Attention & Consciousness


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A power point presentation of Attention and Consciousness from the book: Discovering Cognitive Psychology; 5th Edition

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Attention & Consciousness

  1. 1. GROUP 4
  2. 2. “Attention is the taking possession of the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneous possible objects or trains of thoughts.. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others.” - William James
  3. 3. • The means by which we actively process a limited amount of information from the enormous amount of information available through our senses, our stored memories and our other cognitive processes • Includes both conscious and unconscious processes • Allows us to use our limited mental resources judiciously. • Dimming the lights on many stimuli form the outside and the inside to highlight one that interests us.
  4. 4. According to John Locke, consciousness is “the perception of what passes in a man’s own mind.” From the Latin phrase “conscius sibi” which means “knowing with oneself” Consciousness is the state of being awake and aware of one’s surrounding. Attention and Consciousness form two partially overlapping sets
  5. 5. • Helps in monitoring our interactions with the environment • Assists us in linking our past and present to give a sense of continuity of experience • Helps us in controlling and planning for our future actions
  6. 6. Processing information that exist at the preconscious level of awareness. • STORED MEMORIES • SENSATIONS
  7. 7. PRIMING occurs when a recognition of certain stimuli is affected by prior presentation of the same or similar stimuli. • Positive Priming • Negative Priming • Visual Priming • Aural Priming
  8. 8. Sometimes, pulling preconscious information into consciousness is not easy. Tip-of-the-Tongue phenomenon
  9. 9. • Concealed from consciousness • Unintentional • Consume few attentional resources
  10. 10. Characteristics Controlled Processes Automatic Processes Amount of intentional effort Require intentional effort Require little or no intentional effort Degree of conscious awareness Require full conscious awareness Generally occur outside of conscious awareness although some may be available for consciousness Use of attentional resources Consume many attentional resources Consume negligible attentional resources Type of processing Performed serially Performed by parallel processing Speed of processing Relatively time- consuming Relatively fast Relative novelty of tasks Novel and unpractised tasks Familiar and highly practised tasks Level of processing Relatively high levels of cognitive processing Relatively low levels of cognitive processing Difficulty of tasks Usually difficult tasks Usually easy tasks Process of acquisition With sufficient practise, many routine and relatively
  11. 11. AUTOMATIZATION is the process by which a procedure changes from being highly conscious to being relatively automatic. HOW? By PRACTISE
  12. 12. A widely accepted view of automatization has been that during the course of practise, implementation of the various steps become more efficient People consolidate various discrete steps into a single operation.
  13. 13. INSTANCE THEORY Automatization occurs because we gradually accumulate knowledge about specific responses to specific stimuli. Instance theory explain specific responses to specific stimuli while the prevailing view explain more general responses involving automatization.
  14. 14. 1. MISTAKES - errors in choosing an object or in specifying a means of achieving it. 2. SLIPS - errors in carrying out an intended means for reaching an object. 1. When we must deviate from a routine and automatic processes inappropriately override intentional, controlled processes 2. When we are interrupted
  15. 15. Type of Error Description of Error Capture Error When in need to deviate from a routine in a familiar surrounding but we fail to pay attention and to regain control of the process AP capture our behavior. Omission* An interruption may cause us to skip a step or two in doing the routine Perseveration* After an automatic procedure has been completed, one or more step may be repeated. Description Error A description leads to performing the correct action on the wrong object. Data-driven Error Incoming information may end up overriding the intended variables in automatic action sequence. Associative- activation Error Strong association may trigger the wrong routine Loss-of-activation Error Activation of routine may be insufficient to carry it through completion
  16. 16. HOW CAN WE MINIMIZE THE POTENTIAL FOR NEGATIVE CONSEQUENCES OF SLIPS? If we receive appropriate feedback from the environment particularly the kind of feedback which involves forcing function. Forcing functions are physical constraints that make it difficult or impossible to carry out an automatic behavior that may lead to a slip.
  17. 17. HABITUATION involves our becoming accustomed to a stimulus so that we gradually pay less and less attention to it. DISHABITUATION involves a change in a familiar stimulus which prompts us to start noticing the stimulus again. SENSORY ADAPTATION is a lessening of attention to a stimulus that is not subject to conscious control.
  18. 18. ADAPTATION HABITUATION Not accessible to conscious control Accessible to conscious control Tied closely to stimulus intensity Not tied very close Unrelated to the number, length, and recency of prior exposures Tied very closely to the number, length, and recency of prior exposures
  19. 19. 1. Stimulus internal variation 2. Subject arousal AROUSAL is a degree of psychological excitation, responsivity, and readiness for action, relative to a baseline. HOW? In terms of: • rate • Blood pressure • EEG patterns • Neural responses
  20. 20. 1. Signal detection and vigilance 2. Selective attention 3. Divided attention 4. Search
  21. 21. FUNCTION DESCRIPTION Signal detection and vigilance Waiting for signals to show Selective Attention Choosing signals to attend to Divided Attention Engaging in more than one task Search Seeking out
  22. 22. FOUR POSSIBLE OUTCOMES Hit Miss False Alarm Correct Rejection SIGNAL DETECT A SIGNAL DO NOT DETECT A SIGNAL Present Hit Miss Absent False Alarm Correct Rejection
  23. 23. Covered in the: 1) context of attention, 2) context of perception, and 3) context of memory 1. Whether one is paying enough attention to perceive objects that are there 2. Whether one is able to perceive faint signals that may or may not be beyond one’s perceptual range 3. Whether one indicates one has or has not been exposed to a stimulus before
  24. 24. Vigilance - A person’s ability to attend to a field of stimulation over a prolonged period, during which the person seeks to detect the appearance of a particular target stimulus • Needed in settings where a given stimulus occurs only rarely but requires immediate attention • Highly localized and strongly influenced by expectation • Involves the speed and accuracy of detecting a target stimulus
  25. 25. • Scan the environment for particular features • Whereas vigilance involves passively waiting for a signal stimulus to appear, search involves actively seeking out the target Distracters • Nontarget stimuli that divert our attention away from the target stimuli • Can cause false alarm Search
  26. 26. 2 KINDS OF SEARCH 1. Feature search • When we can look for some distinctive features of a target we simply scan the environment for those features 2. Conjunction search • We look for a particular combination of features
  27. 27. • Each of us has mental map for representing the given set of features for a particular item (shape, size, color features) • During feature searches we monitor the relevant feature map for the presence of any activation in the visual field • During conjunction searches, we can simply use the map of features, we must conjoin two or more features into an object representation at a particular location
  28. 28. As the similarity between target and distracter increases, so does the difficulty in detecting the target stimuli Factors influencing search 1. DEGREE OF SIMILARITY - Similarity between the target and the distracters 2. DEGREE OF DISPARITY - Similarity among distracters
  29. 29. All searches involve two consecutive stages • Parallel stage – simultaneous activation of all the potential targets • Serial stage – sequential evaluation of each of the activated elements
  30. 30. • Movement-filter – can direct attention to stimuli with a common movement characteristics • Movement can both enhance and inhibit visual search
  31. 31. Selective Attention the process by which a person can selectively pick out one message from a mixture of messages occurring simultaneously. BASIC PARADIGMS • Cocktail Party Problem (Colin Cherry, 1953) - the process of tracking one conversation in the face of the distraction of other conversations. • Shadowing - listening to two different messages but are able to follow only one message & ignore the other.
  32. 32. • Binaural Presentation - Presenting the same two messages or sometimes just one message to BOTH ears simultaneously. • Dichotic Presentation - Presenting different message to EACH ear.
  33. 33. • Distinctive sensory characteristics of the target speaker’s speech • Sound intensity • Location of the sound source
  34. 34. • Broadbent’s Model - we filter information right after it is registered at the sensory level.
  35. 35. • Moray’s Selective Filter Model - The selective filter blocks out most information at the sensory level. But some highly salient messages are so powerful that they burst through the filtering mechanism.
  36. 36. • Treisman’s Attenuation Model - We preattentively analyze the physical properties of a stimulus (stimuli with target properties) - We analyze whether a given stimulus has a pattern, such as speech or music - We sequentially evaluate the incoming messages, assigning appropriate meanings to the selected stimuli messages
  37. 37. • Deutsch and Deutsch’s Late Filter Model - the signal-blocking filter occurs later in the process. It has its effects after sensory analysis. It occurs after some perceptual and conceptual analysis of input had taken place.
  38. 38. • Multimode Theory -Attention is flexible INFORMATION PROCESSING OCCURS IN 3 STAGES 1. The individual constructs sensory representation of stimuli. 2. The individual constructs semantic representations. 3. The representations of stages 1 & 2 become conscious
  39. 39. • Neisser’s Synthesis 2 Processes Governing Attention •Preattentive (rapid, automatic, parallel) •Attentive processes (controlled, occur later, serial) • Help to explain how we can perform more than one attention - demanding task at a time. • We have attentional resources specific to a given modality
  40. 40. Listen to music Listen to the news station Concentrate on writing Having difficulty doing task 2 & the activity selected simultaneously Auditor y Visual Listening to music Writing Wouldn’t pose serious attentional difficulties
  41. 41. 1. Overall arousal 2. Specific interest in a target task and stimuli, compared with interest in distracters 3. Nature of the task 4. Amount of practice in performing a given task or set of tasks 5. Stage of processing at which attentional demands are needed
  42. 42. • By John Ridley Stroop (1935) • Demonstrates the psychological difficulty in selectively attending the color of the ink and trying to ignore the word that is printed with the ink of that color
  43. 43. • Because most other adult & for you, reading is now an automatic process. It is not readily subject to your conscious control You find it difficult intentionally to refrain from reading and instead to concentrate on identifying the colour of the ink, disregarding the word printed in that ink colour.
  44. 44. Is attention a function of the entire brain, or is if a function of discrete attention- governing modules in the brain?
  45. 45. 1. Alertingttttttiing 2. Orienting 3. Executive attention THREE SUBFUNCTIONS OF ATTENTION
  46. 46. • An attentional dysfunction in which participants ignore the half of their visual field that is contralateral to the hemisphere of the brain that has a lesion. • Due to unilateral lesions in the parietal lobes.
  47. 47. • Anterior attention system – during task requiring awareness/attention for action • Posterior attention system – during task involving visuospatial attention
  48. 48. EVENT-RELATED-POTENTIALS (ERPs) indicate minute changes in electrical activity in response to various stimuli.
  49. 49. This approach evaluates changes in attention and consciousness associated with various chemicals, hormones, and even CNS stimulants and depressants.
  50. 50. Antony Marcel (1983) • Participants had to classify series of words into various categories • Primes where words with two meanings such as palm followed by target word (tree or hand) • Task outline: Prime – PALM Target – TREE - If the participant was consciously aware of seeing the word “palm”, the mental pathway for only one meaning was activated - If the word “palm” was presented so briefly that the person was unaware of seeing the word, both meanings of the word appeared to be activated
  51. 51. 1. Respective roles of structures and processes. 2. Relation between biology and behavior. 3. Validity of causal inferences vs ecological validity.
  52. 52. PAM NIE GDI