Psych 320: Gender Psychology: Post Exam NotesLecture 32: Monday Jan 5Friendship: Friendship (4 classes) Romantic Relationships (4-5 classes) 1. Are there sex similarities in friendship? 2. Are there sex differences in friendship?By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Discuss sex similarities and differences in same-sex friendshipAre there sex similarities in friendship? 1. A number of sex similarities in same-sex friendships have been identified: o Friendship Network Size: Mean=5-8 (Urberg et al.;1995) 2. Desired Characteristics: o Average Friendship Size (Number of friends) o Seek Friends with similar characteristics (etc. Age, marital status, interest) o Trust and authenticity most important (Parker & de Vries, 1993) o Affective support more important than instrumental support (Burleson et. Al., 1996) Affective Support Ego Support “Makes me believe in (Emotional Support) myself” Conversational “Is easy to talk to in almost any circumstances” Conflict Management “Makes me feel like I can be really honest about the things in our relationship that produce conflict” Comforting “Can really cheer me up when I’m feeling down or upset” Instrumental Support Referential “Explains things very (Goal Orientated or Task well” Orientated) Regulative “Makes me see how my mistakes hurt myself as well as other people.” Narrative “Almost always tells an entertaining joke or an interesting story when we’re together.”
Persuasive “Knows the kinds of things to say to get me to think or act differently” 3. Sources of relationship satisfaction: Common sources of relationship satisfaction for both sexes include support, enjoyment, and equal power status 4. Relationship knowledge/knowledge of friends o Counterintuitive because females communicate more so it is expected that they have better knowledge of their friends. However, females tend to corruminate, that is they talk about the same things over and over.Are there sex Differences in friendship? o A number of sex differences in same-sex friendships have been indentified: 1. Group size during play o Females tend to play in dyads; males tend to play in groups 2. Best friends o Females are more likely than males to report having a best friend and to be “clique” members Females tend to play with friends who have similar roles Girls tend to engage in self-disclosure which fosters similarity Diversity threatens friendship Male groups tend to be diverse (Athlete+ brain+ ) 3. Self-disclosure o Females engage in greater self-disclosure with same-sex friends than males o Sex differences in self-disclosure appear in childhood and are consistent across age groups: Mean Intimate Disclosure Scores in Same-sex Friendships for Girls and Boys by Grade Grade 2 Grade 5 Grade 8 Girls 2.83 3.26 3.76 Boys 2.95 2.76 3.19 Mean Intimate Disclosure Scores in Same-sex Friendships for Women and Men Women discloses more than men Boys on average self-disclosure does not change Girls increases in self-disclosure Differences emerges in grade 5Lecture 33 Friday, Jan 7Friendship 1. Are there sex difference in friendship? (continued)By the endn of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Discuss sex differences in same-sex friendship
2. Review research findings regarding the social desirability of self-disclosure among females and malesAre there sex differences in friendship? (continued) 3. Self-disclosure: (continued) a. Self-disclosure emerges early in life b. Females disclosure much more than males c. Self-disclosure leads to emotional closeness d. Effect sizes for self-disclosure i. Self-disclosure studies: d= -.17 ii. Observational studies: d=-22 1. Having a trained observer watch you iii. Informant studies d=-.44 1. Having somebody else (i.e friend) talk about you o Most accurate studies is the observational report because it is not biased by personal opinions. The observer is trained. e. When self-disclosing, females are more likely than males to engage in “co-rumination” i. **Overhead: Corrumination is the tendency to repeatedly discuss problems (eg. Relation difficulties, personal weaknesses with other individuals. ii. Positively correlated with friendship quality. iii. Positively correlated with depression 1. Rumination: Dwell on one’s own problem 2. Corruminate: Talk about it iv. Females tends to co ruminate more than males. ** f. Self-disclosure among females is not influenced by gender. g. Self-disclosure among males is influenced by gender i. Masculinity is negatively correlated with self-disclosure ii. Feminity is positively correlated with self-disclosure in same-sex relationships h. Research suggests that males are less likely to self-disclose than females because self- disclosure among males is less socially desirable: i. Asked male and female participants to read a case study and evaluate the target character’s level of adjustment and likeability. ii. The stories manipulated the sex of the target character and the level of self- disclosure that the target character engaged in with respect to a recent traumatic event. iii. Psychological adjustment as a Function of Level of Disclosure and Sex of Discloser 1. Males who self-discloses were perceived as less psychologically adjusted by both males and females 2. Females who self-disclosures were perceived as better adjusted. iv. Also found that self-disclosure was positively correlated with likeability scores among females but not among males. 1. Conducted a meta-analysis of studies examining the relationi between self-disclosure and likeability 2. Found a stronger relation between self-disclosure and likeability for females (female discloses vs. female nondisclosures, d=+.30) than males (male disclosers vs male nondisclosures, d= +.11) v. Other variables that influence self-disclsure among females and males
1. Marital status: Married males are less likely to self-disclose than married females and unmarried individuals a. When widowed, married males are more likely to suffer. b. This is linked to male’s smaller support network 2. Culture of origin: Sex differences are greater in individualistic cultures than collectivistic cultures a. In India, males self-discloses as much as females 4. Shared Activity a. Males engage in a greater number of shared activities (playing games, fantasy play, telling jokes, playing a sport, playing cards) with friends than females. i. Females tend to talk. b. Sex differences in shared activity appear in childhood and are consistent across age groups c. Mean Shared Activity Scores in Same-Sex Friendships for Women and Men i. In United States and Russia, men score higher than women ii. In Russia, there are more shared activities than the US d. The scores is debatable, because the definition of shared activities does not capture everything. 5. Perceived Closeness a. The relative closeness of same-sex friendships among males and female has been hotly debated: i. “Woman is an emintently unsociable being and refrains from forming unions on the basis of like interest, remaining centered in the kinship group based on sexual relations and the reproductive function. Associations created or even joined by women on equal terms with men are rare and must be considered weak imitations of the exclusively male associations.” ii. Males perceived stronger closeness than females 1. Linked to evolutionary basis that males tend to rely and support each other more. 2. However, recent research disagrees. b. Friendship closeness in same-sex friendships has been assessed using the Rochester Interaction Record (RIR) i. The RIR requires that participants record details related to social interactions of 10 minutes or more. ii. Asked female and male participants to complete the RIR for 2 weeks iii. Assessed “Meaningfulness” of interactions with same sex friends and same-sex best friend by summing the intimacy, self-disclosure, other-disclosure, quality, and satisfaction scores of participants’ interactions. iv. Found that male same-sex friendships scored lower than female same-sex friendships on intimacy, self-disclosure, other-disclosure, quality, satisfactioin, and meaningfulness. 1. This has been linked to less self-disclosure among males.Lecture 34 Monday, Jan 11, 2011From last class… 1. Effect sizes for self-disclosure
a. Self-report studies: d= .17 b. Observational studies: d=.22 c. Informant studies: d=-.44 2. Observational studies is most accurate 3. The value of D depends on whether we take a minimalist or maximalist positionFriendship: 1. Are there sex differences in friendships? (continued)By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Discuss sex differences in same-sex friendship. 2. Describe barriers to closeness in same-sex friendships associated with the male gender role.Are there sex differences in friendship? (continued) 4. Perceived closeness: (continued) From the RIR research continued: Found that male same sex friendship scored lower than female same sex friendships on intimacy, self-disclosure, other-disclosure, quality, satisfaction, and meaningfulness Also found that: 1. Intimacy, self-disclosure, other-disclosure, quality and satisfaction scores were negatively correlated with loneliness 2. Although males obtained lower scores than females on the 5 interactions indices, they were not more lonely than females. a. This has been attributed to males content with independence. 3. For gender, Femininity was negatively correlated with loneliness among females and males; masculinity was not correlated with loneliness among females and males. a. Feminine people are less lonely, because they are expressive. From Relationship Grid (RG) Friendship closeness in same-sex friendships has also been assessed using the relationship Grid The RG requires that participants evaluate up to 10 relationships on several “affective” dimensions assessing relationship closeness. This is 5 dimensions more than the RIR test. Asked female and male participants to complete RG for up to 10 close friendships Results: 1. Found that male same-sex friendships scored lower than female same-sex friendships on: a. Appreciation: Enjoying and saying thanks to the other b. Authenticity: Being real, genuine and honest c. Connectedness: concern for each other, motivation for involvement d. empathic understanding: Listening, and interpreting the feelings of the others e. responsibility: Being accountable or responsible for what happens or how things f. self-disclosure: Feeling free to express and reveal intimate information 2. Found that male-same-sex friendship scored higher than female same-sex friendships on: a. Control: having influence or how things turn out
b. Shared activity : Initiating shared activity, doing things together with other 3. Notably, male same sex friendships and female same-sex friendships do not differ in their scores on: a. Assistance: Being willing to use time or resource to help the other b. Deepening other’s self-awareness: facilitating the recognition of other’s self c. Empowerment of other: helping others realize their potential. d. Trust: that they will not embarrass or take advantage of you or to feel weak e. Satisfaction : feel that the relationship is rewarding and satisfyingOverhead notesBarriers to closeness associated with the male gender role: 1. Competitiveness – tied to the notion of independence and pride. a. Hyper-competition: Goal is to win; characterized by feelings of hostility and disregard for opponents. i. Eg. Upset when friend wins. Happy when win. ii. Bad for everyone 1. Disrupts the friendship b. Non-hostile social comparison: Goal is to assess one’s performance in relation to others i. Eg. I want to play with my friends to see who’s better ii. Facilitates friendship among males (consistent with the male gender role) iii. Negative effect for females c. Enjoyment competition: Goal is positive affect i. Eg. I play with my friends for the fun of it ii. Term emerged from sports psychology 1. Flow-being in a state of physical arousal d. Personal development competition: Goal is self-improvement i. Comparison to better self ii. Eg. My friend is good at math so I will try to be good too. e. (a) inhabits friendship’s among females and males f. (b),(c), and (d) foster friendships among males but inhibits friendship among females 2. Homophobia a. Fear homosexuals or being perceived as homosexuals b. Leads to less closeness among males in same sex friendship i. Eg. Not seeing males hugging or holding hands 3. Emotional Inexpressiveness a. Powerless emotions may inhibit the development of friendships amongst males by preventing opportunity to disclose and develop closenessLecture 35 Wed, Jan 13, 2011Friendship 1. Are there sex differences in friendship? (continued) 2. How do cross-sex friendships differ from same-sex friendshipsBy the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Discuss sex differences in same-sex friendship 2. Discuss the prevalence of cross-sex vs same-sex friendships 3. Contrast self-disclosure and closeness levels in same-sex versus cross-sex friendships 4. Define the female-as-opener and reciprocity hypotheses
5. Discuss the benefits of cross-sex friendshipsAre there sex differences in friendships? (continued) 6. Relationship conflict: a. Females and males report similar sources of conflict in same-sex friendships b. Females experience greater conflict in their same sex friendships than males. c. This is evidenced by the following research findings: i. Females are more likely than males to report that their closest friends did something to hurt them ii. Females’ closest friendships are of shorter duration than males’ closest friendships iii. Females have more friendships end than males d. Sources of conflict i. Not understanding each other ii. Embarrassing each other iii. Shorter duration 1. Females more likely to report having lost a friend by grade 6 or 7 iv. Females are more likely to bring up problems through relationship aggression, but males more likely to bring it up front. e. Researchers have attributed the more frequent termination of friendships among females to the use of relational aggression rather than direct discussion and expression of anger, both of which are common among malesHow do cross-sex friendships differ from same-sex friendships?Discuss the prevalence of cross-sex vs same-sex friendships 1. Although cross-sex friendships are not uncommon, both males and females have fewer cross- sex friendships than same-sex friendships a. In the past, this was even more the case. Why might that be so? i. Sex stereotypes ii. Social etiquette iii. Greater sex-segregation 1. Females-> domestic roles 2. Males -> work roles iv. Now, women are more independent. Hence the change. 2. For both sexes, the number of cross-sex friendships and time spent with cross-sex friend increases from childhood to young adulthood: a. Cross-sex friendships are rare in childhood b. Among adolescents, 52% of girls and 41% of boys reported a cross-sex friend as one of their closest friends c. Among college students, women and men report that 27% of their closest friends are of the opposite sex d. Among college students, 30% of women and 40% of men are able to identify at least one friend of the opposite sex 3. Graph: Time spent with same-sex and cross-sex friends as a function of age
a. Cross-sex friends is low in grade 8 increases to grade 10 decreases to grade 12 and increases again in college b. Same sex friends high in grade 8 then drops off after grade 12. c. More time is spent with the same sex d. Linear trajectory e. Same sex drops and cross-sex drop off at adulthood i. Due to marriage ii. In marriage, couples spent more time together iii. Especially true after having a baby and don’t have time with friends 4. In old age, males are more likely than females to have cross-sex friends due to the higher morality rate of males; older males still have cross-sex friends while the female loses them 5. Feminine men and masculine women are most likely to have cross-sex friends a. Due to having similar interests.Contrast self-disclosure and closeness levels in same-sex versus cross-sex friendships 1. A number of studies have contrasted self-disclosure and closeness in same-sex and cross-sex friendships. a. These studies have shown that: i. Although females engage in greater self-disclosure with same-sex friends, males engage in greater self-disclosure with cross-sex friends. 1. Possible explanations: Female-as opener hypothesis; reciprocity hypothesis 2. Define the female-as-opener and reciprocity hypotheses a. Overhead: i. Female as opener hypothesis: Both sexes disclose more to females than males because they perceive females as more supportive confidant 1. Partially supported/ Criticism of this point: a. Argues depends on type of support: i. Female for emotional support ii. Males for task support ii. Reciprocity hypothesis 1. Males and friends disclose more to female than male due to reciprocity of self-disclosure. 2. Female disclose more than males as their high self-disclosure elicits their partner’s self- disclsosure elicits their partner’s self-disclosure less than female. And their low self-disclosure inhibit their partner’s self-disclosure. ii. Although Females describe their same-sex friendships and cross-sex friendships as similar in closeness, males describe their cross-sex friendships as closer than their same-sex friendships 1. Research: bar graph: “meaningfulness”of Same-Sex and Cross-Sex Friendship Interactions by Sex a. Women cross-sex= Same sex b. Men cross sex> same sex
Discuss the benefits of cross-sex friendships 1. Consistent with these results, studies indicate that males derive several unique benefits from cross-sex friendships. Specifically, males report that they: a. Receive greater esteem support from cross-sex friends than same-sex friends b. Derive greater emotional support from cross-sex friends than same-sex friends c. Find cross-sex friendships to be more rewarding than same-sex friendships 2. Class discussion: What are some other benefits? a. Psychological benefits b. Allows males to learn to express themselves c. Dating: i. tips that can only be obtain through the other sex ii. become less awkward when talking to opposite sex d. reduces gender stereotypes e. Less competition in cross-sex relationships i. Leads to stable relationships 3. Studies indicate that that females also derive unique benefits from cross-sex friendships. Specifically females report that cross-sex friendships provide: a. Relief from the “intensity” of same-sex friendships; females experience more conflict in same-sex friendships than cross-sex friendships b. Physical protection 4. In addition, both sexes benefit from cross-sex friendships in that cross-sex friendships a. Enable children to learn new styles of play i. Boys learn to talk ii. Girls learn to play sports b. Decrease sex-typed behavior c. Validate one’s attractiveness to the other sex i. One feels more liked d. Provide youngsters with practice for adolescent and adult romantic relationships i. Studies show that cross sex friendships in early childhood predicts better romantic relationship than relationship with parents.Lecture 36 Fri, Jan 15, 2011Friendship and Romantic Relationships: 1. What unique challenges do cross-sex friendships face? 2. What characteristics do females and males desire in a mate?By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the challenges associated with cross-sex friendships 2. Identify sex differences in mate preferencesWhat unique challenges do cross-sex friendships face? 1. Although cross-sex friendships benefit both sexes, researchers suggest that they face 5 challenges: a. Emotional Bond Challenge b. Equality Challenge c. Audience Challenge d. Sexual Challenge
e. Opportunity Challenge2. Overhead notes: a. Emotional Challenge: Is the closeness friendship or romantic love? i. Questioning of if the relationship can be more ii. Could this be more than friendship? b. Equality Challenge: Is the relationship equal in terms of the status of each partner? i. Because females are perceived to have lower status than males, is that carried out in the relationship? ii. Do males tend to have more power? iii. Having equal power is important in friendship for satisfaction. c. Audience Challenge: How is the relationship viewed by others? i. In society, since it is new to cross-sex friendship (few cross-sex friendships in the past), is cross-sex friendships viewed with skepticism by others? ii. This is also tied to self-monitoring 1. Is the thinking of how self will be perceived by others 2. Females are higher in self-monitoring a. Cares more about what others think 3. Is also tendency to watch oneself in terms of the expectations of others 4. Greater concern for living up to expectation 5. Related to females being more collectivist than males d. Sexual Challenge: Is there sexual attraction? i. Sort of links to emotional challenge 1. Could it be more? Etc. e. Opportunity Challenge: Are there cross-sex people available to be friends? i. In order to make cross-sex friends, you need opportunity to meet them ii. That itself is a primary challenge3. Research has examined the extent to which university students confront these challenges in cross-sex friendships: a. Emotional bond challenge: Most problematic b. Equality Challenge: Least Problematic c. Audience Challenge: F>M; related to self-monitoring4. Sexual Challenge: a. Among university students, 28% report sexual interest in a cross-sex friend; of these individuals, 14% report romantic interest in their cross-sex friend i. 28% are sexually attracted to their cross-sex friend, but only 14% of that 28% wants a romantic relationship b. Males are more likely to report sexual interest in a cross-sex friend than females i. D=.45 c. One-sided attraction is more common among males than females i. However, one-sided attraction among females is more likely to lead to sex than one-sided attraction among males 1. Females who fall for their cross-sex friends are more likely to have sex with them 2. Result of males being more likely to take the opportunity 3. Consistent with evolutionary perspective, males want to spread their seeds, whereas females are selective. ii. Sex between cross-sex friends is relatively common; 52% of university students have had sex in the past with a platonic cross-sex friend.
1. Of those individuals, 56% reported having sex with more than one cross- sex friend a. The number seems kind of high b. But perhaps university students are more liberal and sees sex with a friend as a way of “No strings attached” relationship iii. 67% of university students who have had sex with a cross-sex friend indicate that the quality of the relationship improved 1. Surprising finding 2. Depends on the nature of the relationship a. If friends argue that it is mutual before having sex, then perhaps the friendship improves b. Otherwise, friendship gets awkward if either one partner starts desiring more iv. Among those who are sexually attracted to cross-sex friends, the primary reasons for not pursuing a sexual relationship are: 1. Avoiding a “break up” 2. Avoiding social disapproval 3. Avoiding being hurt a. Not getting feelings reciprocated backWhat characteristics do females and males desire in a mate?Identify sex differences in mate preferences 1. Personal Ads: Women Seeking Men a. Take away the fact that males tend to indicate status of education/possession of wealth whereas females physical attractiveness 2. Research suggests that females are more likely than males to emphasize resource potential, whereas males are more likely than females to emphasize physical attractiveness 3. Effect Sizes: a. Socioeconomic status: d= -.69 b. Ambition: d=-.67 c. Physical attractiveness: d=+.54 4. High effect sizes. Negative numbers mean girl scored higher. Positive means males scored higher. In other words, male desired physical attractiveness more than females on looks a. Consistent with evolutionary perspective. i. Females need guys who can invest in the offspring ii. Males associate looks with fertilityLecture 37 Wed, Jan 19, 2011Romantic Relationships: 1. What characteristics do females and males desire in a mate (continued) 2. Are there sex differences in the experiences of love?By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Identify sex similarities and differences in mate preferences 2. Review theories of sex differences in mate preferences and the research findings that support them.
3. Discuss sex similarities and differences in Sternberg’s components of love and Lee’s Love Styles.What characteristics do females and males desire in a mate? (Continued) 1. Explanations for sex differences in importance of resource potential and physical attractiveness: a. Evolutionary explanation: Emphasizes sex differences in minimal parental investment. i. Females invest more than males leads to sex differences 1. Females have to bear child for 9 months while males involve only a single act of copulation 2. Hence, females must be choosy and look for males who are willing to invest 3. This often involves choosing males with socioeconomic status a. Hence, values males with potential resources 4. On the other hand, since males are concern with fertility, males value choose attractive females because they equate attractiveness with fertility ii. Criticisms 1. Textbook argues that physical attractiveness does not dictate fertility, and that we should choose mates who have had already had a child. Having already had a child is sign of fertility. 2. Evolutionary psychologists would argue that males would not choose a mate with a child already, because males want to ensure that the child is theirs before investing in the child 3. Is written question on exam b. Social role explanation: Emphasizes division of labour between males and females in traditional societies i. Females tend to work at home doing domestic work ii. Females tend to go out and collect the money iii. Society does not offer female the chance to acquire resources; tend to hire males iv. As a result, female tends to be a parasite 1. Leech off the males v. In support of this theory, cross-cultural research shows that males rate “Being a great cook and having excellent domestic skills” as most desirable from a female vi. Criticism: 1. In society, where there is gender equality, females were less concerned with resources, and males less concern with domestic rules? c. Social construction explanation: Emphasizes social norms regarding desirable characteristics i. Refers to the learning to be concern with what is attractive ii. What is attractive depends on culture 1. Eg. In the US, attractive in males is status but in Isreal, it is not. 2. Culture norm is more important than anything related to sex 2. Although sex differences consistently emerge with respect to the importance of resource potential and physical attractiveness, research indicates that these characteristics are relatively unimportant to both sexes a. Assessed mate preferences in Japan, Russia, and the US b. In all cultures, found that both sexes valued “internal” attributes (eg. Kind, humorous, intelligence) more than “external” attributes (eg. Physically attractiveness, financial resources) etc.
c. Bar graph: Mate preferences among males and females in Japan, Russia, and the US i. 4 Points to Remember 1. Ambition a. Female > Male i. Consistent with Evolutionary Perspective about Females seeking mates with potential resource 2. Physical Attractiveness a. M> F 3. Rank Order i. Both sex rate kindness>sense of humor>expressive and open> intelligent> good conversationalist> outgoing and sociable> ambitious> physically attractive> skill as a lover> shows potential for success money, status, and position> athletic 4. With exception to physical attractiveness, females score higher in each aspect. So F wants a kind partner more than M. a. Females more choosy b. Consistent with evolutionary theory that females look for partners who can invest in the offspring since females had to initially invest more (by bearing the child for 9 months). 3. Moreover, research suggests that both sexes are attracted to individuals who possess attributes similar to their own. a. Thus, research supports the “similarity-attraction” hypothesis (vs. the “potential- attraction” hypothesis for both sexes i. Potential Hypothesis 1. Opposite attracts 2. For example, females would be attracted to older males because of resources a. Eg. Anna Nicole Smith and Howard Marshall b. Eg. Hugh Hefner and Girlfriends c. Eg. Donald and Melania Trump 3. Males would be attracted to younger females because of higher fertility ii. Similarity Hypothesis 1. Similar physical characteristics/ values breed attraction a. Danny DeVito and Rhea Perlman b. Beyonce and Jay Z c. Angelina Jolie and Brad PittAre there sex differences in the experience of love? 1. Several theories of love have been proposed by psychologists. Among these theories are: a. Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love i. Maintains that there are three components associated with love: Passion, commitment and intimacy ii. Identifies 8 types of love based on the presence or absence of these 3 components 1. Passion a. Psychological or physiological response b. Need not be sexual, such as that between parent and child where parent expresses concern for child
c. The concern, need to protect heightens physiological response d. However, in intimate relationship, it is often driven by physical attractiveness. 2. Commitment a. The decision you make when you love somebody in desire to maintain the relationship 3. Intimacy a. Sense of bondness, closeness, or connectednessiii. 8 Distinct types of love 1. Based on size and shape of the triangle a. Size of triangle = amount of love b. Shape of triangle = type of love 2. Kind of love Intimacy Passion Decision/commitment Nonlove - - - Liking + - - Infatuated - + - love Empty love - - + Romantic Love + + - Companionate + - + love Fatuous love - + + Consummate + + + love a. None love i. Stranger b. Liking i. Friendships c. Infatuated Love i. Love at first sight when someone makes you feel a certain way immediately d. Empty Love i. Long term relationship where passion and intimacy has been lost 1. Marriage that are going for a divorce ii. Arranged marriage 1. Where two person spends time together and develops intimacy and passion e. Romantic love i. Romeo and Juliet 1. No commitment f. Companionate love i. Romantic relationship based on friendship g. Fatuous love i. No intimacy ii. Gun Wedding
1. Marrying quickly after meeting a very short time 2. Don’t last h. Consummate love i. Parents and child 1. Passion: Not sexual -> concern for child ii. Perfect love 3. Research has examined sex similarities and differences with respect to Sternberg’s three component of love: a. Sternberg, 1997: F> M in intimacy, but F= M in commitment and passionb. Lee’s Theory of Love Styles i. Maintains that there are (a) three primary love styles: eros, storge, and ludus, and (b) three blends of love styles: mania, pragma, and agape 1. Pragma is a blend of Storge and Ludus 2. Agape is a blend of Storge and Eros 3. Mania is a blend of Eros and Ludus ii. Lee’s Taxonomy of Love Style Love Style Description Sample Item Eros Romantic and I feel that my lover and Passionate love I were meant for each other Storge Friendship Love It is hard to say exactly where friendship ends and love begins Ludus Game-playing love I try to keep my lover a little uncertain about my commitment to him or her Mania Manic, dependent, When I am in love, I and possessive love; have trouble blend of eros and concentrating on ludus anything else Pragma Practical (“shopping I consider what a list”) love; blend of person is going to storge and ludus become in life before I commit myself to him or her Agape Pure and altruistic I would endure all love; blend of eros things for the sake of and storge my lover iii. Research has examined sex similarities and differences with respect to Lee’s Love styles: 1. F>M on storge and pragma; M>F on ludus and agape
iv. Research has also examined the correlation between self-esteem and Lee’s Love styles: 1. Positive correlation with errors and ludus; negative correlation with mania: no correlation with storge, pragma, and agapeLecture 38 Saturday, Jan 21, 2011 Romantic relationship Learning Goals: 1. Are there sex differences in the experience of love? (continued) 2. What strategies do females and males use to maintain romantic relationships? 3. What factors determine relationship satisfaction for females and males? By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Discuss sex similarities and differences in beliefs about romantic love. 2. Discuss sex similarities and differences in the use of relationship maintenance strategies 3. Identify factors that influence relationship satisfaction among males and femalesAre there sex differences in the experience of love? (continued) 1. In addition to examining sex similarities and differences related to theories of love, researchers have examined beliefs about romantic love among sexes a. Hendrink and Hendrick (2002) i. Used the Romantic Beliefs Scale to assess four beliefs related to romantic love: 1. Sample Items from the Romantic Belief Scale Belief Sample Items Love finds a way If I love someone, I will find a way for us to be together regardless of the opposition to the relationship, physical distance between us or any other barrier. I expect that in my relationship, romantic love will really last; it won’t fade with time One and only true love There will be only one real love for me. I believe that to be truly in love is to be in love forever Idealization of partner The person I love will make a perfect romantic partner; for example, he/she will be completely accepting, loving and understanding. The relationship I will have with my true love will be nearly perfect. Love at First sight When I find my “true love” I will probably know it soon after we meet. I am likely to fall in love almost immediately if I meet the right person.
2. Found that males scored higher than females. Overall M>F. Significant sex differences were found for idealization of partner and love at first sight. 3. Thus contrary to sex stereotypes, males are more likely than females to hold romantic notions about love 4. Males after 30 are more likely to want marriage a. Because of less available women b. Decreased in social support c. And wants a significant other to talk toWhat strategies do females and males use to maintain romantic relationships? 1. Relationship maintenance is a subject of both academic and popular interest: a. Many books dedicated to them: i. Most targeted at women b. Canary and Stafford i. Identified five strategies that people use to maintain romantic relationships ii. Asked married couples to complete a daily diary in which they recorded how frequently they used strategy over a two-week period iii. Strategies used to maintain Romantic Relationships Strategy Sample Items Division of tasks I do my fair share of work we have to do. I share in the joint responsibilities that face us Positivity I try to build up my partner’s self- esteem, including giving him or her compliments and the like. I do not criticize my partner Assurance I stress my commitment to my partner. I show my love for my partner Utilization of network I show that I am willing to do things with my partner’s friend or family. I include our friends or family in our activities. Self-disclosure I encourage my partner to disclose thoughts and feelings to me. I like to have periodic talks about our relationship. 1. Rank ordered a. Both males and females use division of tasks> Positivity> assurance> utilization of network> self-disclosure iv. Found that: 1. The relative frequency with which the maintanence strategies are used is the same for females and males: Division of tasks, positivity, assurance, utilization of network, and self-disclosure 2. Females use more maintenance strategies than males: self-disclosure, utilization of network, division of tasks
3. Assurance by females is the strongest predictor of relationship commitment among males and females a. Females giving assurance predicts and elicits more commitment from the male b. Females who give assurance are themselves also more committed c. Canary and Wahba (2006) i. Found that : 1. Use of maintenance strategies by females is positively correlated with use of maintenance strategies by male partners; females’ perceptions of equity within the relationship; and levels of love, commitment and satisfaction in the relationship 2. Feminity is more strongly related to use of maintenance strategies than sexWhat factors determine relationship satisfaction for females and males? 1. Gender Roles: Research indicates that feminity is a stronger predictor of relationship of relationship satisfaction than masculinity among females than males a. Antill i. Assessed marital “happiness” as a function of spouses’ scores on the BEM Sex Role Inventory ii. Found that: 1. Spouses with similar scores on the BSRI (eg. AA, FF) reported greater marital happiness than spouses with “complementary” scores (MF, AU) on the BSRI 2. MF couples (i.e traditional couples with a masculine male and feminine female) reported less maritial happiness than most other pairings (exception: UM, UA, MU) 2. One Minute Paper a. What three factors do you think contributes to the satisfaction of a relationship? Do you think it affects women or men more? b. Responses: i. Equity and power 1. Both equally ii. Appreciation 1. Research shows that acts suggesting appreciation predicts satisfaction better than words. 2. Both equally iii. Similar attachment styles 1. Both equally iv. Safety, security 1. Both a. Mental safety for males more b. Physical safety for females more v. Comparable Interests 1. Having good time when together vi. Commitment/trust vii. Similar values 1. Beliefs/religion
viii. Conflict resolution 1. Males who demand increases satisfaction in females who is withdraw according to researchLecture 39 Monday, Jan 24, 2011Romantic Relationships: 1. What factors determine relationship statisfaction for females and males? (continued) 2. Do lesbian and gay romantic relationships differ from heterosexual romantic relationships?By the end of today’s class: 1. Identify factors that influence relationship satisfaction among males and females 2. Explain the greater “transmission of affect” from males to females in romantic relationships 3. Compare and contrast the characteristics of romantic relationships among heterosexuals and homosexualsWhat factors determine relationship satisfaction for females and males? (continued) 1. Gender roles: (continued) a. Assessed marital “happinesss” as a function of spouses’ scores on the Ben Sex Role Inventory b. Found that: i. Spouses with similar scores on the BSRI (eg. AA, FF) reported greater marital happiness than spouses with “complementary” scores (MF, AU) on the BSRI ii. MF couples (i.e., traditional couples with a masculine male and feminine female) reported less marital happinesss than most other pairings 1. Exceptions: UM, UA, MU a. These score lower because they have low level of feminity or masculinity b. Masculine individuals atleast have some feminine traits i. Feminine traits such as communication fosters a relationship iii. FF couples reported the highest levels of marital happiness 1. Since both exhibit traits that facilitates communication, caring, etc iv. Among females and males, feminity was positively correlated with marital happiness; masculinity was not correlated with marital happiness: 1. R between wife’s feminity and husband’s marital happinesss = .28 2. R between wife’s femininity and her own marital happiness = . 33 3. R between husband’s femininity and wife’s marital happiness =.31 4. R between husband’s feminity and his own marital happiness = .42 2. Equity a. Research indicates that equity influences relationship satisfaction among males and females: b. Males and females who feel that they are “over benefited” or “underbenefited” in their relationship report less satisfaction than those who feel that their relationship is equitable i. Overbenefited feels less satisfaction because they feel that there partner is being too passive, or compliant which is ignoring 3. Relationship standards: a. Research indicates that unfulfilled standards influence relationship satisfaction among females and males
b. Vangelisti and Daly i. Identified 7 categories of relationship standards among females and males ii. Although sex differences did not emerge with respect to the importance of these standards, females were more likely than males to report that their relationships did not fulfill the standards 1. Researchers believed that females hold higher expectations than males and thus are more likely to not get their needs fulfilled. 2. To see if this was the case, a second research was done in which examined gender differences in relational identity, integration, affective accessibility, trust, future orientation, role fulfillment, flexibility. 3. Relationship standards Relationship Standard Description Relational identity Spending time together, being known as a couple Integration Accepting each other’s weekness, recognizing there is conflict in relationships Affective accessibility Self-disclosure, expressing feelings Trust* Being faithful, committed, honest Future Orientation Sharing similar plans for the future Role fulfillment Each person fulfills his or her shoes Flexibility Adaptive to one another 4. *Only standard for which females reported greater importance than males 5. Importance and Fulfillment of Relationship Standards for Males and Females a. Women sees relationship standards as less/equally important as males b. Women report lower fulfillment than males; getting their standards met i. Result of males reporting higher fulfillment because males tend to see women as perfect in their eyes ii. Or males just not doing enough4. Males vs Female characteristics: a. Research indicates that the characteristics of males influence relationship satisfaction to a greater extent than the characteristics of females: i. Husbands’ communication skills are related to wives’ marital satisfaction; wive’s communication skills are not related to hushands’ marital satisfaction (Cordova, Gee, & Warren, 2005) ii. Husbands’ knowledge of sexual preferences is related to wives’ sexual satisfaction; wives’ knowledge of sexual preferences is not related to husbands’ sexual satisfaction (Purnine & Carey, 1997) iii. Husbands’ emotional states predict wives’ emotion stages; wives’ emotional states do not predict husbands’ emotional states 1. Females tend to be more responsive to emotional needs of others iv. Husbands’ depression scores are related to wives’ marital satisfaction; wives’ depression scores are not related to husbands; marital satisfaction
b. Overhead notes i. Explanations for “the transfer of affect” from males to females : 1. Females are more skilled than males in detecting other’s emotions, thus, are more responsibe to other’s emotions 2. Women are socialized to focus on others and adjust themselves in response to others. Males are socialized to focus on the self 5. Relationship conflict: a. Research indicates that conflict influences relationship satisfaction among females and males: i. Females and males identify similar sources of conflict in romantic relationships (e.g., lack of communication, deception; Helgeson, 1987) ii. For box sexes, the number of conflicts experienced and the success with which conflicts are resolved influence relationship satisfaction (Cramer, 2002)Do lesbian and gay romantic relationships differ from heterosexual romantic relationships? 1. Relatively little research has examined same-sex romantic relationships. 2. Recently, however, there has been increased interest in same-sex relationships. This interest has been fueled by lesbian and gay advocates and debates regarding same-sex marriage 3. With respect to the topics that we have considered, this research has shown: a. Characteristics desired in a mate: i. Lesbian and gay men value “internal” attributes (eg. Kind) more than “external” attributes (eg. Physically attractive; Pepalu et al., 1997) b. With respect to external attributes, gay men and heterosexual men are more likely than lesbians and heterosexuals women to emphasize physical appearance. (related to sex) Lesbians are less likely than heterosexual women to empathize resource potential. (related to gender) 4. Lesbians and gay men are attracted to individuals who possess attributes similar to their own 5. However, because individuals with same-sex preferences have smaller “pool” of potential mates, finding a mate with similar attributes presents a greater challenge.Lecture 40 Wed Jan 27, 2011Learning Goals:Romantic Relationships and Sexuality: 1. Do gay and lesbian romantic relationships differ from heterosexual romantic relationships? (continued) 2. What methods do researchers use to study human sexuality?By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Compare and constrast the characteristics of romantic relationships among heterosexuals and homosexuals. 2. Describe the stages of the sexual response cycle 3. Identify methodological concerns associated with research on human sexualityDo gay and Lesbian romantic relationships differ from heterosexual romantic relationships? (continued) b. Experience of love:
i. Lesbian couples report higher levels of intimacy than gay male couples and heterosexual couples 1. Relates to the Double Dose of female gender roles 2. Since lesbian is two girls, there are more intimacy ii. Gay and Lesbian couples report higher levels of autonomy than heterosexual couples 1. For gay males, it relates to double dose of male gender roles 2. Males seek to be independent 3. For females, it relates to greater equity in power c. Relationship maintenance strategies: i. Same-sex couples engage in more equitable division of tasks than heterosexual couples. This is particularly true of lesbian couples. 1. Females value equity more than males because females are exposed to lower status in society 2. Therefore in the relationship, they want to counter that ii. Same-sex couples receive less familial support with respect to their romantic relationships and, thus are less likely than heterosexual couples to utilize such networks to main relationships 1. Since gay couples receive less support from family, they seek more support from friends 2. Lack of family support contributes to higher rates of relation termination a. Other factors i. Marriage seems to help keep a relationship together ii. Even in same sex couples iii. Based on a study. d. Factors that determine relationship satisfaction: i. Same-sex couples report similar levels of relationship satisfaction as hetereosexual couples 1. Due to higher degree of similar characteristics or interests ii. Moreover, the factors associated with relationship satisfaction among heterosexuals are also associated with relationship satisfaction among lesbians and gay men (eg. Gender roles, equity, female vs female characteristics/male vs male characteristics, relationship conflict iii. Same-sex couples display more constructive conflict management than heterosexual couples: conflict initiators are more likely to use a positive tone, affection, and humour, and less likely to dominate their partner 1. Such as recognizing each other’s needs and compromising 2. Tied to higher equity in power, there is less stonewalling or passivity 3. Homosexuals are also more open to experienceWhat methods do researchers use to study human sexuality? o Observational methods are used relatively infrequently in the study of human sexuality due to the sensitivity of the subject matter o Brought individuals to observe engaging in sexual activities Such as masturbation o Hooked the participants up to a physiological response apparatus That measures blood flow to genital, muscle constriction o Notable exceptions:
1. Maters and Johnson a. Indetified four phases of the sexual response in humans: Excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution i. Excitement 1. Vagina starts constricting 2. Blood rushes to genitals 3. Erection 4. Clit enlargement 5. Increased heart rate ii. Plateau 1. Labia swells further 2. Constricts opening of vagina iii. Orgasm 1. Involuntary muscle constriction 2. Vas deferens expel semen 3. Hip moves 4. Rythmic contraction in females iv. Resolution 1. Muscle tension released 2. Clitoris swelling reduced 3. Penis shrinks v. Discovered that gay males don’t have a refractory phase b. Dispelled the “myth of the vaginal orgasm”; contemporary researchers continue to debate the occurrence of the vagina orgasm i. Whether the g-spot exists ii. Located 2/3 top of vagina iii. However, refuted. Females who removed this area due to surgery still received same degree of sexual pleasure iv. Clitoris responsible for orgasm 1. Females can have 5-20 c. Demonstrated the occurrence of multiple orgasms in females2. The bulk of contemporary research on human sexuality employs self-report data. Self-report data on sexuality are susceptible to several problems: a. Inaccurate recall of events b. Inaccurate estimation of frequencies c. Biased sample i. Master and Johnson test required participants to be able to have orgasms ii. Hence those who were not able to were not represented 1. Underrepresentation iii. Choice of participants 1. Were university students 2. Therefore were more open individuals willing to do the test 3. And only chose Europeans a. Underrepresented iv. Participants who were concerned with having their sexual activity analyzed most likely didn’t take part 1. Hence biased nature of samples
d. Socially desirable responding: Among students in grades 9-12, 17% of females and 21% of males responding dishonestly to questions regarding sexuality i. Females underrated themselves while males overrateLecture 41 Friday, Jan 29, 2011Learning Goals:Sexuality: 1. Are there sex differences in attitudes about sex? 2. Are there sex differences in the desire for sex?By the end of today’s class, you should be able to: 1. Discuss theoretical assertions regarding sex differences in sexuality 2. Identify sex similarities and differences in attitudes about sex and the desire for sex 3. Explain how age, passage of time, and gender equality influence sex differences in attitudes about sexAre there sex differences in attitudes about sex? 1. Sex stereotypes suggest that males are more sexually permissive than females o That males are more liberal 2. Similarly, psychological theories hypothesize that males are more sexually permissive than females: 3. Evolutionary theory o Permissiveness maximizes reproduction potential o Females less permissive because females are more concern with choosing a mate who could invest in the offspring 4. Psychoanalytic theory o Freud’s psychosexual model o Females less likely to resolve the phallic stage Results in females feeling inferior to males due to lack of penis Have ongoing penis envy Results in wanting to please superior, and to produce an offspring Often a son to compensate for lack of penis o Males more likely to pass through all five stages Trauma leads males to devalue women Results in different experiences 5. Neoanalytic theory o Chowdorow’s Indvividual Seperation Model Traumatic for males Disindentify with female Devalue of females Less desire for intimacy Females seek to find intimacy in males However can not obtain it from male partner because males don’t have same needs 6. Social Cognitive Theory o In society, male expose to more models of sexual permissive models
o Replicates behaviors o Females does not replicate behavior due to lower exposure7. Gender Schema Theory o Filters info Consistent information gets processed while inconsistent information not processed o Maintains that we develop schema that ties sexual permissiveness with the male roles and lack of permissiveness with females8. Recent meta-analyses have identified sex similarities and sex differences with respect to attitudes about sex o Peterson and Hyde 1. Examined data from 834 papers; approximately 1.5 million participants worldwide. 2. Overall, found few sex differences; sex differences that were found indicated that males have more permissive sexual attitudes than females: a. Acceptability of double standard: That it is ok for males to have sex but not females i. This sex behavior includes all types of sexual activities 1. Such as masturbation, oral sex, etc b. Homosexuality: Gay men i. Females are more tolerant of gay men having sex c. Axiety, fear, guilt
i. Females express greater guilt for having sex ii. Males express pride d. Intercouse-causual i. Males think it is ok to have sex more than females3. Also found that: a. Sex differences are larger for younger samples than older samples i. As people age, they become more androgynous in nature b. For some attitudes (eg. Sexual permissiveness, extramarital sex), sex differences have decreased across years; for other attitudes (eg. Double standard, attitudes toward homosexuals), sex differences have increased across years c. Measures of gender equality (eg. GEM) are negative ly correlated with sex differences in attitudes about sex i. Equality puts men and women on same par ii. Adherence to social status4. Wells and Twenge (2005) a. Examined data from 530 papers; 269, 649 participants b. Found that: i. Attidues regarding sex have become more permissive across time, with the most dramatic change occurring among females 1. Both females and males becoming more liberal in attitude 2. Guilt decreases ii. Guilt scores associated with sexuality have decreased across time for females, but not males
iii. iv. both sex develops more permissiveness 1. females increased much more than males a. female liberationAre there sex differences in the desire for sex? o Baumeister, Catanese, and Vohs, argue that males have a stronger sex drive than females. o On the basis of a review of the literature, they concluded that, in contrast to females, males have : o More permissive attitudes about sex, more thoughts about sex, more sexual fantasies, greater willingness to initiate sex, greater willingness to make sacrifices for sex, and less willingness to give up sex When asked male to record in diaries o Consitent with Baumeister et et conclusion, research has shown that: Wives desire intercourse less often than husbands Females report less enjoyment of erotica and pornography than males However when porn incorporated intimacy, this dif. Disappears Wives prefer to read book than engage in sexual activities with their husbands Females rate their sexual urges as less strong than males Females seek out fewer extramarital partners than males Males (4.5 per day) report more frequent sexual urges than females (2 per day) More males (50%) than females(18%) report thinking about sex every day More males (83%) than females(63%) describe sex as being important to them Females initiate sex less often and refuse sex more often males
Females are more likely than males to cite lack of interest and enjoyment as a reason for not having sex Frequency of sexual activities is highest in gay male couples, intermediate in heterosexual couples, and lowest in lesbian couples Neverthelesss, the vast majority of females (91%) report that they enjoy sex Tied to biases in these testsLecture 42 Monday, Jan 31Learning Goals-Sexuality: 1. Are there sex differences in the desire for sex? (continued) 2. Are there sex differences in sexual behavior?By the end of today’s class you, you should be able to: 1. Review explanations for sex differences in desire for sex 2. Identify sex similarities and differences in sexual behavior 3. Explain how age and gender equality influence sex differences in sexual behavior 4. Review evidence and explanations for “female erotic plasticity”Are there sex differences in the desire for sex? (Continued) 1. A number of explanations have been offered to account for the lower levels of sexual desire reported by females than males: a. Self-report biases i. Females under-report number ii. Males over-report number 1. To comply to gender role expectations b. Excessive emphasis on sexual arousal vs intimacy in research i. The test did not include intimacy which females viewed as important to sex 1. If test tapped in that, we should expect to see equal sexual desires from both sexes c. Biological differences between the sexes (hormones, visual anatomical signs of arousal) i. Hormones: Lower level of testosterone found in females, but the testosterone acts more strongly in eliciting sexual arousal. ii. Physical anatomy: It’s easier to tell when males are aroused, but not females, hence females may under report. Females, when aroused lubricate, when that is reported- if tell females to pay attention to it, they get more aroused. d. Gender effects (shame, guilt, and embarrassment stemming from the double standard; body esteem; childcare, unwanted pregnancy; fear associated with sexual violence). i. Females indentify strongly with the feelings of guilt, shame or embarrassment and negative consequences for them ii. Body esteem: females are more self-conscious of their body hence may not get aroused as easily 1. Females who feel better about their body wants sex more 2. Swimsuit experiment iii. Unwanted pregnancy: females don’t want to get pregnant iv. Sexual violence; potential that males might rape themAre there sex differences in sexual behavior?
2. As was the case with attitudes about sex, recent meta-anaylysis have identified sex similarities and sex differences with respect to sexual behavior.3. Perterson and Hyde (2010) a. Overall, found few sex differences; sex differences were found indicated that males engage in more sexual activity than females: i. ii. Red indicates bigger d value b. sex differences are larger for younger samples than older samples c. Measures of gender equality (eg. GEM) are negatively correlated with sex differences in sexual behavior4. Wells and Twenge a. Found that: i. Age of first intercourse has decreased across time, with the most dramatic change occurring among females ii. The percent of females who are sexually active has increased across time
iii. 1. males decreased a little. 2. 1985-1989: age goes back up due to AIDS pandemic 3. Criticism: Study does not include people who has not had sex
iv. 1. Females increased in sexual activity a. Could be influenced by gender equality b. And women movement i. Sexuality liberation5. Consistent with research findings that show that female sexuality has changed more across time than male sexuality, some theorists argue that females are higher in “erotic plasticity” than males. a. Overhead i. Erotic plasticity 1. Malleability of sexual behavior extents to which one’s sexual behavior is influenced by cultural, social, and situational factors a. Females’ sexuality are more likely to be influenced by society b. Males (tends to be innate/biological) i. Criticism: should males be exposed to the same societal force that females experience, should we expect to see a change in their sexual attitudes as well. 2. Research findings that support the view that females are higher in erotic plasticity than males: a. Research has shown that sociocultural factors have a greater effect on female sexuality than male sexuality: i. The women’s movement influenced female sexual behavior more than male sexual behavior
ii. Change in percent of males who reported 5+ sexual partners by age 30: 11% (from 38% to 49%) iii. Change in percent of females who reported 5+ sexual partners by age 30: 20% (from 2% to 22%) b. There is greater cross-cultural variation in the sexual behaviors of females than males c. Females sexual behavior varies more than male sexual behavior as a function of education i. Females who enroll in human sexuality change more than males ii. Females who have education are less likely to have sex earlier in life than males 1. Not the same for males; education does not impact them d. Peer group behavior is more strongly linked to the sexual behavior of females than males i. Females who friend have sex are more likely to do so ii. Females will alter sexual behaviors if peers approve or disapprove iii. Males are not concern with approval e. Daughter’s sexual attitudes and behaviors are more closely related than sons to parental attitudes about sex3. Research has shown that females exhibit greater intra-individual variation in sexuality across time than males a. Females report increases in masturbation across the lifespan; males report no change in masturbation across the lifespan b. More females than males describe themselves as bisexual c. Among couples who choose to “swing” females adapt more quickly than males i. Females more likely to touch the other female ii. Male not so. d. Lesbians (72%) are more likely than gay males to have had a “meaningful heterosexual relationship” (45%) e. In prisons, more females (50%) than males(30%) engage in consensual same-sex sexual activity4. Explanations for higher erotic plasticity among females than males a. Greater male power: requires that females accommodate and adapt to male desires b. The female sexual script: Associated with “refusual to acceptance,” females are the “gatekeepers” of relationships i. ? c. Differential sex drive: females have a milder and therefore, more malleable sex drive i. Less sex drive means sex is less important to them ii. Hence they don’t care d. Criticism: i. Should males be exposed to the same cultural forces, should we expect similar erotic plasticity in them
1. Over the decades, females were more tightly restricted, should we reverse the patterns, we should see a similar trend in malesLecture 43 Wed, Feb 2, 2011Learning Goals: Sexuality and Education: 1. Are there sex differences in sexual satisfaction? 2. Do males and females perform similarly in school?By the end of today’s classs, you should be able to: 1. Identify sex similarities and differences in sexual satisfaction. 2. Explain how gender equality, age, marital status, and “quality of life” are related to sexual satisfaction 3. Describe contemporary trends in educational attainment for the sexesAre there sex differences in sexual satisfaction? 4. Research suggests small sex differences in sexual satisfaction: a. Measured emotional and physical satisfaction b. Peterson and Hyde’s (2010) meta-analysis: d=.17 c. Laumann et al. (2006) found that sexual satisfaction is higher in cultures with gender- equal regimes than “male-centered” regimes d.
e. f. In both male-dominated regimes, both sexes report lower satisfaction i. Consistent with trends where equity is important 1. Just like friendship, friendship satisfaction are greater when both partners are contributing equally5. More females (43%) than males (31%) report experiencing sexual dysfunction6. Among the most common sexual dysfunctions are: a. Females: Low sexual desire (22%); sexual arousal problems (14%); sexual pain (7%); orgasmic disorder (10-25%) b. Males: low sexual desire (5%); premature ejaculation (21%); erectile dysfunction (5%). i. These aspects were measured according to the DSM for sexual dysfunction ii. Sexual pain- involuntary contraction during penetration, anxiety iii. Erectile dysfunction-not being able to get an erection. iv. Orgasmic disorder-not being able to achieve satisfaction7. Laumann et al. (1999) noted the following correlates of sexual dysfunction: a. Age: For females, prevalence decreases with age; for males, prevalence increases with age i. Females more likely to lubricate ii. Males less likely to erect b. Marital status: Prevalence is higher among unmarried individuals (eg. Never married, divorced, widowed) than married individuals i. Could be related to report biases c. Social status: prevalence is higher among individuals of relatively low socioeconomic status i. Related to lack of access to health care
ii. Less money to be healthy d. “quality of life”: individuals with sexual dysfunction report lower levels of physical satisfaction report lower levels of physical satisfaction, emotional satisfaction, and general happiness than individuals without sexual dysfunction. i. The quality of life of females is more strongly affected by sexual dysfunction than quality of life of males ii. Males who experience premature ejaculation do not report reduced quality of life 1. They still reach orgasmsEducation: Do males and females perform similarly in school? 1. Prior to the 1980’s, males outperformed females in school. Today, however, females outperform males in school. 2. This conclusion is evidenced by several lines of evidence: 3. 4. GPA of both sexes rises from 1990-2005 with females outperforming males
5.6. Fewer females are dropping out of school than males. However, the rates are decreasing. a. Males report dropping out for two reasons i. School not meeting their needs ii. Wanting to start work b. Females report dropping out for 1 main reason i. Getting pregnant and having to take care of child
7.8. More females than males are enrolling in university9. In terms of undergraduate degrees granted, more females are getting it than males with females increasing in number.10. In terms of graduate degrees in Canada, more females than males earn master’s degres; more males than females earn doctorate degrees. Overall, more females earn graduate degree (Master’s and doctorate combined) than males. a. Males used to earn graduate degrees more than females back in 1995
11.12. By 2001, more females than male are starting work with a degree than males. a. More females are enrolling in work force with a degree
13.14. Enrollment in the work force is not just dependent on sex, but also on ethnicity a. White > African > Hispanic15. Socioeconomic status and ethnicity are more important predictors of educational attainment than sex a. Affected by school system and prejudice b. Low SES can not afford education relative to high SES
16.17. Consistent with gender, females outnumber males in education, fine and appied arts, humanities , health professions (medicine), and food sciences.18. Although females outperform males in school, males perform similarly to females on standardized tests: a. Programs for International Student Assessment Test, 2006, 15 years olds b. Reading: F> M (33 points) c. Science: M= F (general; “using scientific evidence”); M > F (“explaining phenomena scientifically,” 17 points); F>M (identifying scientific issues,” 14 points) d. Math: M> F (14 points) i. Highlights small differences ii. The test was out of a score of 500 e. Another study: National Assessment of Education Progress, 2008, 17-years-olds (US Department of education, 2009) i. Readings: F>M (11 points) ii. Math: M>F (6 points) 1. Again, small differences 2. The test was out of 500 f. The findings that females outperform males in school have led to a number of writers to argue that there is a “boy crisis” in the school system. g. In response to the argument, other writers have argued that male performance has not decreased over the years; rather, female performance has increased more dramatically than male performance i. “The real story is not bad news about boys doing worst; it’s good news about girls doing better” (mead )