Juvenile offender

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Juvenile offender

  1. 1. Juvenile
Offenders
 Chapter
12

  2. 2. Outline
1.  History
2.  Assessment
of
Young
Offenders
3.  Theories
of
An@social
Behaviour
4.  Risk
and
Protec@ve
Factors
5.  Preven@on
and
Treatment
6.  Video

  3. 3. 1.
History
 Juvenile
 Young
 Youth
 Delinquents
 Offenders
 Criminal
Legal
 Act
 Act
 Jus@ce
Act
 Act
Year
 1908
 1984
 2003

  4. 4. 1.
Juvenile
Delinquents
Act
•  Youth
between
7
and
16
•  Separate
court
system
•  Sentencing
op@ons
increased
•  Parents
encouraged
to
par@cipate
•  Problems?

  5. 5. 1.
Young
Offenders
Act
•  Accountability
for
ac@ons
•  Protec@on
of
the
public
•  Legal
rights
•  Minimum
age
for
criminal
offence
is
12
•  Problems?

  6. 6. 1.
Youth
Criminal
Jus@ce
Act
•  Less
serious
crime
out
of
court
•  Extrajudicial
measures
increase
•  Preven@on
and
reintegra@on

•  No
transfers
•  Vic@m
needs
recognized

  7. 7. 1.
Youth
Criminal
Jus@ce
Act
Objec@ves
1.  Preven@on
2.  Encourage
taking
responsibility
for
ac@ons
3.  Improve
rehabilita@on
and
reintegra@on

  8. 8. 1.
Youth
crime
rates
 All
Criminal
Code
Viola.ons

 (excluding
traffic)
180000
175000
170000
165000
160000
 2007
 2008

  9. 9. 1.
Youth
crime
rates
 Violent

 Non‐violent

52,000
 130,000
51,000
 125,000
50,000
 120,000
49,000
 115,000
48,000
47,000
 110,000
 2007
 2008
 2007
 2008

  10. 10. 1.
Youth
crime
rates
 Traffic
Viola.ons

 Federal
Statute
480
 27,900
 27,600
460
 27,300
440
 27,000
420
 26,700
400
 26,400
 2007
 2008
 2007
 2008

  11. 11. 1.
Youth
crime
rates
and
the
YCJA
 Has
the
YCJA
been
effec@ve?


  12. 12. 2.
Assessment
of
Young
Offenders

•  Issue
of
consent
 •  Consent
 •  Assent

  13. 13. 2.
Behavioural
Problems
•  Two
Categories…
 Internalizing
 Externalizing

  14. 14. 2.
Internalizing
problems
•  Emo@onal
problem
•  E.g.,
Anxiety,
Depression,
Obsessions
•  Easier
to
treat
than
externalizing
problems
•  More
typically
displayed
by
females

  15. 15. 2.
Externalizing
problems
•  Behaviour
problem
•  E.g.,
Figh@ng,
Bullying,
Lying
•  More
difficult
to
treat
and
persistent
than
 internalizing
•  Symptoms
peak
in
teens
•  More
common
in
males
•  Mul@ple
informants

  16. 16. 2.
Common
Diagnoses
in
Young
 Offenders
•  A`en@on
Deficit
Hyperac@vity
Disorder
(ADHD)
•  Opposi@onal
Defiant
Disorder
(ODD)
•  Conduct
Disorder
(CD)

  17. 17. 2.
ADHD
•  Ina`en@on
features
 •  Lack
of
a`en@on
to
detail,
failure
to
listen,
loses
 items,
forgedul…
•  Hyperac@vity
features
 •  Fidgets,
leaves
seat,
talks
excessively…
•  Impulsivity
features
 •  Difficulty
wai@ng,
interrupts,
blurts
out
responses

  18. 18. 2.
ODD
•  Loses
temper
•  Argues
with
adults
•  Deliberately
annoys
others
•  Angry
and
resendul
•  Vindic@ve

  19. 19. 2.
Rates
of
Behaviour
Disorders
 5
–
15%
have
 severe
behaviour
 problems

  20. 20. 2.
Rates
of
Behaviour
Disorders
 5‐15%
 ODD
 ADHD
 20‐50%
 or
 CD

  21. 21. 2.
Rates
of
Behaviour
Disorders
 5‐15%
 40%
will
 develop
 Children
 CD
 with
ODD

  22. 22. 2.
Rates
of
Behaviour
Disorders
 5‐15%
 50%

 Children
 develop
 with
CD
 AP
as
 adults

  23. 23. 2.
Trajectories
of
Youth
Offenders
•  Cri@cal
factor
=
age
of
onset
 3‐5%
 ~25%

 childhood
 no
onset
 onset
 70%
adolescent
 onset

  24. 24. 2.
Child
onset
trajectory
•  More
serious
and
persistent
•  Many
other
difficul@es

 •  ADHA,
learning
disabili@es,
academic
trouble
•  Most
do
not
become
offenders

  25. 25. 2.
Adolescent
onset
trajectory
•  Many
commit
social
transgressions
•  Most
desist
commijng
an@social
acts
in
 adulthood
 •  More
so
than
those
with
childhood
onset

  26. 26. 2.
Brame,
Nagin
&
Tremblay
(2001)
•  Followed
boys
from
kindergarten
to
age
20
•  Measured
levels
of
aggression
•  Categorized
boys
as
low,
medium
and
high
levels
 of
aggression
(based
on
ini@al
measurement)

  27. 27. 2.
Brame,
Nagin
&
Tremblay
(2001)
25
20
15
 Low
10
 Medium
 High
 5
 0
 4
 8
 12
 16
 20

  28. 28. 3.
Biological
–
Neurological
•  Frontal
lobe
 •  Key
role
in
planning
and
inhibi@ng
behaviour
 •  Lower
ac@va@on
in
frontal
lobe
 •  Increased
likelihood
of
an@social
acts

  29. 29. 3.
Biological
‐
Physiological

•  Lower
heart
rate

  30. 30. 3.
Biological
‐
Gene@c
•  Paternal
an@social
behaviour
related
to
 offspring
an@social
behaviour
•  Twin
studies

  31. 31. 3.
Cogni@ve
•  A`en@on
in
social
interac@ons
 1.  A`ending
to
social
cues
 2.  Use
cues/thoughts
about
cues
to
choose
 behaviour
 –  Process
fewer
cues
(environment)
 –  Misa`ribute
hos@le
intent
(thoughts)
 –  Produce
fewer
more
aggressive
solu@ons
 (thoughts/behaviour
choices)
 –  Cogni@ve
deficits

  32. 32. 3.
Cogni@ve
•  Reac@ve
and
Proac@ve
aggression
 •  Reac@ve:
response
to
perceived
threat
 •  cogni@ve
deficiency
in
processing/a`ending
to
social
 cues
 •  Proac@ve:
directed
at
achieving
a
goal
 •  
deficiency
in
genera@ng
alterna@ve
solu@ons
•  Reac@ve
tend
to
have
earlier
onset

  33. 33. 3.
Social
•  Social
Learning
Theory
 •  Learn
behaviour
from
others
 •  Imitate
 •  An@social
children
have
an@social
examples

  34. 34. 4.
Individual
Risk
Factors
•  Individual
 •  Gene@c/biological
(e.g.,
ADHD)
 •  Uterine
environment
(e.g.,
fetal
alcohol
syndrome)
 •  Temperament

  35. 35. 4.
Familial
Risk
Factors
•  Familial
 •  Neglect
 •  Family
conflict
 •  Paren@ng
style
 •  Child
abuse

  36. 36. 4.
School
and
Social
Risk
Factors
•  School
and
Social
 •  Lower
IQ
 •  Aggressive
play
with
peers
 •  Deviant
peers

  37. 37. 4.
Protec@ve
Factors
•  Similar
children
have
different
outcomes
 •  Resilience
•  Protec@ve
factors…
 1.  Change
the
level
of
risk
associated
with
a
risk
 factor
 2.  Change
the
nega@ve
chain
reac@on
 3.  Help
develop
and
maintain
self‐esteem
 4.  Provide
opportuni@es

  38. 38. 4.
Individual
Protec@ve
Factors
•  Individual
 •  Resilient
temperament

  39. 39. 4.
Familial
Protec@ve
Factors
•  Familial
 •  Posi@ve
and
suppor@ve
environment
 •  Good
parent‐child
rela@onship

  40. 40. 4.
School
and
Social
Protec@ve
Factors
•  School
and
Social
 •  Associa@ng
with
prosocial
children

  41. 41. 5.
Preven@on
and
Treatment
 • 
Prior
to
violence
 • 
Decrease
likelihood
of
future
violence
Primary
 • 
e.g.,
family‐oriented,
school
oriented,
 community
wide
 • 
Directed
at
young
offenders

 • 
Reduce
frequency
of
violence
Secondary
 • 
e.g.,
diversion
programs
 • 
For
youth
who
have
gone
through
formal
 court
proceedings
Ter@ary
 • 
Prevent
violence
from
reoccurring
 • 
e.g.,
in‐pa@ent
treatment


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