Pulling-up

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Example of a psychoeducational group course on Managing Negativity.

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Pulling-up

  1. 1. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ Pulling Up: Managing negatvitiy in Prison What “Pulling Up” is About This manual “Pulling Up: Managing Negativity in Prison” outlines a group psychoeducation approach to teach inmates with a serious mental illnessskills that will help them manage their prison experience.Negativity can come in many forms and has many expressions in prison. Almost all inmatesentering prison have a long-term history of experiencing negative messages. Their arrest,conviction and sentencing also become negative experiences. Once in prison the “pecking order”in the prison environment provides the individual with a serious mental illness numerous negativemessages. Individuals frequently manifest this negativity by either withdrawing into their cells orbecoming hostile and management problems.This is an eight-session group psychoeducation program for inmates receiving mental healthservices. The intent of the program is to help inmates examine how their negativity can bedebilitating and to help them develop skills that will enable them to more effectively manage theirnegative emotions, thoughts and behaviors.The overall theme of the program supports the strategy of helping inmates successfully adjust totheir prison environment rather than having them persists that the environment should adjust tothem. This re-framing of their orientation to prison is no simple tasks and this psychoeducationprogram needs to be presented in concert with at least individual, if not individual and grouppsychotherapy. There are three assumptions that are the foundation to and interwoven in thismanual.  A series of eight group psychoeducation sessions, using a variety of learning strategies, with a core group of individuals is enough time to develop new skills and creative a positive learning environment. The skills demonstrated in this manual are important and will be helpful for individuals. And, in learning new skills they are beginning to mobilize their strengths and taking positive action. The sessions are also structured to create a positive learning experience. This positive learning experience can also serve as an example that not all aspects of an individual’s life in prison need to be negative.  No single intervention in itself is going to work for all individuals. This group psychoeducation program will be effective when used in context with other mental health treatment interventions. In fact, many clinicians state that if there is no opportunity for patients to talk about more personal or pressing issues they will subvert the psychoeducation session to address their individual needs. Negativity is a consequence of prison not a mental health condition. This program can help individuals manage that negativity. However, once that negativity is minimized the individual will still require mental health treatment.  The focus for change needs to be on the person not the system. Individual inmates are not going to change the prison system. If an inmate is going to learn how to better manage the negativity in prison, is he or she that need to change, not the prison system. 1
  2. 2. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________What is Meant by A Group Psychoeducation Approach Group psychoeducation is an evidence based Psychoeducation has been found to be treatment intervention. The efficacy of group effective in helping individuals psychoeducation has been recognized by the understand their mental illness…and in Department of Health and Human Services and the teaching of coping skills that helps specifically SAMSHA. decrease the severity of psychiatric symptoms. This manual is meant to be a “semi-structured” group Muesser, et al “Illness Management psychoeducation program. Each of the sessions has a and Recovery: A Review of the clear set of goals and learning activities. The goals Research” Focus, Jan 2004; 2: 34 - 47. and learning activities are reinforced in assignments the participants are to complete between sessions.The sessions are to be conducted much more like a class than a traditional group session.Members of the group psychoeducation program are referred to more as participants than groupmembers. The person conducting the sessions is referred to as a facilitator not a group leader orgroup therapist.The sessions are developed to be sequential and cumulative. Concepts and skills learned inSessions 1 and 2 are helpful when learning the concepts and skills presented in Sessions 4 and 5.The sessions are also cumulative and will help develop a positive learning experience. Thebeginning sessions are general discussions about negativity and stressors in prison. The sessionsin the middle focus on how individuals manage negativity and helping them identify strengths theyhave to help them manage their prison experience. The sessions at the end of the program teachnew skills to re-evaluate the stressors that confront them and develop new ways of responding tothose situations.While there is a specific structure and sequentially developed set of exercises included in thismanual, it is also recognized that each class will be different. Different facilitators may haveadditional skills and examples of exercises they want to include in their programs. And on occasionthere may be such a pressing issue in the overall prison environment that those issues will “spillover” into the group psychoeducation session. Skilled clinicians conducting these sessions needto incorporate their understanding of the participants needs into the overall delivery of the program.When the clinicians have “more to bring to the table” in terms of new concepts and skills for theparticipants the clinicians should assimilate the learning of those new skills and concepts into thedelivery of the program.How the What you will review in the sessions: Session1 “Don’t be surprised when In this beginning session participants review what you pray for rain” the program has to offer and examine how negativity affects individuals physically, emotionally and behaviorally. Session 2 “Yin and Yang” People can often get trapped at looking at the negative aspects of many situations. This session helps individuals explore how to look at situations from different perspectives. 2
  3. 3. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ Session 3 “Understanding Stress” Stress plays a large role in wearing individuals down and experiencing negative thoughts. This session helps understand how stress impacts on people in different ways. Session 4 “The Weight” It is not easy to be overcome many negative aspects of prison. In this session individuals identify resources that can help minimize the impact negativity has on them. Session 5 “The Prisoner in the Stone” This session focuses on helping identify the positive characteristics that define the cores strengths that will help individuals survive prison. Session 6 A “Decision Balance In this session participants learn how individuals can Worksheet” make better decisions by more closely examining the positive and negative consequences to their decisions. Session 7 “The Fly in the Ointment” At times no matter how much people try, negative situations and statements can still confront them. This session will provide a new skill to help minimize the impact of negative situations. Session 8 “Do you see what I see?” In this final session group participants take inventory of the skills and resources they have and need to help manage prison life. 3
  4. 4. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ PULLING UP- OVERCOMING NEGATIVITY IN PRISON EXERCISE: DON’T BE SURPRISED WHEN YOU PRAY FOR RAIN INTRODUCTION: Negativity can come in many forms and has many expressions in prison. This introductory exercise gives participants a chance begin thinking about how negativity can impact on people and what are some of the ways they can minimize negativity.GOALS- During this session individuals will have the opportunity to:1] Compare the eight session “Pulling UP” workshop goals with their individual needs.2] Define negativity and discuss how it can impact on the physical, social and emotional aspect ofa person’s life.3] Evaluate their potential to become “locked into” negative thinking styles.LIST OF MATERIALS: 1. “Pulling Up” Workshop Overview. 2. Individually cut “When it Rains” quotations. 3. The Impacts of Negativity Worksheet. 4. Negativity Checklist.SPECIAL NOTES FOR THE FACILITATOR: The intent of this exercise is to help participants begin to examine how negativity can impact on individuals. This session contains:  A brief “ice breaker”  A general discussion about negativity  A self-examination focusing on the extent to which negativity impacts on the client.StepsOverview to Pulling-Up Workshop: Handout the “Pulling Up” Workshop Overview and provide abrief overview of the “Pulling Up” Workshop goals and individual sessions. Reinforce that while thetopic of negativity can be depressing the intent of this session is to look at it in a more general,objective sense. The in the program participants will learn “psychological tools’ that will help themnot just in prison but also in life outside of prison.2] Icebreaker- “When it Rains” – There are 15 phrases on the “When it Rains” quotation sheets.Have each of the phrases cut on individual strips of paper. Pass out different strips, with thequotations, to the group members. Have members work in dyads.  Give each member a minute to read and think about the quotation on his strip of paper.  Ask the participants to talk for 2-3 minutes with their dyad partner about the quotation they received and what they think it means. 4
  5. 5. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________  Go “round robin style” around the room asking each of the dyads to read their quotations and state what it means to them.  Let the other group members know they can also respond with their interpretation to the quote.3] Keeping members in dyads, facilitate a brief discussion of what negativity is. Use some of thequestions below to focus the discussion.  How do different people in the room define negativity?  What are the differences between responding negatively to a specific situation and being negative in general?  What are some of the characteristics of negativity?  Why might it be easier to be negative all the time?  What are some of the costs of being negative all the time?4] Following the brief discussion on “What is Negativity” hand out the Impacts of NegativityWorksheet. Let the members know you are interested in seeing who can identify the most impactsof negativity on a person. A. Have the dyads work on completing the worksheet B. For each of the 3 categories, ask dyads which group identified the most impacts of negativity on:  A person’s health  A person’s interactions with others  A person’s emotional well-being As the dyads with the most responses report out see if other dyads had additional impacts that had not been listed by the reporting dyad.5] Take time to reinforce the participants’ involvement in the exercises. Let them know that talkingabout negativity is sometimes like dealing with that “500-pound” gorilla in the middle of the room.6] Let participants know this is the final exercise of this session. It is a quick checklist designed tohelp theme estimate the extent to which negative thinking can impact on them. A. Hand out the Negativity Checklist B. Give participants 15 minutes to respond to the questions and score the checklist. C. Reinforce that participants will be asked to talk about the general impressions of the checklist, but the decision to talk about their specific score or response to specific items it their decision. D. Ask participants if any of them were surprised by their ratings on the sheet.  Ask which items they though most represent them  Ask which items they could not relate to at all or did not apply to themSummarize Session:  Review some of the ways the group members described negativity  Review the ways negativity can impact on people  Ask participants to keep their Negativity checklists so they can review the checklist at the end of this workshop. 5
  6. 6. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________  Briefly preview that in Session 2 participants will what will be helps exploring how to look at situations from different perspectives. And maybe talking about some ways to minimize the affects of negative messages they may receive.  Ask for questions and thank people for coming and participating. 6
  7. 7. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ Pulling Up- Maintaining a positive attitude in prison is a large challenge. Arrest and conviction, separation from family and friends, confinement to prison all are difficult obstacles to cope with. This program cannot change your arrest history, separation or confinement conditions. However Pulling-Up can give you some tools that will help you better manage some of the obstacles that prison life presents.Pulling-up is an eight-session psychoeducation program to help inmates receiving mental healthservices. The program examines ways of minimizing negative thoughts, feelings and emotions.The program also teaches some life-skills on how to minimize the impacts of negative situations onour day-to-day functioning.What you will review in the sessions: Session 1 “Don’t be surprised In this beginning session we review what the program when you pray for rain” has to offer and examine how negativity affects us physically, emotionally and behaviorally. Session 2 “Yin and Yang” We can often get trapped at looking at the negative aspects of many situations. This session helps explore how to look at situations from different perspectives. Session 3 “Understanding Stress” Stress plays a large role in wearing us down and experiencing negative thoughts. This session will help better understand how stress impacts on us. Session 4 “The Weight” It is not easy to be overcome many negative aspects of prison. In this session we will try to identify some resources that can help minimize negativity. Session 5 “The Prisoner in the This session will focus on helping identify the positive Stone” characteristics that define who we are and the cores strengths that will help survive prison. Session 6 A “Decision Balance In this session we will study how individuals can make Worksheet” better decisions by more closely examining the positive and negative consequences to their decisions. Session 7 “The Fly in the At times no matter how much we try, negative situations Ointment” and statements can still confront us. This session will provide some “psychological tools” to help minimize the impact of negative situations. Session 8 “Do you see what I In this final session we will work with other group see?” participants to take inventory of the skills and resources we have and need to help manage prison life. 7
  8. 8. Managing Negativity in Prison Psychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry ______________________________________________________________________________ WHEN IT RAINS QUOTATIONS SHEET Listed below are a series of quotations that are often used when talking about negativity. Hand out the individual quotations to group members. Give participants a minute to think about the quotation and what it means to them individually. Ask the group members who wants to read their quotation and discuss it’s meaning first. Let other members know they can also add to the interpretations of the quotations that have been read.Victory has a hundred fathers but defeat is an orphan. Galeazzo CianoIf you pray for rain, don’t be surprised if you are struck by lightening. Damien CannonA skeptic is a person, who when he sees the handwriting on the wall, claims itis a forgery. Morris BenderWhat causes most people to fail is that after one failure, the stop trying. Frank BurfordTo expect defeat is nine-tenths of defeat itself. Francis CrawfordUse the losses and failures of the past as a reason for action, not inaction. Charles GivensNo man ever became great or good except through many and great mistakes. William GladstoneNotice the difference between a man who says I have failed three times andthe one who says I am a failure. S. I. HayakawaThe man who tries something and fails is better off than the one who triesnothing and succeeds. Lloyd JonesIt is better to talk about the 500-pound gorilla in the room than to try to ignoreit. UnknownMost people would rather be certain theyre miserable, than risk being happy. Robert Anthony 8
  9. 9. Managing Negativity in Prison Psychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry ______________________________________________________________________________A fault is sooner found than mended. Ulpian FulwellRegret is an appalling waste of energy; you cant build on it; its only good forwallowing in. Katherine MansfieldOur greatest glory is not in ever falling, but in rising every time we fall. ConfuciusGive some people a piece of pie and the want to know where the ice creamis. My grandmother 9
  10. 10. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________THE IMPACTS OF NEGATIVITY WORKSHEET Following the brief discussion on “What is Negativity” hand out the Impacts of Negativity Worksheet. Let the members know you are interested in seeing who can identify the most impacts of negativity on a person. C. Give members 5 minutes to complete the worksheet D. Ask members who identified the most impacts of negativity on:  A persons health  A persons interactions with others  A persons emotional well-being Ways negativity can impact on a person’s health:Ways negativity can impact on a person’s interactions with others:Ways negativity can impact on a person’s interaction’s with others: 10
  11. 11. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________NEGATIVITY CHECKLIST We all use score sheets and checklists to help us understand how we are doing. Being able to objectively examine how we are doing is essential in improving our performance. This principle holds true for great athletes as well as anyone who is trying to improve. This section of the exercise gives participants an opportunity to evaluate for themselves how negative thinking can impact on their well being. It is a “self-report”, “self scoring” checklist. By self-report we mean that you rate the items for yourself. By self-scoring we mean you can score the inventory yourself. Please take 15 minutes to complete the checklist. You may be asked to discuss your overall impression of the inventory,but the decision to talk about your specific score or response to the items is totally your decision.Please use the scale below to rate your responses on the Negativity Checklist survey. 1 2 3 4 5Never applies to Rarely applies to Sometimes this This often This frequently me me happens happens to me happens to me Score Question 1 2 3 4 5Think of how bad others have treated me and get bitter, angryNot willing to look at new ideas or accept suggestions for changeSpend much of the day thinking about what is wrong with my lifeWhen I meet someone new try to figure what they want from meThink I can not ever get things rightSay what “I am not” rather than what “I can be”Would rather be myself, alone, than with othersThink critically about myselfSay “yes, but” when people suggest new ideasDo not like to think about the future ScoreScoring:10-15 Very optimistic16-25 A little negative but manageable26-40 Negativity can become problematic and is generalized41+ Negativity is difficult, but you are responding honestly 11
  12. 12. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ PULLING UP- OVERCOMING NEGATIVITY IN PRISON SESSION 2: YIN AND YANG INTRODUCTION: Negativity can come in many forms and has many expressions in prison. This introductory exercise gives participants a chance to examine the ways individuals either experience negativity and attempt to manage it. The key to the exercise is that individuals gradually begin to accept that there are different ways to look at any one situation. The Yin and Yang symbol and underlying principles ofthat symbol are the foundation for this exercise. This introductory session also help provide anoverview of some of the concepts that are more deeply examined in the following sessions of thisprogram.GOALS- During this session individuals will have the opportunity to: 1. Compare and contrast negative thoughts and attitudes with more positive thoughts and attitudes. 2. Discuss how individuals can look at any one event and see both the positive and negative aspects of that event.LIST OF MATERIALS: 5. Individually cut, ‘Yin and Yang’ cards. For this specific exercise it is recommended to have 4, 6 or 8 cards per individual or per small work group. More variations and options for use of the cards with various size groups are described at the end of this section.i 6. Score sheet of flip chart for keeping score.SPECIAL NOTES FOR THE FACILITATOR: The intent of this exercise is for participants to examine more positive approaches to their negative beliefs and attitudes. To the extent that participants discuss and examine how there are more positive ways of looking at a situation the exercise is successful. When doing the exercise if a participant matches a card with another card that is not necessarily identified as the correct response, but he can justify his answer, the participant has succeeded and met the intent of the exercise. So give the participant the points.BEFORE STARTING THE EXERCISEMake sure you have the correct number of “matching pairs’ of responses for the exercise. 12
  13. 13. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________Overview to Session 2:Review what was covered in session 1.  Briefly discuss some of the impacts of stress that participants identified.  Discuss participants general responses to the Negativity ChecklistHighlight what will be covered in this session.  Looking at some ways to see both the positive and negative ways of thinking about an event.Steps 1. Up to 8 participants can individually play or you can participants break into 4-6 subgroups. [You can vary the number of participants but need to pre-sort cards so there will be matching sets and they can be evenly distributed among the participants.] 2. Deal 6 cards to each of the individuals [if using small groups then 6 to the group] from the “Yin and Yang Deck” to the participants. 3. Describe the components of the deck to the participants. • They are four suits of cards in the deck; a) The Yin [black symbols] in a white circle. b) The Yang [white symbols] in a black circle. c) Blade-up, a triangle with the base facing up. d) Blade down, a triangle, with the base facing down. • There are ten [10] Yin and ten [10] Yang cards that have specific matches in the deck. There are tow additional Yang Wild Cards that can be matched with a corresponding Yin card. • There are ten [10] “Blade up” and ten [10 “Blade down” playing cards with phrases. And, two [2] “Blade Down” wild cards with out phrases. 4. Review how the participants can earn points my matching the following types of cards. • 5 Points for matching the saying on the Yin card with the exact counterpart to the saying on the Yang Card. For example: The Yin Card states-“Complaining is easy and the matching Yang card states- “Complaining rarely solves a problem” • 5 points for developing your own match, using to a Yin with a Yang wild card. For example The Yin card says “Complaining is easy” and your response is something like- “Complaining is cheap but rarely gets accomplishes anything.” • 5 Points for matching Blade up and Blade down cards. That is the saying on the Blade up card in the exact match to the saying on the Blade down Card. For example: The Blade down card says- “Here I can never be a success” The Blade up card says- “My being successful depends on what I can make of my current situation.” • 3, 5 or 7 points for developing your own match to the Blade up card with a Blade down wild card. For example: The Blade down card states-“Here I can never be a success” The participant with the blank Blade down wild card says something like:  3 points for matching the topic “For here success is keeping out of trouble”  5 points for a good match “Maybe I need to redefine what success is for me here” 13
  14. 14. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________  7 points for words of wisdom “Success is when I feel I have done the best I can do given my situation.” Points can only be awarded for responses that have a matching suit. Only a Yin card can match a Yang card, and only a Blade up can be matched to a Blade down card. 5. Review the how participants can receive new cards. [The exercise can be done with either individuals or teams. This same procedure applies.] • The teams will have four opportunities to pass their cards to the members other teams. • The teams can pass any one card they want to the team on their immediate right. • The object of passing cards is to get either matching Yin or Yang, Blade cards or a wild card that they can use. • A team may decline to pass a card. In this case the team passing the card passes it to the second team on the right. 6. At the end of four passes the members show their cards to the rest of the class and the facilitator. The facilitator then scores the cards and lists the scores on a board. Teams will need to justify the rational for using wild cards. And, if a team does not have what is identified in the instructions as a correct match, but the teams their response is valid they can present to the facilitator an appeal for points. 7. The first team to get 33 points wins. 8. If there is time remaining teams can play a second round.Summarize:  Summarize the session by discussing how participants were able to demonstrate that people can look at the same situation in more than one way. Discuss that how we look at the situations can greatly influence how they can impact on us in either a negative or positive manner.  Briefly describe Session 3: Triggering Negativity. 14
  15. 15. Managing Negativity in Prison Psychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry ______________________________________________________________________________Yin YangLife is unfair, so why even try. Life is unfair I need to try harder.Yin Yang When people treat me bad I When people treat me bad, I get bitter. try to get beyond it.Yin Yang If someone says something When someone says bad about me I cannot let it something bad about me I go. think of it is more their problem.Yin Yang When I think there is too much Most of my conversations complaining I try to change the end up in complaining. topic of conversation.Yin Yang Complaining is easy. Complaining never solves a problem.Yin Yang When a problem happens I When a problem happens I look at who is at fault. look for the solution. 15
  16. 16. Managing Negativity in Prison Psychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry ______________________________________________________________________________Yin YangThis system needs to better My first challenge is to adjust understand my needs. to this system, and then maybe try to change it.Yin Yang I can often find somethingWhen anything happens I fear good out of almost all for the worse. situations.Yin YangI spend much time thinking of I often think of what I can what I could have been. become.Yin Yang To change my future I need to If people give me break change myself. things will get better.Yang YangWild Card Wild Card 16
  17. 17. Managing Negativity in Prison Psychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry ______________________________________________________________________________Blade Down Blade Up He really knows how to get He is someone who is always under my skin. trying to irritate me.Blade Down Blade UpI have so many problems I will I need to try to match my never be able to break free of strengths against my problems. this.Blade Down Blade UpI have really screwed up my life Things are really tough for me and now nothing else matters. but at least I have a few friends and my health.Blade Down Blade Up They say I am a convict so I Maybe to them I am a convictmight as well behave that way. but to me I am a man.Blade Down Blade Up They say I am a screw-up so I Let them think what they will, I might as well act that way. still have my dignity and no one can take that from me.Blade Down Blade Up He is pushing me, just waiting He really wants me to explode. for me to explode. My keeping calm is getting to him. 17
  18. 18. Managing Negativity in Prison Psychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry ______________________________________________________________________________Blade Down Blade UpThink the worse of people, that I need to judge individualway you are never disappointed. people by their behavior.Blade Down Blade Up It is his fault I hit him and am I really let him get to me, and now in SHU. now I am the one who is paying for it.Blade Down Blade Up Trusting others is for suckers. Trusting or not trusting someone depends on their behavior.Blade Down Blade UpI have tried all this @@XX! once Last time this didn’t work, before and it did not work then maybe I can do better this time. and will not work now.Blade Up Blade UpWild Card Wild Card 18
  19. 19. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ PULLING UP- OVERCOMING NEGATIVITY IN PRISON SESSION 3: TRIGGERING NEGATIVITY INTRODUCTION: This session teaches participants how to begin to understand the difference between an event and how the person responds to that event. This session in many ways is the beginning of that process how the can choose how to respond to what is happening in their environments.While the activity itself is a stress index scale this principle of “differentiating the event from theexperience of the event” is the key learning point to the session. In latter sessions {Sessions 8 and9] this principle will be used in examining and reframing situations that normally could producenegative emotions.GOALS- During this session individuals will have the opportunity to:1] Discuss events situations they may encounter and how much stress is associated with thatevent.2] Compare and contrast their reactions to stressful events with the responses of the other groupmembers.3] Identify factors that influence how an individual may experience an event and explore the“subjectivity” of individual reactions to eventssituations.SPECIAL NOTES FOR THE FACILITATOR:The intent of this session is for participants to begin to differentiate between events they encounterand their reactions to those events.  Individuals each completing a stress index scale  Small groups of 4-6 completing a group stress index scale [same scale]  A review of small group scores  A discussion of factors influencing how individuals would react differently to the events listed on the scale  A discussion of the individual’s experience of the event is what influences his reactions.LIST OF MATERIALS: 7. Copies of the stress index scale for each group participant. 8. An extra set of copies of the stress index scale for small group experience 9. A flip chart and pad for listing group responsesOverview to Session 3:Review what was covered in Session 2.  Briefly discuss how the participants were able to compare and contrasts negative and positive ways at looking at the same situations.Highlight what will be covered in this session.  Looking at how stress can impact on us and it’s potential to increase negative thinking and emotions.Steps 19
  20. 20. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________1] Briefly discuss with participants the history of the Holmes Ray Stress Index scale.12] Let participants know they are going to look at 10 potentially stressful items. On the scale theywill be asked to distribute 100 points amongst the various items based on how stressful they thinkthat event would be to them. For example for some people “being transferred to another prison”might only be 5 stress points while coming up for a “parole board hearing” might be 20 stresspoints. Give participants 10 minutes to individually distribute a total of 100 points between those 10items.3] After participants have individually rated the events on the “Stress Index Scale” they will beasked to rate the same items as a group. [Small groups of 4-6 work best for this part of theexercise.] The small groups will have 15 minutes to complete the group list.SPECIAL NOTE  Participants need to reach a consensus on how much stress the average inmate would experience if he or she had any of the events identified in the scale happen to them.  If the small groups seem to be having problems reaching consensus have them identify the three most stressful events and the three least stressful events. Once this is done they can begin to distribute the values.4] Have a flip chart prepared listing items on the Stress Index Scale with room to the right of theitems to list the small groups weighting of the events. 6] Give participants 10, 5 and 1-minutewarnings5] Ask the small groups to report out their results and list results on the flip chart.6] Ask participants which types of items they had difficulty reaching consensus on.  Ask what factors influenced how they rated the different items.  Review how those factors influenced the participants’ reactions to the events.  Ask participants, “If the same events do not cause the same stress for everyone…. then what is the main factor determining how an individual experiences stress?”7] Reinforce the concept that it is not the event that causes an individuals reactions but how theindividual experiences that event.Summarize Session 3:  Review how different people can experience the same event in different ways.  Briefly discuss that in Session 4 participants will discuss some of the negative impacts of prison and explore some resources that could help minimize those negative impacts.1 Holmes and Rayhe developed the Holmes-Rayhe Stress Index Scale were workers in a crisis clinic inBoston. After a number of years and seeing hundreds of individuals in crisis Holmes and Rayhe decided theycould quantify different events in terms of levels of stress associated with those events. The listed over 50different types of stressors and assigned a numerical value to those events. The numerical value wasassociated with the level of stress that even would have for an individual. Holmes and Rayhe would theninterview individuals using the scale and check the various stressor the incoming client would identify. Fromthe number of items checked, Holmes and Rayhe would then total the accumulated stress points and identifyif the individual was experiencing one of 5 levels of stress. 20
  21. 21. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________Exercise: Stress Index ScaleIntroduction: There are ten items listed below. You are to distribute 100 points to the total tenitems. The number of points you assign to any one item will represent how much stress that eventwould have for you. For example, having your wife win $100,00 in a lottery might only be 2 stresspoints while finding out she is pregnant might have 50 stress points. Some of the items might notapply to you, such as the item about having a younger brother, still rate the item thinking that if thatitem could apply to you, how would you respond. You have 10 minutes to complete this task.Stress Points Event Being transferred to another prison Find out your mother is ill Lose visiting privileges Parole hearing Become sick for over a month and not know why Younger brother gets sentenced for 4 years The inmate in the cell next you told you he is thinking about suicide Mother wins $100,00 in lottery You are facing a hearing for a 3 month ticket Your 18 year old sister is pregnant 21
  22. 22. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________Sample Exercise: Stress Index ScaleIntroduction: There are ten items listed below. You are to distribute 100 points to the total tenitems. The number of points you assign to any one item will represent how much stress that eventwould have for you. For example, having your wife win $100,00 in a lottery might only be 2 stresspoints while finding out she is pregnant might have 50 stress points. Some of the items might notapply to you, such as the item about having a younger brother, still rate the item thinking that if thatitem could apply to you, how would you respond. You have 10 minutes to complete this task.Stress Points Event Being transferred to another prison Find out your mother is ill Lose visiting privileges Parole hearing Become sick for over a month and not know why Younger brother gets sentenced for 4 years The inmate in the cell next you told you he is thinking about suicide Mother wins $100,00 in lottery You are facing a hearing for another 3 month ticket Your 18 year old sister is pregnant 22
  23. 23. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ PULLING UP- OVERCOMING NEGATIVITY IN PRISON SESSION 4: THE WEIGHT INTRODUCTION: In a highly stressful environment it is often easy to solely focus on negative factors and disregard potential resources and supports. This primary function of this exercise it to have participants begin to identify and discuss potential resources. GOALS- During this session individuals will have the opportunity to:1] Discuss negative factors in the prison environment that can cause stress and lead to a sense of futility.2] Identify potential resources that can help balance some of the negative influences of prison.3] Explore options for gaining additional supports and resources to help them in their environment.LIST OF MATERIALS:1] A weight worksheet for each participant.2] The Envelop Worksheet for facilitatorsSPECIAL NOTES FOR THE FACILITATOR:The intent of this session is to have participants begin to shift their focus from looking solely atnegative factors to begin to explore some potential resources. For many inmates the only resourcethey will be able to tap into is themselves. For some, there may be potential to re-unite with familyand friends, find a greater sense of spirituality or identify some other external resource.Overview to Session 4:Review what was covered in session 3.  Briefly review how participants discussed that they would experience similar events in different ways. Discuss how factors like values, previous experiences, relationships and supports all impact on how we experience an event.  Introduce Current Session- Facilitator briefly describes how in this session participants will examine some of negative factors in the Pri prison environment and some of the resources they need to help overcome the “weight” of prison life.Steps1] Facilitator begins this exercise by briefly discussing how scales work and weights on one side ofthe scale are needed to counteract and thereby measure the weight on the opposite are of thescale.2] The facilitator segues this part of the discussion into how life is similar and we often needsomething to give balance to our lives. It may be necessary to give a concrete example of thisneed for balance. 23
  24. 24. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________Example of a Story: In the movie “Cast Away” Tom Hanks is stranded alone on an Island with noone to talk with. The isolation is beginning to really bother him until one day he finds a soccerball.He paints a face on the soccerball, names it Wilson, and feels he has someone to talk with. Nowthe character new the soccerball was not a person but used the soccerball as an object to talk to.The point of the story is that in difficult situations we have to look hard for resources and think ofthings that normally would not mean a lot as things that can have value for us.3] Tell participants you are going to ask them to begin to think about things in prison that can bestressful and result in negative thinking for them. Also let them know you are going to be askingthem to think about things that can potential resources for them.4] Hand out a copy of the “The Weight Worksheet” to each participant. Ask them to first circle theitems and scores of the negative Factors on the sheet they think apply to them. Have participantsfeel free to add additional negative factors [i.e. their girlfriend want to stop seeing them]. Allowsome flexibility in terms of the weighting [i.e. if an inmate thinks being in prison should have aweighting of 75, ask the group if they think that is true for him and go with their opinion]. SCORING OPTION: Some individuals may have difficulty adding numbers on the Weight 50 10 Worksheet. At the end of the materials in this session there lbs are several pages of “weight bars”.The facilitator can distribute the weight bars to group participants so they can more easily scoretheir Weight Worksheets. The weight bars with the blackened center are for negative points andthose with the unfilled center are for positive points.5] Ask participants to then circle and score the positive factors. As they do this you can bring a littlehumor to the exercise if some participants are beginning to despair. For example you might tell aninmate “his stubbornness” can be a positive factor, because it is a sign he has his own mind.6] Ask participants to tally up the positive and negative factors. The facilitator will most likely needto help many of the inmates do this task. If an inmate seems very well skilled in doing the tally tellthem to give themselves an extra positive 5 points.7] Ask participants to read of the differences between their scores to the rest of the group. Havethem discuss some of their reactions to the various factors. Ask how they felt about the issue ofremorse being both a positive and negative factor. 8] Let participants know you are now going to see if there is some additional resources they canuse to help counter the differences between the negative and positive factors.  Read off the statement and scoring options for Envelope #1. Ask participants to add the weight of importance that item has to their positive score. Have a brief discussion with participants about their perceptions of that item.  Read off the statement and scoring options for Envelope #2. Ask participants to add the weight of importance that item has to their positive score. Have a brief discussion with participants about their perceptions of that item. 24
  25. 25. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________  Read off the statement and scoring options for Envelope #3. Ask participants to add the weight of importance that item has to their positive score. Have a brief discussion with participants about their perceptions of that item.  Read off the statement and scoring options for Envelope #4. Ask participants to add the weight of importance that item has to their positive score. Have a brief discussion with participants about their perceptions of that item. 9] Ask participants to take a second tally of their positive and negative factors. Ask ifthere were any significant changes for any of the members.10] Calling in the Big Guns: Facilitator should begin to end the exercise. If participants begin toask about the final item on the Weight Worksheet, “Calling in the Big Guns” YOU ARE MAKINGPROGRESS.  This indicates the participants are beginning to think of what can do to help themselves… maybe they are even looking to explore new ideas.  Calling in the Big Guns is when we ask the audience for their opinions. Ask participants if they have ideas to help other group members overcome their negativity. Let this concept “sit’ for while with the group.Some suggestions you can make to this section are: 1. Just being able to begin to identify positive and negative factors is a positive step. 2. It is probable that some participants’ scores increased from the first to the second part of the exercise. And, that improvement demonstrates that there can be change. 3. Sometimes we have to learn to establish a “new normal.” That is accept where we are now with our life rather than what we had or wanted. In accepting some of that new normal we can begin to think of ways to improve what we now have.Summarize SessionDiscuss why it is necessary to take an honest accounting of events before your can change them.Let participants know that he following session they will be exploring how some people get “out oftouch” with themselves while in prison. How it is often so necessary to “cover up” to protect oneselfthat individuals can loose track of what has been important to them.Ask two of the more oriented group members if they will do the report out next session on whatwas covered in today’s session. 25
  26. 26. Managing Negativity in Prison Psychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry ______________________________________________________________________________  THE WEIGHT WORKSHEET Negative Factors Positive Factors Weight [lbs] ConditionSituation Weight [lbs] ConditionSituation 50 Prison 20 No major mental illness 20 SMI 10 15 20 Family, friends 10 No family, friends 5 10 15 Good healthPri 5 10 15 Enemies in prison 5 10 15 Supports in prison 5 10 15 Isolated from others 5 10 15 People to turn to when needed 5 10 15 Feel remorse about 5 10 15 Feel remorse about what happened what happened 5 10 15 Little to no money 5 10 15 Able to care for self 5 10 20 30 SHU Time 5 10 15 Have a spirituality 5 10 20 30 Illness 5 10 15 Can enjoy music 5 10 20 30 Facing additional 5 10 15 Can enjoy sports charges Other Other 5 10 15 5 10 15 5 10 15 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 20 Envelope #1 0 5 10 15 20 Envelope #2 0 5 10 15 20 Envelope #3 0 5 10 15 20 Envelope #4 Total 0 5 10 15 20 Total Difference between Negative and Positive Factors Difference between Negative and Positive Factors Help Lines Envelope 1: Envelope 2: Envelope 3: Envelope 4: Calling in the “Big Guns” 26
  27. 27. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________THE ENVELOPE WORKSHEET FOR THE FACILITATOREnvelope 1: How much does the difference between the negative and positive factorsbother you?Add number of points for your rating: 0 5 10 15 20 Not at all No big deal A little Bothers me Really upsettingFor Facilitator: The differences between the scores can be motivating factors for participants tobegin to do something about their situation. Reinforce the concept that people often changebecause they do like the way their life is going.Envelope 2: How much more of yourself can you depend on to help?Add number of points for your rating: 0 5 10 15 20All tapped out Hardly anything A little Some reserve More than I realizeFor Facilitator: With this item we are asking participants to begin to think of how much they arewilling to try to change their situation. We are also trying to help them feel that they need to drawstrength from themselves to help overcome negativity. For many this item might be difficult to scorebut for some it could be beneficial.Envelope 3: Intellectually, do you have ability to make some of this better?Add number of points for your rating: 5 15 20 0 10 Trying to figure it Maybe able to Think I can figure All tapped out A little out do more out situationFor Facilitator: Hopefully this item is playing to the participants’ egos and will get some positiveratings.Envelope 4: Are there Positive factors you can develop or increase? Which ones? Why? 10 0 5 15 20 Might be None Maybe one Possible three There are several twoFor Facilitator: Ask participants to look back on the list at the Positive Factors. Have them think arethere items in the positive factors they can make more use of. For example they might have friendsor family they have not contacted in a long time, they used to gain strength from religion and nolonger feel spirituality. Points FactorsChangesDifferences Difference between Negative and Positive Factors Total from Lifelines Remaining difference between Negative and Positive FactorsCalling in the “Big Guns”: Refer to Step 12 in session overview. 27
  28. 28. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________NEGATIVE Prison 50 lbs 50 50 50 lbs lbs lbs 50 50 50 lbs lbs lbs 50 50 50 lbs lbs lbs 50 50 50 lbs lbs lbs 50 50 50 lbs lbs lbs 50 50 50 lbs lbs lbs 28
  29. 29. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________Prison 50 lbsPrison 10 lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 29
  30. 30. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 10 10 10 lbs lbs lbs 30
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  40. 40. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ PULLING UP- OVERCOMING NEGATIVITY IN PRISON SESSION 5: PRISONERS IN THE STONES INTRODUCTION: The intent of this psychoeducation group session is to help participants identify at least one positive characteristic they feel is still part of their core person and explore ways they can more effectively utilize that characteristic. GOALS- During this session individuals will have the opportunity to:1] Participants will learn identify a “positive quality” that they believe they often exhibited as a child.2] Participants will discuss obstacles to becoming “in touch” with that positive quality.3] Participants will explore options they have to begin to re-develop that positive quality in their day to day lives.LIST OF MATERIALS:Prisoners of the Stone WorksheetThe Phoenix Rising WorksheetSPECIAL NOTES FOR THE FACILITATOR:Overview to Session 5:  Facilitator asks the two participants selected from last week to review Session 4: “The Weight”. Try to reinforce their responses and wiliness to take on a group role. Also review the key principles that it will often be up to the individuals in the group to change the level of negativity they experience in prison.  Introduce Current Session- Facilitator briefly describes how in this session participants will try to examine some personal characteristics they might be able to use to help minimize the negative impacts of their prison experience.Steps1] The facilitator presents a brief lecture on how individuals start out in one direction but events,situations and even their own behaviors often change how they feel about themselves and respondto others.2] Briefly discuss the “prisoners of the stone” story on the attached worksheet.3] Have participants begin to think of how others, whom they had a special relationship with,described them when they were young children.4] Hand out the Prisoners of the Stone worksheet to each of the participants. 40
  41. 41. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________5] Ask the participants to briefly fill out the questions on the worksheet. Give participants about5-10 minutes to complete their worksheets.6] Ask each participant to describe the quality they think is hidden in the stone that they identified.Ask participants begin to describe these qualities begin to identify some common themes.7] Ask each of the participants to then identify 2 or 3 events, situations or behaviors that they thinkkeep that special quality hidden.8] Ask each of the participants to then discuss some ways they can help their lost quality re-emerge.OPTIONAL ACTIVITY:The second activity in this session is optional. It builds on the first, but there might not be enoughtime to complete the exercise and it might not useful be for all patients.1] Hand out “The Phoenix Rising” activity sheet.2] Ask participants to take 10 minutes to complete the worksheet.3] Many participants will need help thinking of things they can do know to “recover” that lost quality.This part might require some individual attention for the participants.4] After completing the tasks ask participants what is was like to think about trying some “new-old”behaviors. Ask if any of them want to describe the personal contract. But remind the participantsthat it is their choice to talk about this part.Summarize Session  Reinforce the positive attributes the various participants identified in themselves and maybe identified in other group participants. Acknowledge that it is difficult to think of some ways that they can change. Review some of the changes that the members stated they thought they could make.  Let participants know that he following session they will be exploring some ways of making better decisions that might help them not just in prison but also in the community.  Ask two of the more oriented group members if they will do the report out next session on what was covered in today’s session 41
  42. 42. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________Prisoners’ of the Stone: Michelangelo’s DavidMichelangelo- Painter, Sculptor and Architect(1475-1564)When asked how he completed his sculptures Michelangelo replied, “I firststart with a big block of stone and then chip away at everything in the blockthat is not the statue.”The artist Michelangelo believed there was a work of art in every stone.This story also translates into how people have something buried deep inside them that is their“gift” to others. That gift is something that has grown in the person since childhood.It is the quality that as young children, people often commented on. Statements like “he is so easygoing” or “she wants to help others so much” represent those qualities.Often growing up events happen, situations and people change. That quality of the child that wasso special and remarkable becomes hidden.That quality and the person in many ways become their own “prisoners.” Events, situations andnew ways of behaving cover the special qualities 1] What was the quality that people often used to describe you as a child? 2] What are some of the events, situations and behaviors that have hidden that special quality? 3] What are two things you can do, right now, today, to remove some of the obstacles you have from being in touch with that special quality? 42
  43. 43. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ 43
  44. 44. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________Phoenix RisingThe myth of Phoenix Rising is a story of hope and rebirth and is a commonstory I many different cultures. The story of Phoenix tells of a mythical, bird-like creature that is consumed by flames and rises new from the ashes.One of the meanings associated with the Story of the Phoenix is that of redemption, or of having asecond chance. It is very much a story of a creature that was beautiful and destroyed yet was ableto come back.In an other interpretation it represents a creature that has great vision and can see what is ahead. 1] What is the quality you identified as how people often used to describe you as a child? 2] What would be some behaviors you would exhibit to show that those qualities still can exist? PERSONAL CONTRACT: This is your contract, for yourself, in hoping to become regain a quality that has been hidden for a long time. It is a quality that others saw in you and you felt pride when others saw it in you. Fill out the contract form below. It is yours to keep. You may or may not share it with others in the group. That is your decision.I was often known for my ________________________________________________ and feltthat that quality was important and made me feel good about myself.Some of the behaviors I would often do to demonstrate that quality were:1]___________________________________________________2] __________________________________________________3] __________________________________________________For the next week I want to try to see what part of that quality is left and will try the followingactivities to see what can be done.1]_____________________________________________________2] _____________________________________________________3] _____________________________________________________ 44
  45. 45. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ PULLING UP- OVERCOMING NEGATIVITY IN PRISON SESSION 6: THE DECISION BALANCE WORKSHEET INTRODUCTION: The key principle of this unit is that if patients have some tools to help them change then they will feel less negative. It is doubtful that the prison system will change for them. If they have a serious mental illness they will have to learn how to manage their symptoms. The one thing people can change is themselves. The intent of this psychoeducation group session is to help participantsevaluate the positive and negative factors associated with changing their behaviors. The sessionis based largely on understanding the “stages of change” and utilizes a motivational interviewingtechnique. [References for background reading for both of these topics are easily accessed on theInternet. Six sources are listed below in the Special Notes for Facilitators section of this session.]This session works best if presented as a “life skill”. As a life skill it is a skill that can be beneficialfor all people to learn.GOALS-1] Participants will review the “stages of change” and relate how at different times they have madechanges in their lives.2] Participants will describe how an individual can effectively evaluate the options to changing abehavior by completing a “Decision-balance” worksheet.LIST OF MATERIALS:The Stages of Change Hand-outThe Decision Balance Worksheets [1 and 2]SPECIAL NOTES FOR THE FACILITATOR:For additional references on the “Stages of Change”:  TIP 35: Enhancing Motivation for Change in Substance Use Disorder Treatment, Referenced at http://www.samhsa.gov/centers/csat2002  http://coce.samhsa.gov/cod_resources/PDF/ReadinessforChangeandManagingMultiplePro blems.pdf  http://www.pathprogram.samhsa.gov/pdf/Motivational_Interviewing_Slides_2_11_03.pdfFor additional references on “The Decision Balance Worksheet”:  Chapter 5 in TIP 35 referenced above.  http://www.motivatehealthyhabits.com/pdfs/0TASK1page.pdf  http://www.aodgp.gov.au/internet/aodgp/publishing.nsf/Content/tobacco-7 45
  46. 46. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________Overview to Session 6:  Facilitator asks the two participants selected from last week to review Session 5: “The Prisoner in the Stone”. o Reinforce the members’ review of the previous session and their willingness to take on a group role. o Review the key principles from Session 5. Frequently people have qualities that can become lost or hidden because of their current situations. Those qualities are still there but it might take some extra efforts to have those qualities re-emerge. o Ask if any of the patients wants to discuss how they tried using their personal action plans.  Introduce Current Session- Facilitator briefly describes how in this session participants will look at how change can happen and how participants will learn how to better evaluate big decisions in their lives.StepsStages of Change:1] The facilitator presents a brief 10 minute lecture on stage of change. Use the Stages of ChangeHand-out when presenting the material.  The Stages of Change Worksheet has examples of behaviors representing each of the stages of change.2] After your brief lecture break the group into smaller groups of 3-4 participants each. Ask thegroups to come up with one example of a problem behavior someone might want to change.[These examples can range from quitting smoking, having safe sex, to deciding to take prescribedmedications.] Have the participants then list out what could be some examples of behaviors theindividual experiencing that specific behavior might demonstrate at each of the stages of change.3] Have the small groups report each example to the larger group of participants.Decision Balance Worksheet:1] Deciding to change is not easy! Discuss how the most difficult shift in going from one stage to another in the “Stages of Change” iswhen an individual is going from contemplation to preparation. In this shift, the individual isbeginning to recognize some of the consequences of the problem behavior but does not fully wantto recognize the difficulties associated with the problem behaviors. Completing a “DecisionBalance Worksheet”.2] How to objectively begin to think about changing.Explain how the Decision balance Worksheet is a way that people who are beginning to thinkabout making a change can objectively evaluate the costs and benefits of the old behaviors incomparison to changing their behaviors.3] Hand-out the Decision Balance Worksheet 1 and review each of the cells in the table. Haveparticipants look at how while some of the questions at the top of each of the cells may sound thesame the questions are really different. 46
  47. 47. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________4] Hand-out the Decision Balance Worksheet 2. Have participants return to same small groups of3-4 from previous exercise. Ask the groups to review the problem behavior they identified in theearlier exercise on Stages of Change. Have the participants then complete each of the cells in theDecision Balance Worksheet. Ask each of the small groups to identify at least three “reasons” thatwould fit in each of the cells on the worksheet.5] Have the small groups report each example to the larger group of participants.Summarize Session  Reinforce how making change can be difficult but also helps people become more in control of their lives.  Discuss how this is a life skill people can use no matter what type of situation they are in.  Review some of the interesting perspectives participants had on examining change.  Ask participants to complete a “Decision Balance Worksheet” on a behavior they want to think about changing.  Let participants know that he following session they will be exploring options they have for changing some of their behaviors or at the very least to have some ways so problems they encounter will not bother them as much.  Ask two of the more oriented group members if they will do the report out next session on what was covered in today’s session 47
  48. 48. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________STAGES OF CHANGE WORKSHEET Stage Examples of Someone Characteristics of Change Experiencing this Stage “Ignorance is not necessarily bliss” Example: A person is arrested for driving while intoxicated, but The person does not see hisher continues to drink and drive. PRE- behavior as a problem. Others might YOUR EXAMPLE: CONTEMPLATION complain about the behavior or person has gotten into bad situations because of the behavior. “Maybe I’ll quit tomorrow” Example: Well it happened to Paris Hilton, maybe it could The person begins to see the happen to me the next time. C O N T E M P L A T I O N behavior as a problem. Might even YOUR EXAMPLE think of changing…. but not necessarily right away. “ I’ll be giving up a lot if this works.” Example: My wife and I agreed that if I need a ride home she will The person intends to actually pick me up…. no matter what P R E P A R A T I O N perform the new behavior, but first time. they have to get organized and YOUR EXAMPLE everything in order. “The new me!” Example: “Honey, it’s me and I am at Joe’s but do want not to The person changes the behaviors drive home. Can you pick me that were problematic. They up?” ACTION implement a plan, learn new YOUR EXAMPLE: behaviors and adapt new attitudes. This stage lasts from 3-6 months. “This is me!” Example: Well my wife and I just figure this is better than getting The new behaviors become another DUI. M A I N T E N A N C E integrated into the way the person YOUR EXAMPLE: behaves and thinks about himherself. “I should have known better” Example: Well it was a few blocks home and I did not really have There is great potential for relapse that much to drink. R E L A P S E with any behavior that has been YOUR EXAMPLE: chronic. Relapse is a set-back, but not a sign of failure, 48
  49. 49. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________D E C I S I O N B A L A N C E W O R K S H E E T [1] Reasons to Stay the Reasons to Change same WHAT ARE SOME GOOD THINGS WHAT ARE SOME “NOT-SO-GOOD” THINGS ABOUT MY CURRENT BEHAVIOR? ABOUT MY CURRENT BEHAVIOR? W ell dr inking and dr iv ing is Ther e m ight be s om e not- s o- good not all t hat bad. t hings about dr ink ing whil e I dr iv e.  I am not conf ined t o hour s dur ing t he day  I c ould get in an ac c ident when I need t o leav e t o ev en if it is not my f ault. go hom e.CURRENT  A t ic k et c ould c ost s m e as  I do not have t o depend m uc h as $5, 000. 00.BEHAVIOR on anyone els e.  I c ould loos e m y dr iv er ’s  I have a good t im e. lic ens e.  As long as I do not hur t I will not be s o par anoid ev er y anyone it is m y t im e I dr iv e down t he s t r eet and business. s ee a polic e c ar behind me. WHAT ARE SOME “NOT-SO-GOOD” WHAT MIGHT BE SOME GOOD THINGS THINGS ABOUT CHANGING MY ABOUT CHANGING MY BEHAVIOR? BEHAVIOR? W ell s om e good t hings about Ther e ar e som e “ not - s o- good” c hanging my behav ior m ight be: t hings t hat m ight happen if I st op dr inking while I am  I will elim inat e m y c hanc es dr iving. of get t ing arr es t ed.  M y buddies wil l think I  I will pr obably not dr ink outCHANGING am a wuss. as muc h and m ay be ev en s av e s om e m oney .BEHAVIOR  Som eone will hav e t o dr ive m e hom e.  Hec k , I m ight ev en c ut down dr ink ing a bit .  I wil l not be able to f r eely go fr om one plac e  My c ar won’t sm ell lik e the t o the next . “ night bef or e” ev er y m or ning when I get in.  Taxis ar e expens iv e. 49
  50. 50. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ Reasons to Stay the Reasons to Change same WHAT ARE SOME GOOD THINGS WHAT ARE SOME “NOT-SO-GOOD” THINGS ABOUT MY CURRENT BEHAVIOR? ABOUT MY CURRENT BEHAVIOR?CURRENTBEHAVIOR WHAT “NOT-SO-GOOD” ARE SOME WHAT MIGHT BE SOME GOOD THINGS THINGS ABO UT CHANG I NG M Y ABOUT CHANGING MY BEHAVIOR? BEHAVIOR?CHANGINGBEHAVIOR 50
  51. 51. Managing Negativity in PrisonPsychoeducationalgroups.com, David Barry______________________________________________________________________________ PULLING UP- OVERCOMING NEGATIVITY IN PRISON SESSION 7: GETTING THE FLY OUT OF THE OINTMENT! INTRODUCTION: This session provides participants with a very concrete technique that will help them better understand their emotions before they act on them. Part of the session involves learning the technique in a very rote manner. The participants then will have the opportunity to practice using the skill in a variety of situations.This session works best if presented as a “life skill”. As a life skill it is a skill that can be beneficialfor all people to learn.GOALS-1] Participants will describe the “What, how and why, then what, how and decide” technique formanaging difficult situations.2] Participants will apply the What, how and why, then what, how and decide” technique to avariety of situations they might experience.LIST OF MATERIALS:SPECIAL NOTES FOR THE FACILITATOR:Much of the material in this session is an adaptation of Cognitive Behavior Therapy. Somereferences can easily by found on the Internet at the sites listed below.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_behavioral_therapyhttp://psychservices.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/10/1272http://www.springerlink.com/content/k641p02j62135731/ 51

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