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    Ch1 Ch1 Presentation Transcript

    • Lecture 1 Introduction and Research Methods
    • Overview
      • What is Cognitive Psychology?
      • The History of Cognitive Psychology in Brief
      • Cognitive Psychology is about Processing Information
      • Metaphors, Models, Theories, and Perspectives
      • Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science
      • Research Methods
    • What is Cognitive Psychology?
      • Scientific study of the thinking mind
        • Attending to information
        • Perceiving information from the world
        • Storing information
        • Processing information
        • Retrieving information
        • Solving problems, thinking, language
    • A Brief History…
      • Early Thoughts on Thinking
        • Empiricists
          • Experience
        • Nativists
          • Innate characteristics
      • The Rise and Fall of Behaviorism
        • Stimulus-response
        • Intervening variables
    • A Brief History…
      • The Cognitive Revolution
        • 1956, symposium on information theory
        • Interest turned again toward cognitive processes and how knowledge is represented in the mind
    • Cognitive Psychology is about Processing Information
      • Involves total range of psychological processes
      • How we attend to and perceive information in the world
      • How that information is processed, stored and used
    • Metaphors, Models, Theories & Perspectives
      • Metaphors can be used to conceptualize a cognitive process (e.g., memory is like a video camera).
        • Useful for understanding
        • Not always accurate
      • Models are organizational frameworks used to describe processes.
        • Provides a representation of the character of the observation and aids in making predictions
    • Metaphors, Models, Theories & Perspectives
      • Theories attempt to explain some aspect of a process
        • Used to test hypotheses
        • Can be supported or fail to support
      • Perspectives guide scientists’ research questions and evaluation of their findings
        • Information processing
        • Neuroscience
        • Computer science
        • Evolutionary psychology
    • Information-Processing
      • Time-ordered sequence of events
      • Three assumptions
        • Sequential stages
        • Unique processes at each stage
        • Each stage receives and passes on information
    • Neuroscience
      • Focuses on brain structure and function that produces cognitive experience
      • Localization vs. distributed processes
    • Computer Science
      • Brain as a computer
      • Modeling brain function
      • Parallel Distributed Processing
    • Evolutionary Psychology
      • Cognition can be understood from a functionalist perspective
      • What function does a particular cognitive process serve in the context of physical and social evolution?
      • Cognitive processes as adaptive
    • Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science
      • Scholars from discreet disciplines come together to understand cognitive processes
        • Linguistics
        • Computer science
        • Developmental psychology
        • Artificial intelligence
        • Neuroscience
        • Anthropology
    • Research Methods
      • Observational studies
        • Describe phenomena
      • Experiments
        • Explain phenomena
      • Definitions
        • Operational vs conceptual
      • Unit of analysis
    • Measuring Psychological Correlates to the Physical World
      • Psychophysics
        • Study of the relationship between stimuli and the sensations and perceptions evoked by these stimuli
      • Single-cell studies
        • Measuring the electrical activity of a cell and evaluating the perceptual experience of that activity
      • Reaction-time studies
        • Measures the amount of time to complete cognitive tasks
    • Measuring Psychological Correlates to the Physical World
      • Priming studies
        • Evaluates the impact of previously presented stimuli on a given cognitive process or behavior
      • Eye-tracking studies
        • Evaluation of eye fixation and movement
      • Lateralization studies
        • Studies of how the 2 halves of the brain function differently
    • Documenting Unique Cases
      • Case studies
        • Documents the often unique cognitive attribute or deficit of an individual
      • Imaging studies
        • Shows structure and/or function to study cognitive processing, developmental change, and effects of neurological damage
    • Ethics
      • Institutional Review Boards
      • Animal and human subject protection
      • Risk-gain assessment