Audio Production This PowerPoint presentation was prepared by David Christensen, Technical Director for Centrum.  www.davi...
Audio Production Basics & Techniques for Demo Recording David Christensen, Technical Director for Centrum www.david-christ...
Audio Production Basics Goal:  Make someone's ear drum move.
Side view of an ear drum
Side view of an ear drum
Side view of an ear drum
Creating a wave form Time Frequency Volume
Creating a wave form Time Frequency Volume
Simple wave form – A 440 Time Frequency Volume (click the speaker icon to hear tone)
Audio Production Basics Just what do we hear  and how loud is too loud
What can we hear? <ul><li>Frequency Range: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Approximately 20 cycles (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul...
What can we hear? <ul><li>Frequency Range: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Approximately 20 cycles (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul...
What can we hear? <ul><li>Frequency Range: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Approximately 20 cycles (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul...
Audio Production Basics How does this relate to what we want to record?
 
So… What is it that creates the Timbre or Uniqueness of a Sound <ul><li>The attack or how the sound is created </li></ul>
So… What is it that creates the Timbre or Uniqueness of a Sound <ul><li>The attack or how the sound is created </li></ul><...
So… What is it that creates the Timbre or Uniqueness of a Sound <ul><li>The attack or how the sound is created </li></ul><...
Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz  Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz  First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Ov...
Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz  Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Ove...
Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz  Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Ove...
Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz  Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Ove...
Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz  Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Ove...
Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz  Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Ove...
<ul><li>For a given note, the overtones are always the same (for most sounds)…voice and instruments. </li></ul>
<ul><li>For a given note, the overtones are always the same (for most sounds)…voice and instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Wha...
<ul><li>For a given note, the overtones are always the same (for most sounds)…voice and instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Wha...
Audio Production Basics What does sound look like?
<ul><li>Let’s look at the wave forms of different sounds in Sony Media’s Sound Forge. </li></ul>
Audio Production Basics Analog  vs.  Digital No…we are not going to discuss which is better!
Analog vs. Digital Audio <ul><li>Analog audio is all the audio we listen to… </li></ul><ul><li>(You can’t hear digital aud...
Analog vs. Digital Audio <ul><li>Analog audio is all the audio we listen to… </li></ul><ul><li>(You can’t hear digital aud...
Analog vs. Digital Audio <ul><li>Analog audio is all the audio we listen to… </li></ul><ul><li>(You can’t hear digital aud...
<ul><li>To Record Digital Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must first must convert analog audio to digital. </li></ul></ul>...
<ul><li>To Record Digital Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must first must convert analog audio to digital. </li></ul></ul>...
Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file.  CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><...
Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file.  CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><...
Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file.  CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><...
Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file.  CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><...
Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file.  CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><...
Audio Production Basics What do you need to know about recording digitally?
Ideally <ul><li>When recording digitally you should be creating *.wav or *.aiff files. </li></ul>
Ideally <ul><li>When recording digitally you should be creating *.wav or *.aiff files. </li></ul><ul><li>You should (at le...
Ideally <ul><li>When recording digitally you should be creating *.wav or *.aiff files. </li></ul><ul><li>You should (at le...
Audio Production Basics Best ways to record
Record to what? <ul><li>For this discussion we will only talk about recording two channel in real time…which is stereo. </...
Record to what? <ul><li>To a Computer:  </li></ul><ul><li>For a usable recording you will need software and an interface b...
Record to what? <ul><li>To a Computer:  </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Recorder:  Many available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard dis...
Audio Production Basics Recording volume level
Set record level so the loudest sounds are down 10dB  from 0
When recording digitally DO NOT allow the volume level to exceed 0dB
Audio Production Basics Once you arrive at a recording level for a piece, do not change it for different movements!
Audio Production Basics Microphones
Audio Production Basics Microphones The Microphone Book John Eargle
Microphones <ul><li>Without a good mic, you can’t have a good recording. </li></ul>
Microphones <ul><li>2 types of mics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic/moving coil mics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most commo...
Microphones <ul><li>2 types of mics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic/moving coil mics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condenser ...
Microphone Characteristics  <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omni  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direc...
Microphone Characteristics  <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omni –  good for recording groups in a...
Microphone Characteristics  <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omni  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direc...
Microphone Characteristics  <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional (Cardioid) –  pickup patte...
Microphone Characteristics  <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omni  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direc...
Microphone Characteristics  <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-Directional (Figure 8) </li></ul></...
Audio Production Basics Mic placement (a good mic in the wrong place sounds like _ _ _ _!)
Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul>
Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul>
Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Piano </li></ul>
Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Chamber ensemble </li></ul>
Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Chamber ensemble </li></ul>...
Audio Production Basics Is Stereo Important?
Audio Production Basics Is Stereo Important? Yes!
Stereo Preception <ul><li>How we perceive stereo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume difference:  It’s louder in the right ear th...
Stereo Preception <ul><li>How we perceive stereo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume difference:  It’s louder in the right ear th...
Stereo Preception <ul><li>How we perceive stereo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume difference:  It’s louder in the right ear th...
Stereo micing for groups <ul><li>X-Y  (note: must use directional mics) </li></ul>
Stereo micing for groups <ul><li>X-Y  (note: must use directional mics) </li></ul><ul><li>Spaced Pair  15” to 36” </li></ul>
Stereo micing for groups <ul><li>X-Y  (note: must use directional mics) </li></ul><ul><li>Spaced Pair  15” to 36” </li></u...
Audio Production Basics Post Production  (or OK, it’s recorded…now what?)
Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize:  Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul>
Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize:  Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul>
Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize:  Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: R...
Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize:  Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: R...
Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize:  Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: R...
Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize:  Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: R...
Before Normalizing
Normalized
IMPORTANT Adjust volume equally for all cuts of a classical recording. Normalizing
Track 1  - 6 dB Track 2  - 12 dB Track 3 - 5 dB Track 4 - 4.5 dB  Raise volume of each track 4 dB leaving .5 dB headroom. ...
Audio Production Basics Ways to get your demo  where you want it.
What format for your demo <ul><li>Standard CD </li></ul><ul><li>The usual form for audition and demos. </li></ul>
What format for your demo <ul><li>Standard CD </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming on your web site </li></ul><ul><li>You will need...
What format for your demo <ul><li>Standard CD </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming on your web site </li></ul><ul><li>Downloadable ...
What format for your demo <ul><li>Standard CD </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming on your web site </li></ul><ul><li>Downloadable ...
Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>Select carefully and put your best cut f...
Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>No longer than 30 sec. each </li></ul><u...
Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>No longer than 30 sec. each </li></ul><u...
Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>No longer than 30 sec. each </li></ul><u...
Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>No longer than 30 sec. each </li></ul><u...
Audio Production Basics Questions – Discussion – Experiment?
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Audio Production

844

Published on

Helpful tools and techniques for producing high-quality demo recordings. Produced for participants of Centrum's music workshops by David Christensen. Learn more at www.centrum.org,or at www.david-christensen.com

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
844
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
62
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Audio Production

  1. 1. Audio Production This PowerPoint presentation was prepared by David Christensen, Technical Director for Centrum. www.david-christensen.com for use class presentations during Centrum’s Blues and Chamber Music workshops in 2007. There are two files…the MHTML file made from PowerPoint, which you of course have found. (Note: Click “slide show” in the lower right for full screen viewing.) There is limited audio in the presentation, so turn up your volume. There is also a file called samples of A.wav If you load this file into any audio editing program (including Audacity a free program you can download) you will see the wave forms for a pure 440 Hz tone (A) and the wave form for the note A from a human voice, a flute, a guitar and a piano. This helps in understanding harmonics/overtones. The program will suggest when you want to look at this file. I hope you find the program of interest. I’d love to hear your comments. David Christensen [email_address]
  2. 2. Audio Production Basics & Techniques for Demo Recording David Christensen, Technical Director for Centrum www.david-christensen.com Prepared for the 2007 Port Townsend Jazz and Chamber Music Festival
  3. 3. Audio Production Basics Goal: Make someone's ear drum move.
  4. 4. Side view of an ear drum
  5. 5. Side view of an ear drum
  6. 6. Side view of an ear drum
  7. 7. Creating a wave form Time Frequency Volume
  8. 8. Creating a wave form Time Frequency Volume
  9. 9. Simple wave form – A 440 Time Frequency Volume (click the speaker icon to hear tone)
  10. 10. Audio Production Basics Just what do we hear and how loud is too loud
  11. 11. What can we hear? <ul><li>Frequency Range: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Approximately 20 cycles (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(click the speaker icon to hear tone) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(You probably won’t hear much from these two samples…chances are your speakers can’t reproduce 20 Hz and you can’t hear 20,000 Hz!) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. What can we hear? <ul><li>Frequency Range: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Approximately 20 cycles (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Approximately 20,000 cycles (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>(click the speaker icon to hear tone) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(You probably didn’t hear much from these two samples…chances are your speakers can’t reproduce 20 Hz and you can’t hear 20,000 Hz!) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. What can we hear? <ul><li>Frequency Range: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From Approximately 20 cycles (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Approximately 20,000 cycles (Hz) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume Range </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From 0dB </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To Approximately 120dB (considered threshold of pain!) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Audio Production Basics How does this relate to what we want to record?
  15. 16. So… What is it that creates the Timbre or Uniqueness of a Sound <ul><li>The attack or how the sound is created </li></ul>
  16. 17. So… What is it that creates the Timbre or Uniqueness of a Sound <ul><li>The attack or how the sound is created </li></ul><ul><li>The release or how the sound is terminated. </li></ul>
  17. 18. So… What is it that creates the Timbre or Uniqueness of a Sound <ul><li>The attack or how the sound is created </li></ul><ul><li>The release or how the sound is terminated. </li></ul><ul><li>The overtones or harmonics </li></ul>
  18. 19. Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1760hz Third Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>2200hz Fourth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>26 40hz Fifth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(click the speaker icon to hear tone) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1760hz Third Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>2200hz Fourth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>26 40hz Fifth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(click the speaker icon to hear tone) </li></ul>
  20. 21. Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1760hz Third Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>2200hz Fourth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>26 40hz Fifth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(click the speaker icon to hear tone) </li></ul>
  21. 22. Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1760hz Third Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>2200hz Fourth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>26 40hz Fifth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(click the speaker icon to hear tone) </li></ul>
  22. 23. Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1760hz Third Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>2200hz Fourth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>26 40hz Fifth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(click the speaker icon to hear tone) </li></ul>
  23. 24. Overtone Progression <ul><li>440hz Fundamental </li></ul><ul><li>880hz First Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1320hz Second Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>1760hz Third Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>2200hz Fourth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>26 40hz Fifth Overtone </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul><ul><li>(click the speaker icon to hear tone) </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>For a given note, the overtones are always the same (for most sounds)…voice and instruments. </li></ul>
  25. 26. <ul><li>For a given note, the overtones are always the same (for most sounds)…voice and instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>What gives the note timbre (what make it a violin or a clarinet etc.) is </li></ul>
  26. 27. <ul><li>For a given note, the overtones are always the same (for most sounds)…voice and instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>What gives the note timbre (what make it a violin or a clarinet etc.) is </li></ul><ul><li>The relative volume </li></ul><ul><li>of those overtones </li></ul>
  27. 28. Audio Production Basics What does sound look like?
  28. 29. <ul><li>Let’s look at the wave forms of different sounds in Sony Media’s Sound Forge. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Audio Production Basics Analog vs. Digital No…we are not going to discuss which is better!
  30. 31. Analog vs. Digital Audio <ul><li>Analog audio is all the audio we listen to… </li></ul><ul><li>(You can’t hear digital audio) </li></ul>
  31. 32. Analog vs. Digital Audio <ul><li>Analog audio is all the audio we listen to… </li></ul><ul><li>(You can’t hear digital audio) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create digital audio you first must convert analog audio to digital. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Analog vs. Digital Audio <ul><li>Analog audio is all the audio we listen to… </li></ul><ul><li>(You can’t hear digital audio) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To create digital audio you first must convert analog audio to digital. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To listen to digital audio you must first convert digital audio to analog. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>To Record Digital Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must first must convert analog audio to digital. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To Playback Digital Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must first convert digital audio to analog. </li></ul></ul>Analog vs. Digital Audio
  34. 35. <ul><li>To Record Digital Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must first must convert analog audio to digital. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To Playback Digital Audio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You must first convert digital audio to analog. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all analog to digital (A to D) and digital to analog (D to A) converters are created equal. </li></ul>Analog vs. Digital Audio
  35. 36. Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file. CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><li>These files are the product of most professional digital recorders and computers. Files can be created in CD quality or even higher resolution files. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file. CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s go back to Sound Forge to actually see the samples! </li></ul>
  37. 38. Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file. CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><li>CD format: wav or aiff files written to a music cd. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file. CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><li>CD format: wav or aiff files written to a music cd. </li></ul><ul><li>MP3 format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most MP3 files are 128kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High almost CD quality are aprox 360kbps </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Digital File Formats <ul><li>Wav or aiff file. CD quality is 44,100 samples per second with 16 bit words. </li></ul><ul><li>CD format: wav or aiff files written to a music cd. </li></ul><ul><li>MP3 format </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most MP3 files are 128kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High almost CD quality are aprox 360kbps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other formats (for streaming etc.) *.rm (Real Media) *.wma (Windows Media) *.mov (Quicktime) </li></ul>
  40. 41. Audio Production Basics What do you need to know about recording digitally?
  41. 42. Ideally <ul><li>When recording digitally you should be creating *.wav or *.aiff files. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Ideally <ul><li>When recording digitally you should be creating *.wav or *.aiff files. </li></ul><ul><li>You should (at least) be recording at a sample rate of 44,100/sec and with word length of 16 bits (not bytes) </li></ul>
  43. 44. Ideally <ul><li>When recording digitally you should be creating *.wav or *.aiff files. </li></ul><ul><li>You should (at least) be recording at a sample rate of 44,100/sec and with word length of 16 bits (not bytes) </li></ul><ul><li>This will give you files that can be made into any format, and can be easily edited and mastered. </li></ul>
  44. 45. Audio Production Basics Best ways to record
  45. 46. Record to what? <ul><li>For this discussion we will only talk about recording two channel in real time…which is stereo. </li></ul><ul><li>Most classical music is recorded in stereo using two mics. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-track recording much more complex and beyond what we can talk about here. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Record to what? <ul><li>To a Computer: </li></ul><ul><li>For a usable recording you will need software and an interface between your recording gear and the computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Software: </li></ul><ul><li>ProTools </li></ul><ul><li>Sony Media Vegas/Sound Forge </li></ul><ul><li>Audacity (free) </li></ul><ul><li>Many others too. </li></ul>
  47. 48. Record to what? <ul><li>To a Computer: </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Recorder: Many available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard disk recorders – Masterlink by Alisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memory chip recorders – M-Audio Microtrack, Sony PCM </li></ul></ul>
  48. 49. Audio Production Basics Recording volume level
  49. 50. Set record level so the loudest sounds are down 10dB from 0
  50. 51. When recording digitally DO NOT allow the volume level to exceed 0dB
  51. 52. Audio Production Basics Once you arrive at a recording level for a piece, do not change it for different movements!
  52. 53. Audio Production Basics Microphones
  53. 54. Audio Production Basics Microphones The Microphone Book John Eargle
  54. 55. Microphones <ul><li>Without a good mic, you can’t have a good recording. </li></ul>
  55. 56. Microphones <ul><li>2 types of mics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic/moving coil mics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most common and least expensive of good mics. </li></ul></ul>
  56. 57. Microphones <ul><li>2 types of mics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic/moving coil mics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Condenser mic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive and all things being equal, better. But they require some sort of a power supply. </li></ul></ul>
  57. 58. Microphone Characteristics <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Cardioid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-directional </li></ul></ul>
  58. 59. Microphone Characteristics <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omni – good for recording groups in a good room. Also great when put in the middle of a drum kit. Can be used as excellent vox mic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Earthworks QTC1 </li></ul></ul>
  59. 60. Microphone Characteristics <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Cardioid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-directional </li></ul></ul>
  60. 61. Microphone Characteristics <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional (Cardioid) – pickup pattern helps isolate the sound and avoid “bleeding” Usually used for VOX and close micing instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Shure SM58 </li></ul></ul>
  61. 62. Microphone Characteristics <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Omni </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(Cardioid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-directional </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. Microphone Characteristics <ul><li>Pickup (or polar) pattern </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bi-Directional (Figure 8) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known for a smooth sound. Common in the 30s and 40s. Often used with vocalists on each side of the mic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: RCA 44, Royer 122, AKG 414 </li></ul></ul>
  63. 64. Audio Production Basics Mic placement (a good mic in the wrong place sounds like _ _ _ _!)
  64. 65. Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul>
  65. 66. Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul>
  66. 67. Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Piano </li></ul>
  67. 68. Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Chamber ensemble </li></ul>
  68. 69. Mic Placement <ul><li>Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Guitar </li></ul><ul><li>Piano </li></ul><ul><li>Chamber ensemble </li></ul><ul><li>Orchestra </li></ul>
  69. 70. Audio Production Basics Is Stereo Important?
  70. 71. Audio Production Basics Is Stereo Important? Yes!
  71. 72. Stereo Preception <ul><li>How we perceive stereo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume difference: It’s louder in the right ear than the left ear. </li></ul></ul>
  72. 73. Stereo Preception <ul><li>How we perceive stereo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume difference: It’s louder in the right ear than the left ear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time arrival: It gets to the right ear before the left ear. </li></ul></ul>
  73. 74. Stereo Preception <ul><li>How we perceive stereo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volume difference: It’s louder in the right ear than the left ear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time arrival: It gets to the right ear before the left ear. </li></ul></ul>Stereo perception for frequencies below 700hz is primarily through time arrival.
  74. 75. Stereo micing for groups <ul><li>X-Y (note: must use directional mics) </li></ul>
  75. 76. Stereo micing for groups <ul><li>X-Y (note: must use directional mics) </li></ul><ul><li>Spaced Pair 15” to 36” </li></ul>
  76. 77. Stereo micing for groups <ul><li>X-Y (note: must use directional mics) </li></ul><ul><li>Spaced Pair 15” to 36” </li></ul><ul><li>NOS/ORTF (note: must use directional mics) </li></ul>
  77. 78. Audio Production Basics Post Production (or OK, it’s recorded…now what?)
  78. 79. Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize: Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul>
  79. 80. Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize: Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul>
  80. 81. Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize: Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: Reducing the dynamic range of the recording. </li></ul>
  81. 82. Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize: Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: Reducing the dynamic range of the recording. </li></ul>
  82. 83. Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize: Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: Reducing the dynamic range of the recording. </li></ul>
  83. 84. Post Production Options <ul><li>Equalize: Adjusting the volume of different frequencies. </li></ul><ul><li>Compression: Reducing the dynamic range of the recording. </li></ul><ul><li>Normalize: Adjusting the volume so that the loudest sections are using the full dynamic range of the media. </li></ul>
  84. 85. Before Normalizing
  85. 86. Normalized
  86. 87. IMPORTANT Adjust volume equally for all cuts of a classical recording. Normalizing
  87. 88. Track 1 - 6 dB Track 2 - 12 dB Track 3 - 5 dB Track 4 - 4.5 dB Raise volume of each track 4 dB leaving .5 dB headroom. Normalizing
  88. 89. Audio Production Basics Ways to get your demo where you want it.
  89. 90. What format for your demo <ul><li>Standard CD </li></ul><ul><li>The usual form for audition and demos. </li></ul>
  90. 91. What format for your demo <ul><li>Standard CD </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming on your web site </li></ul><ul><li>You will need to prepare the files in *.wma, *.rm or *.mov format. You may also need help in creating the streaming format using meta files. </li></ul>
  91. 92. What format for your demo <ul><li>Standard CD </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming on your web site </li></ul><ul><li>Downloadable from your web site </li></ul><ul><li>You’ll need MP3 files (128bps) for this </li></ul>
  92. 93. What format for your demo <ul><li>Standard CD </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming on your web site </li></ul><ul><li>Downloadable from your web site </li></ul><ul><li>uTunes, MySpace etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Your files have to be compiled for these sites. </li></ul>
  93. 94. Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>Select carefully and put your best cut first! </li></ul>
  94. 95. Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>No longer than 30 sec. each </li></ul><ul><li>Note: You don’t have to start at the beginning. If you have a hot 30 seconds embedded in the cut, use it! </li></ul>
  95. 96. Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>No longer than 30 sec. each </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to include full cuts put them after all the 30 sec. cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>(Be sure to note that on the label) </li></ul>
  96. 97. Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>No longer than 30 sec. each </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to include full cuts put them after all the 30 sec. cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a good looking disk label with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The contact name and address, phone numbers and email address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musicians name(s) and instrument(s) </li></ul></ul>
  97. 98. Preparing your demo disk <ul><li>No more than 3 or 4 selections </li></ul><ul><li>No longer than 30 sec. each </li></ul><ul><li>If you want to include full cuts put them after all the 30 sec. cuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a good looking disk label with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The group name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The contact name and address, phone numbers and email address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Musicians name(s) and instrument(s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Put in jewel box. Label inserts are optional and can include bios of the musicians and group activity. </li></ul>
  98. 99. Audio Production Basics Questions – Discussion – Experiment?
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×