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  1. 1. Lecture 1 Introduction and Research Methods
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What is Cognitive Psychology? </li></ul><ul><li>The History of Cognitive Psychology in Brief </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology is about Processing Information </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphors, Models, Theories, and Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science </li></ul><ul><li>Research Methods </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Cognitive Psychology? <ul><li>Scientific study of the thinking mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attending to information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceiving information from the world </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retrieving information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solving problems, thinking, language </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. A Brief History… <ul><li>Early Thoughts on Thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nativists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Innate characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Rise and Fall of Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus-response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intervening variables </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. A Brief History… <ul><li>The Cognitive Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1956, symposium on information theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest turned again toward cognitive processes and how knowledge is represented in the mind </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cognitive Psychology is about Processing Information <ul><li>Involves total range of psychological processes </li></ul><ul><li>How we attend to and perceive information in the world </li></ul><ul><li>How that information is processed, stored and used </li></ul>
  7. 7. Metaphors, Models, Theories & Perspectives <ul><li>Metaphors can be used to conceptualize a cognitive process (e.g., memory is like a video camera). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Models are organizational frameworks used to describe processes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a representation of the character of the observation and aids in making predictions </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Metaphors, Models, Theories & Perspectives <ul><li>Theories attempt to explain some aspect of a process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to test hypotheses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be supported or fail to support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perspectives guide scientists’ research questions and evaluation of their findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary psychology </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Information-Processing <ul><li>Time-ordered sequence of events </li></ul><ul><li>Three assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential stages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique processes at each stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each stage receives and passes on information </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Neuroscience <ul><li>Focuses on brain structure and function that produces cognitive experience </li></ul><ul><li>Localization vs. distributed processes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Computer Science <ul><li>Brain as a computer </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling brain function </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel Distributed Processing </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evolutionary Psychology <ul><li>Cognition can be understood from a functionalist perspective </li></ul><ul><li>What function does a particular cognitive process serve in the context of physical and social evolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive processes as adaptive </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science <ul><li>Scholars from discreet disciplines come together to understand cognitive processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developmental psychology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroscience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthropology </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Research Methods <ul><li>Observational studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain phenomena </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational vs conceptual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unit of analysis </li></ul>
  15. 15. Measuring Psychological Correlates to the Physical World <ul><li>Psychophysics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of the relationship between stimuli and the sensations and perceptions evoked by these stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single-cell studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring the electrical activity of a cell and evaluating the perceptual experience of that activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reaction-time studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures the amount of time to complete cognitive tasks </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Measuring Psychological Correlates to the Physical World <ul><li>Priming studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluates the impact of previously presented stimuli on a given cognitive process or behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eye-tracking studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluation of eye fixation and movement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lateralization studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies of how the 2 halves of the brain function differently </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Documenting Unique Cases <ul><li>Case studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Documents the often unique cognitive attribute or deficit of an individual </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imaging studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows structure and/or function to study cognitive processing, developmental change, and effects of neurological damage </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Ethics <ul><li>Institutional Review Boards </li></ul><ul><li>Animal and human subject protection </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-gain assessment </li></ul>