and verifiable” refers to legally-binding quantified emissions reduction commitments (QERCs) that are absolute, and that are verified for compliance. Mitigation commitments by developed country Parties as a group must be at the top of the range indicated by the IPCC in order to achieve the lowest stabilisation levels assessed by the IPCC in its 4th assessment report. The aggregate number is for all developed country parties, regardless of whether they have ratified the Kyoto Protocol or not. In numerical terms: Annex I Parties reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2020 and at least 80% to 95% below 1990 levels by 2050, to make a meaningful and fair contribution to achieving the lowest level of stabilisation assessed by the IPCC‟s Fourth Assessment Report. At lower stabilisation levels, the additional climate impacts are unacceptable to Africa. Comparability of effort is established through (i) comparability of targets (QERCs); and (ii) comparable compliance. The unit of measurement of comparability is tons of CO2-eq. On the contrary, for mitigation actions by developing countries the following principles should be applied: “Measurable, reportable and verifiable” is applied to mitigation actions by developing countries, which are relative reductions, or „substantial deviations from baseline‟. Developing countries are to choose from a toolbox of voluntarily registered, nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMA), including sustainable development policies and measures (SDPAMS), programmatic CDM and others. A REDD-Plus mechanism should be designed in such a way as to accommodate different national circumstances and respective capabilities. Adequate, predictable and sustainable funds from a variety of sources, including global carbon markets, are vital for the provision of incentives at the kind of scale that is necessary for reducing emissions in Africa and globally Nationally appropriate mitigation actions by developing countries will be reportable through national communications (if done with own resources) or in a separate registry for those with multi-lateral, measurable, reportable and verifiable support. 25
  26. 26. The application of “verifiable” to unilateral mitigation actions by developing countries, must be differentiated from those that are supported internationally For actions with own resources, verification is by national entities working with international guidelines. For multi-laterally supported actions, verification is through the UNFCCC. 6.5. Finance, Technology and Capacity Building Nigeria affirms that financial commitments have not been met by developed country Parties and emphasized the urgent need for these Parties to honour their commitments in accordance with Article 4, and in particular Articles 4.3, 4.4, and 4.5 of the Convention by providing resources to support adaptation, mitigation and technology transfer in developing countries. In particular: Developed countries have a commitment to provide financial, technological and capacity building support, to enable developing country take actions to combat climate change;. Nigeria called for the establishment of a mechanism to address all aspects of the means of implementation for developing countries, for both adaptation and mitigation and including access to technology, finance and capacity-building. The mechanism shall in particular: Be underpinned by the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities Operate under the authority and guidance, and be fully accountable, to the COP; Have an equitable and geographically-balanced representation of all Parties within a transparent and efficient system of governance (Article 11.2); Enable direct access to funding by the recipients; and Strengthen developing country capacity to ensure recipient country involvement during the stages of identification, definition and implementation, rendering it truly demand driven. The mechanism should assists in developing and supporting implementation of programmes or projects put forward by developing countries, and match these with funding, technology and capacity building support. Provision of finance, technology and capacity-building must be legally binding, with consequences for non-compliance. Action by developing countries should be dependent on the level of support by developed countries. Finance On provision of finance, developed countries should commit to a target of 0.5% of GDP for climate action in developing countries. . Developed countries should commit to new and innovative sources of public and private sector finance, with the major source of funding coming from the public sector Technology 26
  27. 27. Developed countries are urged to commit to the deployment, diffusion and transfer of technology to developing countries, based on principles of accessibility, affordability, appropriateness and adaptability of technologies required by developing countries for enhanced action on mitigation and adaptation; Developed countries should commit to providing full costs and full incremental costs, in accordance with article 4.3 of the Convention The barriers to technology transfer should be addressed. Capacity-building Developed countries shall commit to strengthening the institutional capacity of developing countries to undertake climate action Developed countries should commit to supporting other country specific capacity building needs of African countries, consistent with the commitment and provisions of the Convention Compliance A compliance mechanism should be put in place to ensure that commitments on delivery of these means of implementation (Finance, Technology and Capacity Building) are met. The extent of developing countries‟ mitigation efforts depends on support by developed countries. MRV applies to mitigation actions and the MRV support (finance, technology and capacity-building) must be made. A 2020 target for the scale of financial flows to support mitigation in developing countries is set at $ 200 billion by 2020 (0.5% of GDP of Annex II Parties). 6.6. Contentious Issues Overall, what are we really trying to do in the negotiations? Developing countries want a 2nd commitment period for Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol. Their emission reductions must be ambitious; Developed countries‟ goal is to have developing countries take on binding or semi-binding commitments. Do we accept and how do we interpret historical responsibility and common but differentiated responsibilities? According to developing countries, Annex I countries are responsible for their emissions since Industrial Revolution, and they must meet their commitment on finance and technology. Developing countries are not responsible, and should not be subjected to international legally binding emission reductions. They will try their best but their efforts depend on finance and technology from developed countries; Developed countries do not accept historical responsibility and argue that responsibility (even if they agree on this) only begins in 1992. Developed countries agree to “common but differentiated responsibilities and respective 27
  28. 28. capabilities” but by this they also mean that developing countries must be differentiated in terms of their obligations. The role of the US in mitigation and how to treat the US Developing countries say that they must be treated just like any other developed country even if they are not a Party to the Kyoto Protocol – comparability of efforts. If the US does not join Kyoto, its comparable commitment should be bound in the Convention; Developed countries are in a quandary. At first they insisted that the US should make commitment that is equal to those of other Annex I countries; now some (e.g. Japan and in future possibly others) may accept the US low commitment and then attempt to likewise have low commitment (e.g. Japan‟s 12% reduction 1990 to 2020). Whether the EU can maintain its commitment level if others only willing to have low commitment is not known; it may try to divert to greater offset. Developing countries’ role on mitigation Developing countries argue that their mitigation actions can be enhanced and subject to MRV only on condition and to the extent of enabling and supported by finance and technology which have to be MRVed. Actions, not outcomes can be MRVed; Developed countries want maximum obligations from developing countries. They want some developing countries‟ mitigation actions to be more than MRVed, i.e. to be subjected to reduction commitments. They are expanding obligations beyond Bali Action Plan (ie Bali-Plus) through concept and figures of “deviation from business as usual by 15 to 30%.” They also want outcomes to be MRved, and for MRV to be as binding as possible through process, if not through law e.g. schedules of actions for each country, such as in WTO. 28
  29. 29. 7. RECOMMENDATIONS ON ISSUES FOR NEGOTIATIONS Mitigation Mitigation in non-Annex 1 countries is dependent on the flow of financial and technical support from the Annex 1 countries (Convention Article 4.7). Nigeria should share the view with others that developed countries must provide measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) indicators for supports so provided to developing countries on Mitigation. Adaptation Nigeria would support the position that the international community Considers funding for adaptation as reflecting liability for economic and social damages resulting from climate change and develop appropriate legal framework for the purpose. Adopts a consistent approach to adaptation matters to facilitate access to means of implementation and among others, assessment and exchange of lessons learnt. Ensures that funding for adaptation goes beyond mainstreaming it into development. There should be stand alone opportunities of funding for adaptation projects. This could involve sourcing funds beyond the existing UNFCCC climate funds. Addresses more proactively, the funding and technical assistance for NAPAs. Addresses firmly the technological needs of developing countries to adapt to climate change. Nigeria should support the setting up of an Adaptation Committee of Experts (ACE) International Financing Nigeria should support the initiative for the establishment of a Multilateral Technology Acquisition Fund to buy IPR which is a major constraint to technology transfer. Most of the resources for mitigation have moved to the developed countries over the years. Nigeria should support the view to review this for equitable distribution. Mitigation resources should also come to developing countries so that their developmental efforts do not finally result in injecting more GHG into the atmosphere. Adaptation Fund Nigeria should team up with other African countries and G77 to seek for greater access to Adaptation Funds. Many of the potential adaptation projects which are urgent require considerable capital investment that the Fund can best provide. Nigeria should hold the view that adaptation under the Kyoto Protocol should be strengthened. A share of proceeds from JI and IET should be made available to the adaptation fund as an equitable contribution to funding Adaptation. The significance of this is that this source of funding is reliable and predictable. . 29
  30. 30. Demand notices requiring for settling of counterpart Funds should be sent early enough to facilitate the processing of payment. Set up a committee to Monitor the utilization of Adaptation Fund locally. According to the Annex to the Memorandum of Understanding between the COP and the GEF, GEF plays a major role in providing funds for climate activities. Nigeria should team up with other countries to ask for the change in the present arrangement in which developed countries alone produce the CEOs of the GEF. In the future, the position should be alternately occupied by candidates from the developed and developing countries to reflect the global character of the institution. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) As indicated earlier, 2/CP13 underscores the significance of deforestation and forest degradation in global carbon dynamics. Tropical forests are particularly important in this way. Protecting and restoring tropical forests remain viable options for carbon storage. Nigeria must continue her drive for afforestation and reduction of deforestation particularly in the rainforest belt. The country must improve methodologies for measuring and controlling landuse change. Nigeria should also insist on immediate implementation of REDD agreements and press for clear methodologies for the generation of measurable, reportable and verifiable (MRV) REDD credits as a means of deriving benefits for conservation efforts. Nigeria should seek incentives to reduce emissions and support technological change in agriculture. The implementation of REDD agreements must not compromise the small economies of the local people. Clean Development Mechanisms (CDM) CDM is a strong financial mechanism for driving attracting investment from the developed country for carbon credits. Up till today, Nigeria has only secured two CDM projects despite of the country‟s huge potentials. Nigeria needs to press for capacity building in the CDM process and implementation to make it possible for her to tap into the huge potentials of the CDM. It should also insist on the implementation of the Nairobi Framework for supporting more CDM projects in African countries. Given the significance of forestry in the Nigeria‟s economy and increasing relevance of agroforestry practices for sustainable agriculture in the country, Nigeria should press further with other African countries, the need to recognize forestry projects and sustainable agricultural practices as candidates under carbon markets for CDM. Technology Transfer As indicated, the key challenge in technology transfer is that intellectual property rights are held by Annex 1 countries. 30
  31. 31. Nigeria needs to articulate her needs for technological transfer in the various sectors of its economy. This would be addressed by conducting a Technological Needs Assessment of the country. Correct past mistakes when creating second generation CCTT programs. . Support a post-Kyoto agreement that incorporates all developed countries and all major developing countries. The post-Kyoto agreement should be quantifiable and long-term, preferably creating a pathway for the next 50 years. This will lower uncertainty and allow for more complex, longer-term projects to be undertaken. Tariffs placed on clean energy technologies should be reduced or eliminated and the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System should be updated to combine all climate change technologies in the same category. Support the call on the US to step up as an international leader in addressing the issue of global climate change. As a world leader in emissions and technological innovation – and due to its historical contribution to total GHG emissions – international leadership from the U.S. is crucial to addressing global climate change. Nigeria should also support the African proposal that technology transfer should address all the technology life stages – retrofitting old technologies, deploying existing climate friendly technologies, incentivizing new and emerging technologies, investment in R&D, demonstration and pilot projects. As a means of monitoring technology transfer in the country and in furtherance of the objectives of National Office for Technology Acquisition and Promotion (NOTAP), the country should support such indicators such as - Number of technologies transferred per annum/ specified period; - Measure of diffusion and commercialization of imported technologies - Transfer of IP or New/ Similar patents - Jobs created as a result of tech. update, diffusion and commercialization. - New business created as a result of transfer - Other business opportunities created - Relevant knowledge created to develop other technologies - Revenue from commercialization of transferred technologies - Skills developed to operate and maintain technology - Relevant knowledge created to develop other technologies - Improved resilience/adaptive capacity Nigeria should support China and G77 position – following from the Accra meeting of 2008 - on financial mechanism for securing funds for the purpose of purchasing licences and IPR for technologies. The country should also expand opportunities for capacity building in the in science and technology. External Governance: A strong representation should be made to the COP to meet its commitments with respect to the following: 31
  32. 32. Development and transfer of technologies under the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice as contained in Decision 3/CP.13 of the Bali Action Plan. Immediately implement the establishment of the Least Developed Countries Fund in addition to the other financing programmes, as proposed under Decision 3. Reclassify participating countries as the present classification of some countries (e.g. China) in the same class with African countries creates unfair competition for CDM investments from the Developed Countries. Suspend the payment of Registration Fees for African projects until the CER proceeds are received as this creates additional burden for CDM assessment and verification by promoters in Africa, who are in the first place still grappling with the direct project cost. Cause the World Bank, in partnership with the host country, to underwrite Sovereign Risks with respect to CDM projects in order to encourage further inflow of funds into Africa. Deliberate and massive capacity building and training for Africa on CDM. Funding: In contrast to the Chinese model, we recommend the establishment of a CDM Fund (or a Special Climate Change Fund) that will run in the form of a mutual fund with returns generated from sponsored projects. Such a Fund will rank pari- passu with Federal Government Bonds in terms of classification, liquidity and collaterisation. Research and Systematic Observation Nigeria would support an African Regional proposal for the establishment of an African Climate Observatory (ACO) for climate data collection as systematic observation. Nigeria would seek through the ACO to strengthen national institutions such as the NIMET with mandates on weather and climatic data collection and management. Three issues in agriculture must be pursued: investment, incentives and information. Seek for explicit inclusion of agric-related investments, especially as part of Global climate change fund Public Awareness and Education Article 6 of the convention specifically provides that awareness and education on Climate Change issues be a major focus. In Nigeria the significance of this is overwhelming as many people still have little or no idea of what climate change is about. Nigeria should join her voice with other nations in getting the developed countries to provide funds for the implementation of Article 6. The effort of the SCCU is considered quite commendable in this direction, particularly in view of the paucity of funds to implement its programmes. It is however, recommend that the following be looked into: 32
  33. 33. - Involve the private sector more in its efforts, particularly the financial services industry and the oil sector. - Organize in-house and in-plant courses for relevant institutions. - Develop and implement professional training programmes for intending practitioners in CDM. - Thereafter regulate and certify practitioners. - Inculcate CDM Report in the mandatory Environmental Impact Assessment of projects. This will encourage project promoters to assess their projects for CDM at the feasibility stage. - In collaboration with the private sector, organize high profile national and regional conferences, seminars and workshops on CDM. National Communications Nigeria needs to press that the mandate of the technical support be revised to make it more able to meet the specific needs of the country in preparing her National Communication. In particular, this is necessary given the uncertainties and complications that continue to hang around methodologies approved by UNFCCC for preparing NCCs. Beyond the provisions of the CGE, Nigeria needs to vigorously pursue Negotiations that would guarantee support for training at various level including higher degrees in climate change studies to expand her capacities. This should be argued also from the background that Nigeria continuously looses her skillful men and women through brain drain to other countries. Domestic Financing Nigeria should put in place strategies for prompt settlement of counterpart Funds to GEF, UNEP and other International agencies responsible for the environment. Oil companies and other greenhouse gases (GHG) producing industrial activities like cement factories should be pay more tax (from their profits) to provide funds for adaptation Government should give put in place incentive packages for the development and use of renewable energy. This could be low tax on materials used for renewable energy. Sensitize all the agencies in government mount campaigns that will assist in getting enough allocation during budget presentation ( in the three tiers) Private individuals should be encouraged to invest in projects that may not have financial returns but have ecological heritages. 33
  34. 34. ANNEX 1: POSSIBILITIES FOR FINANCING Funds for climate change activities such as adaptation in developing countries flows mainly through two channels: Bilateral, under the Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Multilateral arrangement, under United Nations (UN) regime. Since most of the funding still comes from ODA, this review focuses on the multilateral effort under the UN regime. Available funding for adaptation activities include: The Global Environment Facility (GEF) Trust Fund The GEF, as an entity entrusted to operate the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC, established the Strategic Priority on Adaptation (SPA) under its Trust Fund. The objective of the SPA is to reduce vulnerability and to increase adaptive capacity to the adverse effects of climate change in the focal areas in which the GEF works. The SPA supports pilot and demonstration projects that address local adaptation and at the same time generate global environmental benefits. To date, US$28 million of the earmarked funds have been allocated to the SPA. About half of these have been disbursed to concrete projects. Examples of the projects that have been approved under SPA are the Implementation of Pilot Adaptation Measures in Carribean Coastal Areas, and Integrating Vulnerability and Adaptation to Climate Change into Sustainable Development Policy Planning and Implementation in Southern and Eastern Africa. The Special Climate Change Fund (SCCF) The SCCF aims at supporting activities in adaptation, technology transfer, energy, transport, industry, agriculture, forestry and waste management, and economic diversification. Of top priority for funding under the SCCF are adaptation activities to address the adverse effects of climate change. So far, 13 countries have pledged money to the SCCF, totalling US$70 million (GEF 2007b). Of this, about US$ 57 million is specifically earmarked for adaptation (UNDP, 2007). Among the projects that have been approved under the SCCF are various water governance projects such as the Adaptation to Climate Change Through Effective Water Governance in Ecuador and the Coping with drought and Climate Change projects in Ethiopia, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. The Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF) The LDCF was established to support a work programme to assist Least Developed Country Parties (LDCs) carry out, inter alia, the preparation and implementation of national adaptation programmes of action (NAAs). NAPAs represent an effort launched after the seventh conference of parties (COP7) held in Marrakech in 2001 for the LDCs. In order to address the urgent adaptation needs of LDCs, NAPAs focus on enhancing adaptive capacity to climate variability, which itself would help address the adverse effects of climate change. NAPAs are prepared through a participatory process, involving, in particular, local communities. After consultations, a national NAPA team develops prioritized proposals for urgent adaptation activities, which is subsequently funded from the LDC Fund. As of mid-2006, six countries have submitted their NAPA, among them Malawi, Mauritania and Niger 34
  35. 35. ( By 2008, 31 NAPAs have been completed through the LDCF (UNFCCC, 2008a) The Adaptation Fund (AF) under the Kyoto Protocol The Kyoto Protocol Adaptation Fund will be financed from the share of proceeds of the clean development mechanism (CDM) and other sources. The fund‟s purpose is to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are parties to the Kyoto Protocol (UNFCCC 2008b). The AF has yet to finance any concrete adaptation projects, as its governance structure was not finally agreed upon until the end of 2007. Funds under other Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) Some funding is also available under other MEAs whose areas of work could be synergetic with adaptation, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) and the Ramsar convention on the conservation of wetland resources. CURRENT INITIATIVES AND ADAPTATION PROJECTS/ACTIVITIES FINANCED IN AFRICA Currently, several adaptation-relevant initiatives and programs are ongoing or proposed for the near future. They have contributed or are expected to contribute to building adaptation capacity in Africa. The list below is not exhaustive but it is meant to shed the light on some of the important adaptation relevant initiatives in Africa Concrete planned or ongoing adaptation projects funded under the GEF SPA and the SCCF include: Incorporating Climate Change in integrated Water Resources Management in Pangani River Basin, Tanzania This Special Climate Change Fund supported projected will initiate Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) frameworks in the Pangani River Basin of Northern Tanzania. These frameworks will address climate change and pilot adaptation measures. It is a field-based climate change preparation project with strong links to basin and national planning and policy which will help build national and regional capacity in water resources management. Coping with Regional Drought and Climate Change This Strategic Priority on Adaptation funded project, aims to develop and pilot a range of coping mechanisms for reducing vulnerability of farmers and pastoralists to future climate shocks. Components include piloting coping strategies, improving early warning systems, assisting governments in developing drought plans and integrating climate change/drought across sector policies and finally replicating and disseminating the results (Martin Krause, Coping with Drought and Climate Change, Project Inception Meeting, 2005, DDC Nairobi). The project is ongoing in Kenya, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and Ethiopia. 35
  36. 36. Adaptation to Climate and Coastal Change (ACCC) in West Africa This is a Strategic Priority on Adaptation funded project which aims to focus on pilot sites particularly vulnerable to natural climate changes and to anthropogenic degradation in the short, medium and long term ( It also hopes to formulate national and regional adaptation strategies to help manage the impact of changes to the shoreline within the framework of Integrated Coastal Zone Management. The project will run four years from 2007-2010 and is taking place in Senegal, Cape Verde, Guinea Bissau, Gambia and Mauritania. Sustainable Land Use and Forestry/USAID programs which help mitigate climate change by absorbing and storing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, promoting biodiversity conservation and improving forest management, and sustainable agriculture. They also help reduce the vulnerability of ecosystems. The Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE) focuses its efforts across the Congo Basin, which contains massive expanses of closed canopy tropical forest. The region is threatened by unsustainable timber exploitation, shifting cultivation, urban expansion, and decades of human conflict. In addition to providing other valuable ecosystem services, the large forested area of the Congo Basin serves as a globally important carbon stock. CARPE‟s principal goal is to reduce the rate of forest degradation and biodiversity loss. The World Hydrological Cycle Observing System (WHYCOS) project aims to provide information to improve efficient management of the world‟s water resources. It is based on a series of regional projects providing technology and training to monitor hydrological parameters (rainfall, riverflow and evaporation) in the world‟s river basins. In Africa, there are two projects; in West/Central Africa (AOC -HYCOS funded by the French Ministry for Foreign Affairs), and Southern Africa (SADC-HYCOS funded by the EU). 36
  37. 37. ANNEX 2: REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS, GROUPS AND NETWORKS ON CLIMATE CHANGE Regional Climate Outlook Fora: Since 1994 the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), working with a number of partners, has set up a series of Regional Outlook Fora across Africa, with three fora covering West Africa , the Greater Horn of Africa and Southern Africa (SADC region) respectively. The Regional Outlook Fora bring together a range of national and international meteorologists to produce probabilistic, consensus-based seasonal forecasts in addition to information users. The fora used to be supported by a regular programme of training (The training program is managed jointly by US National Centres for Environmental Prediction, the International Activities of the National Weather Service, and the World Meteorological Organization) and research activities. Scenarios for the implications for different sectors e.g. agriculture, pastures, water, health etc. are highlighted (DFID, 2004, Information sheet 7). Regional water initiatives: There are a number of regional initiatives for better water resource management that will facilitate the adoption of appropriate adaptation measures, for example the Regional strategic action plan for integrated water resources development and management in the SADC countries, and the Africa Water Vision for 2025. A regional approach is particularly important since 80 river/lake basins are trans-boundary. Assessments of Impacts and Adaptations to Climate Change (AIACC): AIACC was developed in collaboration with the UNEP/WMO and IPCC and funded by the GEF to advance scientific understanding of climate change vulnerabilities and adaptation options in developing countries. By funding collaborative research, training and technical support, AIACC aimed to enhance the scientific capacity of developing countries to assess climate change vulnerabilities and adaptations, and generate and communicate information useful for adaptation planning and action. Climate Change Adaptation Support Programme for Action-Research and Capacity Development in Africa (CCAA) programme: Currently, the International Development Research Council (IDRC), Canada, is partnering with the Department for International Development (DFID) in the UK to fund a five-year, $65 million CAD Climate Change Adaptation Support Programme for Action-Research and Capacity Development in Africa (CCAA). Its aim is to support African countries in their efforts to address vulnerability, particularly of the poor, to climate change. Building on current activities and experience, the CCAA programme will strengthen efforts to establish and maintain a skilled body of expertise in Africa to support efforts to cope with climate variability and change with a focus on the poor. The programme objectives are: - to fund and support research to reduce the uncertainty associated with climate change and variability; - to strengthen the capacity of African scientists, Africa‟s research organizations, governments, civil society organizations, and international 37
  38. 38. bodies to work collaboratively in assessing vulnerabilities to climate and other stresses, and supporting adaptation by African people, particularly the poor; - to support adaptation by rural and urban people by supporting research that contributes to a more inclusive policy-making process; and - to add value to existing adaptation initiatives. Linking Climate Adaptation network (LCA) LCA is an effort to help communities, policymakers, practitioners and academicians share knowledge on climate change adaptation and is funded by DFID. The first phase of the project (May 2004 – June 2005) identified the role of funding and policy mechanisms in supporting successful community-led adaptation. It also identified longer-term research priorities needed to support community led adaptation in the future. As part of the activities of the second phase of the project (November 2005 – March 2006), first, the LCA Network website is being redeveloped as a valuable resource, with ideas for research (<>) Second, structured discussions are being held between LCA Network members exploring the value of NAPAs; the next steps for climate policy and the links between the climate change and disaster communities. Third, efforts will be made to expand and diversify the membership of the LCA Network to create more dynamic exchanges. Regional and International Networking Group (RING)/CLACC is a well-established network of research and policy related institutes (all in the non- government sector), which have worked together for many years on issues related to all aspects of sustainable development. The Capacity Strengthening of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) for Adaptation to Climate Change (CLACC) project initiated by IIED and the RING Partner institutions aims at improving the capacity of civil society-based organizations working with the poor and vulnerable countries in 12 selected LDCs (nine in Africa and three in South Asia). The CLACC Project started with strengthening capacity of four Regional CLACC Partners in South Asia (BCAS) East Africa (ACTS), West Africa (ENDA) and Southern Africa (ZERO) in its first phase during 2004/2005 (CLACC, 2005). Pan-African Start Secretariat located in Nairobi, Kenya, coordinates START activities in Africa, and is composed of several regional science networks. It offers several fellowships for research and doctoral research, including Global Change Doctoral Fellowships, Small Research Grants for African Global Change Scientist, Lake Victoria Training Program and the GIS and Remote Sensing Training Program. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) is an African-led strategy for sustainable development and poverty reduction in Africa. African leaders are looking for support from the international community to achieve these goals. NEPAD is a long-term agenda for Africa adopted as a programme of the Africa Union. The NEPAD Secretariat is developing an implementation plan and building linkages with existing regional organizations such as the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) and Southern African Development Community (SADC). The 38
  39. 39. Secretariat has engaged with other African organizations, such as the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Africa Development Bank (AfDB), to elaborate proposals in support of NEPAD priorities. Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET): USAID supports activities to help developing countries lessen their vulnerability and adapt to climate variability and change. These activities are intended to build more resilience into economic sectors that may be affected by climatic stresses, including agriculture, water, and key livelihood sectors in coastal areas. The Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) operates in numerous countries in Africa. The program provides decision-makers with information to respond effectively to drought and famine threats by analyzing remote-sensing data and ground-based meteorological, crop and rangeland observations to identify early indications of potential famine. In addition to using data produced by host governments for its analyses, FEWS NET uses data from satellite imagery. The Congo Basin Forest Partnership (CBFP) is a collaboration of 29 governmental and international organizations, announced by former US Secretary of State Colin Powell at the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002. USAID contributed USD 15 million to the partnership through the Agency‟s Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE). Programme activities aim to improve the management of the region‟s forests and protected areas, and develop sustainable livelihoods for the 60 million people who live in the Basin (USAID‟s Biodiversity Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2003 August 2004). INSTITUTIONS AND CENTRES FOR CAPACITY BUILDING ON CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION The Regional Centre for Space Science and Technology Education in Africa (CRASTE-LF) established in 1998 in Rabat, Morocco, is one of the constituents of the training network set up by the U.N. It is a training and scientific animation institution affiliated with the U.N., with the objective of promoting the use of space science and technology by strengthening local competence. Its mission is to organize courses, training, seminars, workshops, and expert technical meetings to improve the competence of specialists and decision-makers and to keep them informed about progress in space science and technology applications. Other objectives are to assist in the development of a local indigenous capability in space science and technology, to supply consultative services for State members and regional institutions, to collect and diffuse information concerning space, and to support any activity that seeks to increase scientific development in the region Sahara and Sahel Observatory (OSS) and CILSS: During the past ten years or so OSS has initiated a work programme in arid, semi arid and sub-humid areas in North, West and East Africa including long-term observations and 39