White PaperStandardizing Engineering Calculationsin a Product Development SystemThe Importance of Effective Documentation ...
White PaperEngineers may repeat analyses and other work previously                         •	 Engineers implement their ow...
White PaperWith Excel, Allen quickly runs into some basic limitations.                     Allen’s biggest hurdle now is t...
White PaperLevel 2 – Managed Implementation of Mathcad                                     With units intelligence, Carla ...
White PaperEvaluation                                                                      Level 3 – Defined Implementatio...
White PaperWith the templates implemented, Evan uploads the worksheet                      Evaluationto the company’s bug ...
White PaperLevel 4 – Optimized Implementation of Mathcad                                   Just as Mathcad integrates with...
White PaperEvaluation                                                                                    Are you managing ...
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Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System [Whitepaper 8 pages]

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The Importance of Effective Documentation Behind Successfully Engineered Products:

Successful product development companies effectively capture and protect their intellectual property (IP). IP includes the intangible assets that go into the development of a product and/or service. They are valuable in proving ownership and as well as providing leverage for future products. However, the analyses that support and validate those products and services are often stored on personal hard-drives, thumbdrives,
and lab notebooks. This spread of data storage makes it challenging for companies to
successfully manage the development of their IP. With increasing design complexity, it is crucial to document and capture key analyses used to determine which, how, and why design decisions were made. It is rare for a product to be developed entirely from scratch, without relying on any existing IP. Many successful products result from the redesign of earlier products. Yet during conversations about product development processes, customers often remark, “We find ourselves re-engineering our own products, products that we designed and built.” In these situations, engineers might as well start from scratch. Mission critical IP, which was created and then lost, now must be recreated. Reuse of analyses saves time and money. When engineers re-design, re-create, or re-engineer IP, they abandon the benefits of reuse. This is the most apparent when a company develops a new product that is a variant of an older model. Re-deriving calculations is unproductive. Merely saving the calculations, whether it be a lab notebook or digital documents, is not enough to solve this problem. New engineers and teams tasked with the re-design must navigate through mazes of data and calculations. This often leads them to give up and start from scratch. Being able to leverage prior work requires implementation of standards and processes that everyone follows. Mathcad®, the engineering calculation software from PTC, can be used to optimize product design. More importantly, it captures this information and provides a way to formalize the aforementioned standards and processes. Combining computation with
supporting text and graphics in one platform makes Mathcad worksheets easily readable and comprehensible. This readability, coupled with a powerful math engine for data analyses, makes Mathcad an automatic documentation tool that allows
engineers to communicate with both internal and external stakeholders.

This white paper outlines PTC’s vision for best practices to standardize engineering calculations in a product development system and highlights Mathcad’s role as the critical communication tool to document the valuable IP behind every successfully engineered product.

Learn more about Mathcad>>PTC's Solution for Engineering Calculations http://www.ptc.com/product/mathcad/?utm_source=slideshare&utm_medium=EngCalcWP&utm_campaign=Social%2B

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Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System [Whitepaper 8 pages]

  1. 1. White PaperStandardizing Engineering Calculationsin a Product Development SystemThe Importance of Effective Documentation Behind Successfully Engineered ProductsExecutive Summary Reuse of analyses saves time and money. When engineers re-design, re-create, or re-engineer IP they abandon the ,Successful product development companies benefits of reuse. This is the most apparent when a companyeffectively capture and protect their intellectual develops a new product that is a variant of an older model.property (IP). IP includes the intangible assets Re-deriving calculations is unproductive. Merely saving the calculations, whether it be a lab notebook or digital docu-that go into the development of a product ments, is not enough to solve this problem. New engineersand/or service. They are valuable in proving and teams tasked with the re-design must navigate throughownership and as well as providing leverage mazes of data and calculations. This often leads them to givefor future products. However, the analyses that up and start from scratch.support and validate those products and services Being able to leverage prior work requires implementationare often stored on personal hard-drives, thumb- of standards and processes that everyone follows. Mathcad®,drives, and lab notebooks. This spread of data the engineering calculation software from PTC, can be usedstorage makes it challenging for companies to to optimize product design. More importantly, it captures this information and provides a way to formalize the aforemen-successfully manage the development of their tioned standards and processes. Combining computation withIP With increasing design complexity, it is crucial . supporting text and graphics in one platform makes Mathcadto document and capture key analyses used to worksheets easily readable and comprehensible. This read-determine which, how, and why design decisions ability, coupled with a powerful math engine for data analyses,were made. makes Mathcad an automatic documentation tool that allows engineers to communicate with both internal and externalIntro stakeholders.It is rare for a product to be developed entirely from scratch, When companies leverage Mathcad’s analysis and documen-without relying on any existing IP Many successful products . tation capabilities with a data management systems (suchresult from the redesign of earlier products. Yet during conver- as Windchill®, PTC’s Product Management Lifecycle software),sations about product development processes, customers often the result is an organized way to manage their calculations.remark, “We find ourselves re-engineering our own products, With this infrastructure in place, a group, department, andproducts that we designed and built.” In these situations, engi- corporation can put a process around it and begin toneers might as well start from scratch. Mission critical IP which , standardize their engineering calculations. This white paperwas created and then lost, now must be recreated. outlines PTC’s vision for best practices to standardize engineering calculations in a product development system and highlights Mathcad’s role as the critical communication tool to document the valuable IP behind every successfully engineered product.Page 1 of 8 | Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System PTC.com
  2. 2. White PaperEngineers may repeat analyses and other work previously • Engineers implement their own calculations, whichdone by others, or even need to recreate their own work, as cannot be followed by othersa result of several reasons: • Engineers implement their own layouts and formats• Files are not stored in a centrally available location, which make their work hard to leverage so access is limited The following model outlines the different maturity levels• Files are available, but are not easily readable because in standardizing engineering calculations within a group, of the lack of notation, prior knowledge of specific department, and/or company. This model is loosely modeled programming languages, etc. after the CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integration) process improvement approach.The following four use cases represent the different levels in the standardization maturity model Level 4 Optimized • Centrally stored/ Level 3 Defined managed content • Established process/ • Use Mathcad templates Level 2 Managed • Adopt best practices workflow for calculations - Documentation required • Use Mathcad for most • Employees trained - Reference sheets Level 1 Initial calculations in tool • Employees trained • Worksheets stored on • Use whatever tools in process central server are available • Sporadic Mathcad useLevel 1– Initial Implementation of Mathcad Essentially, the design team selects their tools based on famil-Universal Calculations for Telecommunications iarity and availability. The tools that were used in the last proj- ect will probably be re-purposed for new projects. And if a toolAllen works for a telecommunications company. He is a isn’t available anymore, then the team will use whatever toolsmember of the base station team and specializes in testing Information Technology (IT) has licensed and are currently un-power amplifiers. His company has just announced the roll- der maintenance. However, familiarity and/or availability, al-out of new base stations which feature a new communications beit convenient, may not always determine the best tool.protocol used by cellular phone carriers. In the previous base station design project, the design teamHistorically, Allen and his team used an assortment of tools at the telecommunications company used a combinationto test the amplifiers. These tools are usually dictated by the of PACAD, Agilent EEsof, and MathWorks™ MATLAB® anddesign team, as they are involved in the early phases of the Simulink®. After that project ended, IT terminated the renewaldevelopment cycle. By the time the test team gets involved, of those licenses. Now, as the design team evaluates the besta lot of analyses have already been performed, so the test software tools for the next project, Allen decides to proceedengineers are encouraged to leverage existing work, and use in his analyses with Excel. He reasons that everyone has Excelthe same software tools as the design team. on their computers, so it’s a natural common denominator of software tools.Page 2 of 8 | Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System PTC.com
  3. 3. White PaperWith Excel, Allen quickly runs into some basic limitations. Allen’s biggest hurdle now is to get everyone on his team toFirst, he needs to run some basic signal processing routines – use Mathcad since it is very inefficient to maintain two sets ofFFTs, coherence, filtering. All of these require many steps tools to perform the same calculations.in Excel. Furthermore, it is difficult to track the flow ofinformation in Excel and visualize how various parameter Evaluationchanges propagate through the analyses. In the meantime, Allen’s example is characteristic of a Level 1, or initial im-the design team finalizes on a few specialized tools for their plementation, in the standardization maturity model. Eachdesign tool, and chooses Mathcad as the front-end tool to engineer uses whatever tools are available. Allen usesaggregate their results. Allen decides that he, too, will adopt Mathcad because he has it on his PC and because he hasMathcad for his calculations. used it before, but his colleagues do not consistently use theMathcad provides many of the basic math functions that Allen same tools.typically uses, plus more advanced signal processing functions Because each engineer uses whatever tools are availablethat are relevant to characterize power amplifier performance. to them, at one point Allen is forced to choose a commonAnd while the design team uses specialized software packages denominator – Excel. In this case, Excel does not offer thefor various aspects of their design, it is easy to pull those results functionalities that Allen needs. While he can perform some ofinto Mathcad for top-level calculations. With Mathcad, Allen these tasks in Excel, it requires a lot more effort to build up hiscan proceed with his test calculations and integrate the work own functions, keep track of units, and verify his equations.from the design team, whether it originated as Mathcad work-sheets or outputs from other software. Adopting of software for specific calculations can be benefi- cial when developing in-depth analysis of specific applications. The problem is the large overhead of which includes cost of maintenance costs and, more importantly, time to train and ramp-up. Sharing work and results across different software can be a tedious process. Furthermore, as engineers migrate from one project to another, the use of these specialty soft- ware programs can fluctuate wildly, which presents a problem for IT which needs to maintain the latest versions of multiple software programs. To move to the next level in the maturity model, Allen and his team need to: • Use Mathcad on a consistent basis across projects • If using different software from the design team, use Mathcad to import models that can be compared with collected data for verification • Store worksheets centrally on server, so they can be accessed by entire teamTop: With Excel, it’s hard to follow the steps that Allen took to perform hisanalysis, in this case a FFT.Bottom: With Mathcad, each step is detailed with intuitive math notations.Page 3 of 8 | Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System PTC.com
  4. 4. White PaperLevel 2 – Managed Implementation of Mathcad With units intelligence, Carla doesn’t need to worry aboutCollaboration in Architecture, Engineering and Construction converting each individual variable with units from SI to English. She inputs the Excel formulas into Mathcad as equa-Carla is a civil engineer at a construction management agen- tions, and Mathcad keeps track of all the conversions andcy. She designs and oversees the construction of locks used in warns her if there are issues.water transport. In her latest project, she was asked to lookover the designs of a proposed lock as an independent re- With the ice and wind calculations transferred into Mathcad,viewer. This lock will be different because it is in a region that Carla can now combine that with the worksheets she had doneis susceptible to both cold weather and earthquakes. Carla with seismic forces. The result is now a generalized worksheetmust include resiliency to seismic forces and influences of ice that allows her to adjust any of the parameters – minimumand wind in her analyses. allowable temperature, maximum vibration, maximum wind gusts, and so on. She posts her work back on the companyAt Carla’s company, the engineering department keeps all shared drive, where it will be searchable and available for oth-of their files – requirements, calculations, data files, etc. – on er engineers who work on any projects that involve lock design.a shared network drive. This makes it easy for Carla to lookup existing work that she can leverage. She already has someMathcad worksheets she created for a prior project in whichseismic forces were considered. As she peruses the shareddrive, she comes across the work done by a group based outof a different branch. Their calculations were done in Excel,and in the International System (SI) of Units. Carla’s currentproject requires that she work with English units.The calculations done by her counterparts from a differentbranch are exactly relevant for her current project as theyinclude both ice and wind loading effects. Carla quickly re-alizes, however, that reading through Excel spreadsheets canbe a difficult process – equations are difficult to follow, need toshuffle between separate files for ice and wind effects. Withineach spreadsheet, the order of steps performed is not obvious,and trying to determine which variables affect which formulasis equally confusing. Furthermore, units are tracked in amanual fashion, and ensuring that all the conversions toEnglish units are completed is a daunting task. Variables are clearly defined and easily changed for automatic updates throughout the worksheet. The annotation references which standards are being used so readers know where the parameters are taken from. Units areCarla knows that she needs to convert the Excel spreadsheets tracked and easily converted within the calculations.over to Mathcad to work more effectively. She creates aMathcad worksheet for the effects of ice loading, and anotherfor wind loading. She can compile her results by adding theice and wind worksheets as reference files into her resultsworksheet. Mathcad’s natural math notation allows Carlaand her colleagues to review the analyses easily. Equationsand data taken from building codes and standards ensurethat the designs are in regulatory compliance.Page 4 of 8 | Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System PTC.com
  5. 5. White PaperEvaluation Level 3 – Defined Implementation of Mathcad Improved Processes in Aerospace and DefenseCarla’s group and their usage of Mathcad exemplify a Level 2,or managed implementation, in the standardization maturity Evan is a systems engineer on the integration team at anmodel. They realize the value of Mathcad to perform analyses aerospace and defense company, and currently works on aand produce worksheets that can be easily understood at high radar program. Evan constantly collaborates with the systemsystem levels across multiple teams. These worksheets are architecture team on requirements, with the software teamalso stored for easy access and reuse. (algorithms for radar mission, signal processing, and control center), and with the hardware team (receiver/exciter design).Carla’s company has taken the right steps to store all their This means that while he participates in system specificationengineering work on a centralized server. This makes it reviews and understands the radar’s operability at a higheasy for employees to collaborate on projects and re-use level, he also needs to dive into the software and hardwareexisting work. The difficulty that Carla faced was that the details at times, in order to resolve conflicts and limitations infiles available span many different formats. Even though her individual groups.group has standardized on Mathcad as the default calculationtool, others in the company have not. Evan regularly uses Mathcad for calculations – both for quick checks and involved computations with large data sets andThe need for easy-to-understand analysis and units handling complex algorithms. To Evan, Mathcad is a convenient toolis one of the many benefits of Mathcad. Mathcad allows that allows him to work at the detailed level for analyses, andengineers to represent their calculations in an intuitive way at the same time, share the results in a presentable way atmuch as they would in a notebook, which makes it easy to the system level. Not only is Mathcad available to him andtrace through the calculations and follow the flow of informa- his department, the engineering division also offers trainingtion. Being able to add references to a Mathcad worksheet for new users as well as regular in-depth sessions in specificmeans that large complex calculations can easily be broken areas, such as statistics, image processing, symbolic mathdown into reference worksheets and then incorporated into evaluation.a master document. Finally, unit conversion and intelligencegives engineers one less thing to worry about as they hop Most recently, while reviewing an interface control document,from one system to another. which specifies the communication between two sub-systems, Evan noticed an inconsistency between the resolution of a measurement provided and what is called for in the requirements document. He quickly produced a MathcadTo move to the next level in the maturity model, Carla and her worksheet to show the changes that need to be made tocompany need to: address this issue.• Standardize on Mathcad, not just for Carla’s group, but To guarantee this worksheet has the same look and feel as for the whole company others on the project, multiple templates are used to provide this consistency. Evan first applies the “bug reports” template• Begin to set up Mathcad templates to his Mathcad worksheet. This template sets up the header and footer with fields relevant to bugs-author, ID number, stage, and the document against which the bug is being re- ported. Next, Evan applies a “calculation” template, which is similar to a reference file, but also used to standardize pa- rameters and equations. When he applies these two templates to his worksheet, Evan can be sure that he uses the proper parameters for the radar project in a worksheet that conforms to the project standard.Page 5 of 8 | Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System PTC.com
  6. 6. White PaperWith the templates implemented, Evan uploads the worksheet Evaluationto the company’s bug reporting system. He references theinterface control document, the requirements document, and The use of Mathcad in Evan’s program and departmentthe changes that need to be made to correct the problem. The exemplifies a Level 3, or defined implementation, in thebug reporting system manages Evan’s worksheet on a server, standardization maturity model. They realize the value ofas well as subsequent changes. Once stored on the server, Mathcad to perform analyses and produce worksheets thatcolleagues can easily review Evan’s work, even if they do not can be easily understood at high system levels across multiplehave Mathcad installed on their local machines. teams as well as portable reports to append to specifications and corresponding bug reports. These worksheets are alsoSince the members on the bug review committee did not have stored for easy access and also reuse.Mathcad installed, they requested that Evan upload a PDFversion instead. Attaching a PDF file to the bug report allows Evan’s department commits to Mathcad for general calcu-his colleagues without Mathcad to see his work. During the lations. They install Mathcad on all engineering computers,review, the specification was deemed faulty. The PDF was provide the licenses, and train their engineers in Mathcad.red-lined to show updated values. Evan took the corrections, The radar program has made further efforts to provideimplemented them in Mathcad, and re-posted the PDFs in templates to use Mathcad in their work-flows. This providesthe system. He also posted the updated Mathcad worksheet convenience for engineers to share their work with team-into his group’s repository, which stores all files pertinent to mates, and also ensures uniformity and consistency acrossanalyses and calculations. related calculations.The worksheets are stored and maintained on a network Storing Mathcad worksheets on a central server enables somerepository which allows group members to quickly pull up conveniences. First, engineers can easily search for and lever-documents when they need to track changes in bug reports age previous work. Second, with the right implementation,or specifications. Assuming that IT maintains this repository, engineers can also keep track of different versions of a designthese files can also be used in future radar programs with so that they can easily review the history of changes. Third,engineers who were not involved in the project initially. using a Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) platform allows all employees to easily follow specified processes and work- flows. In Evan’s example, the submission of the bug report with an attached Mathcad worksheet starts off a chain of events – review the bug, delegate the right resource to make the appropriate changes, and verify that the bug is fixed. To move to the next level in the maturity model, Evan and his company need to: • Store and manage all data and Mathcad worksheets centrally • Establish processes and workflow for calculations • Train engineers on the process, not only the toolsPage 6 of 8 | Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System PTC.com
  7. 7. White PaperLevel 4 – Optimized Implementation of Mathcad Just as Mathcad integrates with Windchill, it can integrateAchieve Enhanced Design in the Industrial Sector with computer aided design (CAD) software. The results from Mathcad can directly feed and drive geometries in Creo®Terry leads a group of engineers to design and build test Parametric, the PTC CAD software that Terry’s group uses. Uti-facilities for energy-related products. In addition, her team lizing this integration, as requirements change, the Mathcadoften has to work with two groups that are located in other calculations can be updated and the new values will updatestates. Terry’s customers come to her when they need a facil- the CAD models. This means the CAD team does not need toity to test their products. Because constructing these facilities wait for the analysts and designers to finalize the geometries.are so expensive, Terry and her team need to capture the The CAD team can now build up their parts and assembliesrequirements and design a facility that’s specific enough in parallel with the analysis and design team adjusting finalto meet those requirements, but at the same time general numbers for the optimal dimensions. With Windchill, Creo,enough to accommodate similar products. and Mathcad all integrated, Terry can change requirements in Windchill and have all the calculations update in MathcadTerry’s latest support request is to build a test facility to test a to meet those requirements, and in turn regenerate a newnew design for a wind turbine. She recalls that another team CAD model with the dimensions output from Mathcad.within the company built a facility to test wind turbines a fewyears ago. She brings up that project in their PLM server tocompare requirements. She opens the Mathcad worksheetthat was used to verify requirements in the old project. Sheplugs in new numbers for the new requirements and deter-mines that the facility can be modified to test the new design.Terry creates a new project for the new turbine design testfacility and copies over relevant files from the old project. Sheupdates the templates that will be used for calculations in thenew design. Similar to the previous case study, these templatescontain references to equations and information that Terry’sgroup and her collaborators use.Terry can now utilize all the basic equations defined in thetemplate, as well as additional analyses she implemented inher prior work. When she is done, she uses Windchill as thePLM system to store her files. Her teammates and colleaguescan now review her work, give her suggestions, and or evenupdate the Mathcad worksheets. Furthermore, the latest revi-sion of a standard that has just been published makes somechanges to building codes that need to be met. The team incharge of updating standards upload the newest revision intoWindchill. When Terry opens up her worksheet, these changesautomatically propagate throughout the worksheet. Terry caneasily see if her designs are still valid and meet the codes or ifshe will need to make any design modifications.Page 7 of 8 | Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System PTC.com
  8. 8. White PaperEvaluation Are you managing a team of engineers?Terry’s organization has achieved Level 4 maturity, or opti-mized implantation, in the standardization model. She uses We are bringing best practices in product design andMathcad for their calculations, plus, there is a well-defined development to engineering teams just like yours. If youprocess in place. This means that Terry and her colleagues are interested in learning more about feasibility analy-know exactly where to go whenever they start a new project. sis, requirements verification or simply how engineering teams are using Mathcad to improve their productivity –With Windchill as their PLM software, Terry can quickly gather a Mathcad representative can show you how.information she needs, whether it be previously done work,specifications, or standards. Windchill also allows the whole Contact us today and a Mathcad representative will callgroup to collaborate on worksheets in such a way that ev- you to set up a customized demo with a Mathcad expert.eryone can work simultaneously on related tasks. BecauseMathcad is the software tool of choice, all engineers aretrained in Mathcad and know how to leverage it for analyses. Check out our Best Practices in Product Development seriesThey also use Mathcad as a way to document their work and of white papers:drive the process that is in place. Design Studies and Tradeoff Analysis white paperDifferent geographic locations and coordination with col-leagues is no longer an issue. Terry can link to a sheet as a Requirements Flow-down white papercolleague works on it. As new details are filled in and/or com-puted, the changes are refreshed in all dependent calculations.Terry and her team benefit from all the advantages of Mathcad,which optimizes her design and engineering process. Mathcad is the Industry Standard Software for Engineering Calculations.Summary To learn more visit us at PTC.com/mathcad/Companies strive to design the best products in the leastamount of time. Success ultimately comes down to bringingproducts to market quickly while improving product quality.Engineering calculations made during product design makeup a company’s intellectual property. Capturing this IP is © 2012, Parametric Technology Corporation (PTC). All rights reserved. Information described herein is furnished for informational use only and is subject to change without notice. Theimportant for reuse and therefore critical in pushing out better only warranties for PTC products and services are set forth in the express warranty statementsproducts faster. accompanying such products and services and nothing herein should be construed as constituting an additional warranty. References to customer successes are based upon aMathcad gives engineers a way to perform their calculations, single user experience and such customer’s testimonial. Analyst or other forward-looking statements about PTC products and services or the markets in which PTC participates arevisualize data with charts and graphs, and annotate results those of the analysts themselves and PTC makes no representations as to the basis orall in one comprehensive platform. Furthermore, Mathcad accuracy thereof. PTC, the PTC Logo, Windchill, Creo, Mathcad and all PTC product namesalso enables companies to set standards and processes so en- and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of PTC and/or its subsidiaries in the United States and in other countries. All other product or company names are propertygineers and their teams can efficiently capture and store their of their respective owners. The timing of any product release, including any features orIP Reusing and leveraging prior calculations and results help . functionality, is subject to change at PTC’s discretion.improve design and streamline process. J0523-Mathcad Standardizing Engineering Calculations-WP-0712Page 8 of 8 | Standardizing Engineering Calculations in a Product Development System PTC.com

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