AS Psychology – Unit One

   Developmental Psychology



Attachment
      Student workbook




Name: ………………………………………………………...
Developmental psychology
                          Attachment

  By the end of this topic you will be able to:


   Defin...
 Briefly explain why some children show characteristics of secure attachment
  and some characteristics of insecure attac...
Write a 2/3 mark definition for each of these words/concepts:

Reciprocal




Disruption of
attachment



Social releaser
...
Strange Situation




Longitudinal study




Naturalistic
observation



Adaptive




Day care




Social development




...
What is attachment?


What is attachment?
Write a definition using
the words bond,
reciprocal and emotional.




         ...
Schaffer and Emerson (1964)

Procedure:

Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson conducted a longitudinal study on 60 babies at...
Now answer these questions on the Schaffer and Emerson
study:

  1. What is a longitudinal study?




  2. Stranger anxiet...
7. Do infants always attach to the person who feeds them? (Remember this for future
   use!)




                         ...
Use this page when you have finished studying explanations of attachment, to make a mind map of the key concepts. Include ...
Learning Theory
There are two types of conditioning involved in
learning theory:

   •     Classical conditioning is learn...
Applying the principles of learning theory to attachment


Complete the table with an outline of how these types of condit...
1. Before conditioning

                                                    Label each stage with the
                    ...
Does evidence support the learning theory of
                         attachment?
The basis of the learning theory of atta...
Summary of Darwin's Theory of Evolution
 A species is a population of organisms
that interbreeds and has fertile
offspring...
Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment
                    Bowlby was mainly interested in the caregiver – child relat...
period of time for attachments to form. Bowlby believed this was before a child
  turned 2 and a half.

  5. _____________...
What is ethology?




    The Love Quiz - Hazan and Shaver (1987)


                                              18
AIMS: Hazan & Shaver were interested in John Bowlby’s idea that an infant’s first
attachment formed an internal working mo...
responders were self-selecting and, therefore, the results may be subject to
volunteer bias. Plus, the respondents were se...
Use this page when you have finished studying individual differences in attachment, to make a mind map of the key concepts...
Individual differences in attachment - The Strange
                    Situation (Ainsworth, 1978)
The Strange Situation i...
The Strange Situation - procedure

The Strange Situation procedure involved the child experiencing eight ‘episodes’. Compl...
The Strange Situation – results
Ainsworth identified three different types of attachment. Complete the table with a descri...
The Strange Situation – conclusions




What reasons can you think of to explain why some infants develop different types ...
Evaluating the Strange Situation


   Validity
    o Only measures attachment to mother




     o Doesn’t consider tempe...
Cross cultural variations in attachment


  What do we mean by ‘culture?’




Read the table on p.127 of your textbook, wh...
What attachment style might infants from collectivist cultures be more likely to
develop? Explain your answer with referen...
Use this page when you have finished studying disruption of attachment, to make a mind map of the key concepts. Include se...
Disruption of attachment (separation):




Why might young children be separated from their caregivers? List as many reaso...
The effects of short term disruption of attachment
                       (Robertson and Bowlby, 1952)

STUDY: Robertson a...
The effects of longer term disruption of attachment
              Robertson and Bowlby concluded that the most common effe...
How do you think this might affect    Summarise research evidence on
FACTOR
                 the child’s response to separ...
One method that psychologists have used to study the affects of privation is to consider
case studies of individual childr...
Evaluation of privation case studies

Explain how each of the following factors might be used to assess the usefulness of ...
Are the effects of privation reversible?

There have been mixed findings from research into the reversibility of the ill e...
The effects of institutionalisation
A further method of assessing the effects of privation
(lack of attachment) has been s...
The effects of institutionalisation –
             Rutter et al (2007) and the Romanian orphans
This is an on-going longit...
The effects of institutionalisation
Hodges and Tizard (1989)

Aim




Procedure




Results




Conclusions




Evaluation...
40
Use this page when you have finished studying the impact of day care on social development, to make a mind map of the key ...
Further research into the effect of day-care on
         children’s aggressive behaviour
Baker et al (2005)
What was done:...
Further research into the effect of day-care on children’s peer
                         relationships
Shea (1981)
What wa...
Conclusion: Day care can harm peer relations.
Evaluation: Useful evaluative point for contrasting with studies which found...
The effect of day-care on children’s social development – Aggression


Research which has found that children   Evaluation...
The effect of day-care on children’s social development – Peer relationships


Research which has found that day-care   Ev...
Other variables which may affect the child’s experience of day-care

Other factors which      Summary of research evidence...
The implications of research for improving day care provision




                                                        ...
The implications of research for improving day care provision




                                                        ...
Day care task
Now that you are experts on attachment theory, your task is to use your
knowledge to design the ‘perfect’ da...
Attachment word search

s       t    r   a   n   g   e   s   i   t   u   a   t   i   o   n   s   j   k   n
r       m    c ...
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  1. 1. AS Psychology – Unit One Developmental Psychology Attachment Student workbook Name: …………………………………………………………. Form: ………………………….……………………………….. Teacher: ………………………………….…………………...
  2. 2. Developmental psychology Attachment By the end of this topic you will be able to:  Define attachment  Describe the characteristics which demonstrate an attachment  Describe and evaluate the learning explanation of attachment  Describe and evaluate the evolutionary explanation of attachment  Describe and evaluate research into individual differences in attachment  Describe and evaluate research into cross cultural variations in attachment  Describe and evaluate research into disruption of attachment, including studies of separation, privation and institutionalisation  Describe and evaluate research into the effects of day care on children’s social development  Describe the implications of attachment research for childcare practices  Describe and evaluate research methods associated with this area of psychology  Describe and evaluate ethical issues associated with this area of psychology Example exam questions  What is meant by the term attachment? (2 marks) 2
  3. 3.  Briefly explain why some children show characteristics of secure attachment and some characteristics of insecure attachment. (2 marks)  Observation in a Strange Situation has been used to investigate cultural variations in attachment. Give one advantage of using observation in psychological research. (2 marks)  Explain one criticism of investigating cultural variations in attachment using the ‘Strange Situation.’ (3 marks)  Disruption of attachment can occur when children experience separation from their attachment figure during their early childhood.  Outline one study of the effects of disruption of attachment. (4 marks)  How does the behaviour of securely attached infants differ from that of insecurely attached infants? (4 marks)  Research has suggested that institutionalisation can have negative effects on children. In the 1990s, many children were found living in poor quality orphanages in Romania. Luca had lived in one of these orphanages from birth. When he was four years old, he was adopted  and he left the orphanage to live in Canada. His development was then studied for a number of years. Outline possible negative effects of institutionalisation on Luca. (4 marks)  Outline what research has shown about the effects of day care on children’s aggressive behaviour. (6 marks)  Psychologists have put forward different explanations of attachment, such as learning theory and Bowlby’s theory. Outline and evaluate one or more explanations of attachment. (12 marks)  Psychologists have studied children who have lived in institutions such as orphanages. Outline and evaluate research into the effects of institutionalisation. (12 marks)  Outline and evaluate research into the effects of privation. (12 marks) Attachment key words and concepts 3
  4. 4. Write a 2/3 mark definition for each of these words/concepts: Reciprocal Disruption of attachment Social releaser Deprivation Privation Evolution Institutionalisation Ethology Imprinting 4
  5. 5. Strange Situation Longitudinal study Naturalistic observation Adaptive Day care Social development Cross cultural variation Cognitive development 5
  6. 6. What is attachment? What is attachment? Write a definition using the words bond, reciprocal and emotional. 1. What are the four characteristics of 2. attachment, as identified by Macoby (1980)? 3. Using Macoby’s criteria make a list of all the people you have an attachment to. What do you think the consequences might be for a child who doesn’t develop an attachment to another human being? 6
  7. 7. Schaffer and Emerson (1964) Procedure: Rudolph Schaffer and Peggy Emerson conducted a longitudinal study on 60 babies at monthly intervals for the first 18 months of their life. The children were all studied in their own home and a regular pattern was identified in the development of attachment. The babies were visited monthly for approximately one year, their interactions with their carers were observed, and carers were interviewed. Evidence for the development of an attachment was that the baby showed separation anxiety after a carer left. Results: They discovered that baby's attachments develop in the following sequence: o Up to 3 months of age - Indiscriminate attachments. The newborn is predisposed to attach to any human. Most babies respond equally to any caregiver. o After 4 months - Preference for certain people. Infants learn to distinguish primary and secondary caregivers but accept care from anyone; o After 7 months - Special preference for a single attachment figure. The baby looks to particular people for security, comfort and protection. It shows fear of strangers (stranger fear) and unhappiness when separated from a special person (separation anxiety). Some babies show stranger fear and separation anxiety much more frequently and intensely than others, but nevertheless they are seen as evidence that the baby has formed an attachment. This has usually developed by one year of age. o After 9 months - Multiple attachments. The baby becomes increasingly independent and forms several attachments. Conclusions: The mother was the main attachment figure for 65% of the children at 18 months old, whilst only 3% of the infants studied developed a primary attachment to their father. By 18 months old, 31% of the infants had formed multiple attachments, e.g. to grandparents etc. The results of the study indicated that attachments were most likely to form with those who responded accurately to the baby's signals, not the person they spent most time with. Schaffer and Emerson called this sensitive responsiveness. The most important fact in forming attachments is not who feeds and changes the child but who plays and communicates with him or her. 7
  8. 8. Now answer these questions on the Schaffer and Emerson study: 1. What is a longitudinal study? 2. Stranger anxiety is ‘unhappiness when separated from a certain person.’ How would Schaffer and Emerson have judged whether the infant was unhappy? 3. At what age do infants develop a preference for a single attachment figure? 4. What is ‘sensitive responsiveness?’ 5. Schaffer and Emerson found that the father was the main attachment figure for only 3% of infants. How might these results be different if carried out today? Explain your answer. 6. What does this study tell us about multiple attachments? 8
  9. 9. 7. Do infants always attach to the person who feeds them? (Remember this for future use!) 9
  10. 10. Use this page when you have finished studying explanations of attachment, to make a mind map of the key concepts. Include the learning explanation (both types of conditioning) and Bowlby’s evolutionary explanation: Explanations of attachment 10
  11. 11. Learning Theory There are two types of conditioning involved in learning theory: • Classical conditioning is learning by association (of the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus) • Operant conditioning is learning by reinforcement. There are two types of reinforcement; positive and negative: Positive reinforcement is when a behaviour results in the addition of something pleasant. E.g. you get a praise form for doing your homework well. to avoid getting a detention. subtraction of something unpleasant. E.g. you do your homework Negative reinforcement is when a behaviour results in the Now, answer these questions:  Does positive reinforcement make the behaviour more or less likely to be repeated?  Does negative reinforcement make the behaviour more or less likely to be repeated?  Can a behaviour be both positively and negatively reinforced? 11
  12. 12. Applying the principles of learning theory to attachment Complete the table with an outline of how these types of conditioning can be applied to attachment behaviours. Two sections have been filled in to help you: Infant to caregiver Caregiver to infant Classically conditioned The caregiver learns to associate feelings of pleasure with caring for the infant, because the infant smiles and displays attachment behaviours. Positively reinforced Negatively reinforced The infant is rewarded for attaching to the caregiver – he/she receives food. Classical Conditioning 12
  13. 13. 1. Before conditioning Label each stage with the appropriate stimulus or response. The box below tells you how many of each you should use. Food Happy baby 2. During conditioning Carer Food Mother Food Happy baby 3. After conditioning Unconditioned stimulus x 2 Unconditioned response x 2 Neutral stimulus x 1 Conditioned stimulus x 1 Mother Happy baby Conditioned response x 1 13
  14. 14. Does evidence support the learning theory of attachment? The basis of the learning theory of attachment is that the infant attaches because it needs food. However, this is not supported by evidence from research. Explain how the following studies could be used to disprove the learning theory of attachment: Schaffer and Emerson (1964): Harlow’s monkeys (1958): 14
  15. 15. Summary of Darwin's Theory of Evolution A species is a population of organisms that interbreeds and has fertile offspring. Living organisms have descended with modifications from species that lived before them. • Natural selection explains how this evolution has happened: • More organisms are produced than can survive because of limited resources. • Organisms struggle for the necessities of life; there is competition for resources. • Individuals within a population vary in their traits; some of these traits are heritable -- passed on to offspring. • Some variants are better adapted to survive and reproduce under local conditions than others. • Better-adapted individuals (the "fit enough") are more likely to survive and reproduce, thereby passing on copies of their genes to the next generation. • Species whose individuals are best adapted survive; others become extinct. This is ‘survival of the fittest.’ How does this explain attachment? • Attachment between infant and caregiver is a prime example of a behaviour pattern that is rooted in biology and evolution. • Attachment behaviour has become programmed into human beings, and is found to operate similarly in almost all cultures. • The purpose and function of attachment is the same regardless of ethnic or cultural differences: to keep the baby close to the caregiver for safety and protection; to allow the child to explore and learn within a safe context ("secure base"); and to develop a loving and reciprocal relationship which can be passed on through generations. 15
  16. 16. Bowlby’s evolutionary theory of attachment Bowlby was mainly interested in the caregiver – child relationship. He produced a new theory of attachment by combining Freud’s ideas with the ethological concept of imprinting. Bowlby’s theory of attachment is quite complex, and includes many specific terms which you need to be able to understand and evaluate. Begin by matching the descriptions of the key principles below to the terms in the boxes: Adaptive and innate Sensitive period Monotropy Key CImprinting ontinuity hypothesis Secure base Social releasers: principles Internal working model 1. __________________________________ Bowlby believed that all children form a number of attachments but one of these is of significant importance. Infants also form a number of other attachments forming the Hierarchy of attachments. Bowlby believed that the primary attachment was to the person who responds most sensitively to the social releasers. This bond forms the foundations for emotional development, self esteem and relationships with peers lovers and their own children. Secondary attachments act as a safety net. Children raised with no secondary attachment appear to lack social skills. 2. __________________________________ Bowlby believes children have an innate drive to become attached because it has long term benefits (similar to imprinting). This innate drive ensures that infants stay close to the care giver for food and protection. These behaviours are adaptive because they increase the chances of survival and reproduction. 3. __________________________________An innate readiness to for an attachment with the mother. This takes place in the sensitive period 4. __________________________________As attachments are innate there is likely to be a crucial 16
  17. 17. period of time for attachments to form. Bowlby believed this was before a child turned 2 and a half. 5. __________________________________These are characteristics that elicit care giving. These could be smiling crying. 6. __________________________________Protection is a vital part of attachment. It acts as a secure base where a child can explore his/her surroundings. This is part of independence. 7. __________________________________Is a group of concepts a child learns in regards to what expect from a relationship. It is developed in early childhood and is created by the attachment the child has. This could be a relationship of trust or one of uncertainty. 8. __________________________________This is the idea that there is a link between early attachments and later emotional behaviour. I.e. those who have a secure attachment as a child will continue to be socially and emotionally competent. Now, write a summary of Bowlby’s theory, using no more than 50 words. Why must be careful about generalising findings from animal studies to humans? Whatis imprintingLorenzImprinting, ethology and evolution Why did Konrad of evolutionary benefit? find about imprinting in geese? – Evidence from animal research 17
  18. 18. What is ethology? The Love Quiz - Hazan and Shaver (1987) 18
  19. 19. AIMS: Hazan & Shaver were interested in John Bowlby’s idea that an infant’s first attachment formed an internal working model - a template - for all future relationships. They wanted to see if there was a correlation between the infant’s attachment type and their future approach to romantic relationships. PROCEDURE: To test this Hazan & Shaver devised the ‘Love Quiz’ which consisted of 2 components:- • A measure of attachment type - a simple adjective checklist of childhood relationships with parents and parents’ relationships with each other • A love experience questionnaire which assessed individual’s beliefs about romantic love - eg: whether it lasted forever, whether it could be found easily, how much trust there was in a romantic relationship, etc The Love Quiz was printed in local newspaper the Rocky Mountain News and readers were asked to send in their responses. Hazan & Shaver analysed the first 620 replies sent in from people aged from 14 to 82.They classified the respondents’ according to Mary Ainsworth’s infant attachment types of secure, anxious-resistant and anxious-avoidant and looked for corresponding adult love styles: • Secure types described their love experiences as happy, friendly and trusting - emphasising being able to accept their partner regardless of any faults - with such relationships tending to be more enduring, with the initial passion reappearing from time to time and for some ‘romantic love’ never fading.They were happy depending on others and comfortable if others are dependent on them. They wereappy to be close to others. • Anxious-resistant types experienced love as involving obsession, a desire for reciprocation, emotional highs and lows, extreme sexual attraction and jealousy, and worry that their partners didn’t really love them or might abandon them. Their desire for intense closeness couild frighten others away. • Anxious-avoidant types typically feared intimacy, emotional highs and lows, and jealousy and believed they did not need love to be happy. They were uncomfortable being close to and/or depending on others. RESULTS: Hazan & Shaver found a strikingly high correlation between the infant attachment types and the adult romantic love styles. CONCLUSIONS: Hazan & Shaver concluded that there was evidence to support the concept of the inner working model having a life-long effect. However, they did concede that not everyone stayed true to their infant attachment style and that some people did change as they grew older. CRITICISMS (EVALUATION): people were recording their memories of infant experience and such memories may not always be accurate. Additionally the 19
  20. 20. responders were self-selecting and, therefore, the results may be subject to volunteer bias. Plus, the respondents were self-reporting - and people do not always give truthful answers. However, a number of studies have supported the Love Quiz findings - eg: Judith Feeney & Patricia Noller (1990) found that securely-attached individuals had the most long-term enduring romantic relationships while anxious-avoidant types had the most short-lived and least-intense relationships. In a 4-month study of heterosexual relationships among Canadian undergraduates Patrick Keelan, Karen Dion & Kenneth Dion (1994) found that those with a secure attachment style expressed more satisfaction with and greater commitment to the relationship and trusted their partner more. Gerard McCarthy (1999) studied women whose attachment types had been recorded in infancy and found:- • Anxious-avoidant infants grew up to have the most difficulty in romantic relationships • Anxious-resistant infants grew up to have the poorest relationships • Securely-attached infants grew up to have the most successful romantic relationships and friendships Among undergraduates involved in a romantic relationship, there is also a weak but significant tendency to be attracted to someone with an attachment style like your own, according to Kelly Brennan & Phil Shaver (1995). An alternative explanation for this apparent continuity lies in Jerome Kagan’s Temperament Hypothesis (1984). Kagan noted that innate temperamental characteristics which made infants ‘easy’ or ‘difficult’ had a serious impact on the quality of the mother-infant relationship and thus the attachment type. These innate temperamental characteristics would influence the individual throughout life and thus love relationships. Hazan & Shaver repeated the Love Quiz in 1993 and again found strong evidence for a correlation between infant attachment type and adult love style - though the correlation was not quite as strong this time. (In total the two Love Quiz studies involved 1200 participants.) |t is important to bear in mind that Hazan & Shaver only established a correlation. Therefore, cause-and-effect cannot be assumed from their work. 20
  21. 21. Use this page when you have finished studying individual differences in attachment, to make a mind map of the key concepts. Include The Strange Situation and cross cultural variations in attachment. Individual differences in attachment 21
  22. 22. Individual differences in attachment - The Strange Situation (Ainsworth, 1978) The Strange Situation is a procedure for assessing the quality of attachment between the infant and mother. It was developed by Mary Ainsworth et al (1978) and involves a series of episodes where the child is left alone and adults come in and out of the room. The procedure lasts for 22 minutes in total.  What was the main aim of the study?  Who were the participants?  The Strange Situation uses a controlled observation methodology. Explain how this differs from a naturalistic observation: Ainsworth assessed the quality of attachment on the basis of the child’s response to specific episodes of the procedure. Explain each of the following terms, in relation to the Strange Situation:  Separation anxiety:  Reunion behaviour  Stranger anxiety 22
  23. 23. The Strange Situation - procedure The Strange Situation procedure involved the child experiencing eight ‘episodes’. Complete the storyboard with a description and illustration of what happened during each episode: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 23
  24. 24. The Strange Situation – results Ainsworth identified three different types of attachment. Complete the table with a description of how each attachment type responded to each episode of the procedure: TYPE OF Mother present Mother leaves Stranger enters Mother return ATTACHMENT (exploration) (separation anxiety) (stranger anxiety) (reunion behaviour) Secure Insecure avoidant Insecure resistant 24
  25. 25. The Strange Situation – conclusions What reasons can you think of to explain why some infants develop different types of attachment than others? Ainsworth suggested the ‘caregiver sensitivity hypothesis’ as an explanation for different attachment types. Explain what this is: What is the ‘temperament hypothesis’ and how does it offer an alternative explanation for different types of attachment? (Kagan, 1982) Main and Solomon (1986) suggested a fourth type of attachment; Type D. Explain the characteristics of this type: 25
  26. 26. Evaluating the Strange Situation  Validity o Only measures attachment to mother o Doesn’t consider temperament of child o Demand characteristics  Reliability  Ecological validity  Generalisability  Ethical issues 26
  27. 27. Cross cultural variations in attachment What do we mean by ‘culture?’ Read the table on p.127 of your textbook, which summarises the results of Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg’s (1988) meta analysis of cross cultural studies of attachment. Now answer these questions: What is a meta-analysis? What do the results of the Van Ijzendoorn study tell us about the level of secure attachment across different cultures? Which country has the highest number of insecure avoidant infants? Which country has the highest number of insecure resistant infants? Explain the difference between individualist and collectivist cultures: 27
  28. 28. What attachment style might infants from collectivist cultures be more likely to develop? Explain your answer with reference to childcare practices: What attachment style might infants from individualist cultures be more likely to develop? Explain your answer with reference to childcare practices: Explain at least two reasons why we must be careful about interpreting Van Ijzendoorn’s results as ‘proof’ of cross cultural differences in attachment? What did Van Ijzendoorn find about differences in attachment styles within cultures? What is ethnocentrism? 28
  29. 29. Use this page when you have finished studying disruption of attachment, to make a mind map of the key concepts. Include separation, privation and institutionalisation. Disruptions to attachment 29
  30. 30. Disruption of attachment (separation): Why might young children be separated from their caregivers? List as many reasons as you can think of: What might the child’s immediate reaction be when separated from their primary caregiver? How might longer term separation affect the child’s development? Consider emotional, social and physical factors: How might separation affect the child’s attachment bond to their caregiver? 30
  31. 31. The effects of short term disruption of attachment (Robertson and Bowlby, 1952) STUDY: Robertson and Bowlby’s (1952) study of the short-term effects of separation AIMS: Robertson and Bowlby aimed to identify the short-term effects of separation from the caregiver on young children. PROCEDURE: Naturalistic observation of young children, aged 1 to 4 years, placed in residential nurseries by their parents because their mothers would be absent for some time. In the majority of cases, this was because the mother was entering hospital. Films were made using time-sampling methods to avoid observer bias. Behavioural and emotional reactions to this separation were observed to assess the effects of separation on the children. FINDINGS: There are three progressive reactions to separation (outlined by the protest- despair-detachment or PDD model), which are shown by a consistent pattern of behavioural and emotional effects. • Protest: The children showed great distress, calling and crying for the absent caregiver, and some appeared panic- stricken. Anger and fear were evident. • Despair: The children became calmer but apathetic as they showed little interest in anything. Self- comforting behaviours were observed such as thumb sucking and rocking. • Detachment: The children appeared to be coping with the separation as they showed more interest in their surroundings. However, the children were emotionally unresponsive. The children avoided forming new attachments and no interest was shown when the caregiver returned, but most children re-established the relationship over time. CONCLUSIONS: Bowlby and Robertson concluded that most young children who experience separation suffer distress. The emotional effects during separation can be severe and result in emotional damage, but rarely lead to bond disruption (deprivation). Separation was distressing for most of the children. However, they did resume their attachment on reunion, and so the effects were relatively short-term. Greater separation anxiety was the most common long- term effect. EVALUATION • Short-term separation does not necessarily lead to distress. Robertson and Robertson (1971) found that good substitute care (e.g. a loving father) could minimise the effects of separation. • The study was limited: separation cannot be manipulated as an independent variable, and so cause and effect cannot be inferred. Thus, we cannot be sure that separation causes emotional damage or deprivation. Other factors may have led to the separation and emotional damage. For example, the parent’s ill-health may have disrupted the attachment bond before the separation took place, if it resulted in the parent becoming physically or emotionally detached. • There is no completely objective way of assessing despair and detachment, which poses problems for testing the PDD model. 31
  32. 32. The effects of longer term disruption of attachment Robertson and Bowlby concluded that the most common effect of longer term attachment disruption (such as death of a parent or divorce) was separation anxiety. This is the fear that separation from an attachment figure will occur again in the future, and it may manifest itself in a number of ways. Explain and/or give an example of each of the following possible characteristics of separation anxiety: Increased aggression: Clinginess: Detachment: Psychosomatic symptoms: What factors may affect the child’s response to separation? 32
  33. 33. How do you think this might affect Summarise research evidence on FACTOR the child’s response to separation? the effect of this factor The age of the child The type of attachment (secure/ insecure) The sex of the child Whom the child is left with - quality of care Previous experience of separation Case studies of severe privation 33
  34. 34. One method that psychologists have used to study the affects of privation is to consider case studies of individual children who have been raised in conditions where no attachment bond has been made. You will watch a video of some of these cases, and will research two of them for your homework assignment. Use this page to summarise the most important aspects of each case. You should include: • Age when discovered • Conditions they were kept in • Physical, cognitive and emotional effects of privation • Care after discovery Genie (Curtiss, 1977) The Czech twins (Koluchova, 1976) 34
  35. 35. Evaluation of privation case studies Explain how each of the following factors might be used to assess the usefulness of studies of privation: Use case study method of research: Used retrospective data: Ethical issues: attachment): Children involved suffered emotional and physical abuse (not just lack of 35
  36. 36. Are the effects of privation reversible? There have been mixed findings from research into the reversibility of the ill effects of privation. Whilst the Czech twins made a good recovery, Genie showed less progress. Use your research and your textbook to compare variables which may explain the differences between Genie and the Czech twins: Age when discovered Relationships whilst in Individual differences in Quality of care after isolation the child/ren discovery Genie The Czech Twins  What conclusions can we draw from the cases of Genie and the Czech twins about the reversibility of the effects of privation? 36
  37. 37. The effects of institutionalisation A further method of assessing the effects of privation (lack of attachment) has been studies of children who have spent their early years in institutions. On the following pages you will learn about two such studies of institutionalised children, by Rutter and Hodges and Tizard. After you have familiarised yourself with the studies, come back and answer these questions: What are the characteristics of disinhibited attachment? What are the characteristics of reactive attachment disorder? Do studies of institutionalised children support the theory that there is a ‘critical period’ for the development of attachment? of privation? What have studies of institutionalised children found about the reversibility of the effects 37
  38. 38. The effects of institutionalisation – Rutter et al (2007) and the Romanian orphans This is an on-going longitudinal study which began in 1998. 111 Romanian orphans were adopted into British families. Rutter wanted to see if good care could compensate for the privation the children had suffered before the overthrow of the Communist dictator Ceaucescu. This has been run as a natural experiment with age of adoption being the naturally occurring independent variable (IV). Rutter is studying three groups: · Adopted before the age of 6 months · Adopted between 6 months and 2 years · Adopted after the age of two (late adoptees). Rutter found evidence of disinhibited attachment behaviours in the Romanian adoptees, most commonly in the children who were adopted at an older age. He defined disinhibited attachment as ‘a pattern of attention-seeking behaviours with a relative lack of selectivity in social relationships’ – in other words, children are more likely to seek attention from all adults, even strangers and make inappropriate physical contact without checking back to the parent in a stressful situation. Disinhibited attachment was extremely rare in UK-born adoptees and children who were adopted at a younger age. This evidence shows that children who have spent longer in institutions are more likely to display signs of disinhibited attachment. Conclusion Children exposed to privation are more likely to make a fuller recovery if adopted into a caring environment at an earlier age. Evaluation of Rutter’s research: 38
  39. 39. The effects of institutionalisation Hodges and Tizard (1989) Aim Procedure Results Conclusions Evaluation 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. Use this page when you have finished studying the impact of day care on social development, to make a mind map of the key concepts. Include research into peer relationships and aggressive behaviour. The impact of day care on social development 41
  42. 42. Further research into the effect of day-care on children’s aggressive behaviour Baker et al (2005) What was done: Following introduction of day care for all in Quebec, the proportion of 0 to 4 year olds in day care rose by 14%, and the number of married women returning to work also increased. Baker et al analysed data on 33,000 children of two-parent families. What was found: • In the period after day care became widely available, aggression among 2 to 4 year olds increased by 24% in Quebec, compared to 1% in the rest of Canada. • The wellbeing of parents also declined, with a greater incidence of hostile parenting and dissatisfaction with spouses. Conclusion: Day care can increase aggressive behaviour. Evaluation: Relations between parents, and parents’ attitudes, also changed. This means that it is difficult to know whether the day care itself directly caused aggressiveness in the children, or whether this was at least partly caused by the different adult behaviours at home. EPPE project (1991) What was done: Studied over 3000 children in UK, between 3 and 7 years old. What was found: • Sammons et al (2003) analysed data and showed that there is a slight risk of antisocial behaviour when children spend more than 20 hours per week in nurseries. • This risk increases noticeably when they spend more than 40 hours a week in care. • Melhuish (2004) noticed increased aggression amongst children whose carers are constantly changing. Conclusion: Day care can increase anti-social and aggressive behaviour. The longer young children spend in day care, particularly nursery care or a care environment where they lack a constant care figure, the more pronounced the aggressive behaviour is. Evaluation: Supported by the US NICHD study, which also found increased aggression among children in day care. Shea et al (1981) What was done: Shea video-taped 3- and 4-year old children at playtime during their first 10 weeks at nursery school. What was found: • Children became more sociable the longer they were at nursery. • The amount of aggressive behaviour towards one another decreased. • These changes were greater in children attending for 5 days a week, compared to those attending for just 2 days a week. Conclusion: Day care can increase sociability and decrease aggressive behaviour. Evaluation: The fact that aggression reduced more in children attending for 5 days a week rather than 2 days a week, suggests that it was the day care that caused this effect rather than just the children maturing. ALSPAC (1991-1992) What was done: The progress of 14,000 children born in the UK between 1991 and 1992 was followed. What was found: No negative effects of day care, including no evidence of increased anti-social behaviour or aggression. Conclusion: Day care may not increase aggressive behaviour between children. Evaluation: This was a large-scale study, and therefore the findings can be generalised with caution to other children, at least in the UK. 42
  43. 43. Further research into the effect of day-care on children’s peer relationships Shea (1981) What was done: Shea video-taped 3- and 4-year old children at playtime during their first 10 weeks at nursery school. What was found: Children became more sociable the longer they were in day care. They stood closer together and engaged in more rough- and-tumble play, and moved further away from teachers. Conclusion: Being in day care helps social development and improves peer relations. Evaluation: A well-structured observation, looking at measurable behaviour (distance, frequency of interaction…). Findings supported by other studies, such as Clarke-Stewart (1994), Andersson (1989, 1992), and the EPPE project Clarke-Stewart (1994) What was done: Studied 150 children attending school for the first time. They had experienced different forms of day care. What was found: Children who had attended nurseries could cope better in social situations, and were able to interact better with peers, compared with children previously looked after in family settings. Conclusion: Being in day care helps social development and improves peer relations. Evaluation: A relatively small study, with just 150 participants. This means we can generalise findings, but with caution. Andersson (1989, 1992) What was done: Studied the social and cognitive progress of children attending Swedish day care. What was found: Children who attended day care were able to get along with other children better, were more sociable and outgoing, and had better abilities to play with their peers than children who did not attend day care. Conclusion: Being in day care helps social development and improves peer relations. Evaluation: Swedish day care is particularly good quality. However, findings are supported by other studies, such as Shea (1981), Clarke-Stewart (1994) and the EPPE project EPPE project What was done: Studied over 3000 children in UK, between 3 and 7 years old. What was found: Children who attended day care showed increased independence and peer sociability at 5 years. This study also found that an early start in day care (between 2 and 3 years) was also linked with being more sociable with other children. Conclusion: Being in day care helps social development and improves peer relations. Evaluation: A large sample size means that findings can be generalised with relative confidence, at least to other UK children. DiLalla (1988) What was done: Carried out a correlational study into time spent in day care and pro-social behaviour. What was found: DiLalla found a negative correlation between the amount of time spent in day care and pro-social behaviour: children who spent more time in day care were less cooperative and helpful in their dealings with other children. 43
  44. 44. Conclusion: Day care can harm peer relations. Evaluation: Useful evaluative point for contrasting with studies which found a more positive outcome. 44
  45. 45. The effect of day-care on children’s social development – Aggression Research which has found that children Evaluation of research Research which has found that children in Evaluation of research in day care are more aggressive day care are less aggressive (or that day- care makes no difference to levels of aggression) Study 1: Study 1: Study 2: Study 2: Study 3: Study 3: What conclusions can be drawn from research about the effect of day-care on children’s aggressive behaviour? 45
  46. 46. The effect of day-care on children’s social development – Peer relationships Research which has found that day-care Evaluation of research Research which has found that day-care Evaluation of research has a positive effect on peer has a negative effect on peer relationships relationships Study 1: Study 1: Study 2: Study 2: Study 3: Study 3: What conclusions can be drawn from research about the effect of day-care on children’s aggressive behaviour? 46
  47. 47. Other variables which may affect the child’s experience of day-care Other factors which Summary of research evidence may be important: The quality of the day care The amount of time . spent in day care The type of day care The child’s attachment type What conclusions can be drawn from research about how possible it is to establish a cause and effect relationship between day-care and social development? 47
  48. 48. The implications of research for improving day care provision Attachment research suggests that the day care environment should provide the child with a secure and warm attachment. Attachment research has found that separation is List as many ways as you can think of that a day care centre stressful for the child. How can day care providers might help the child develop this quality of attachment: minimise this distress? 48
  49. 49. The implications of research for improving day care provision What have we learned from research into day care and children’s social development about the importance of the What does research tell us about the characteristics of quality of care? good quality day care? 49
  50. 50. Day care task Now that you are experts on attachment theory, your task is to use your knowledge to design the ‘perfect’ day care centre. You should produce a leaflet to advertise your centre, which should include no less than 200 words. You should make the leaflet as attractive and professional looking as possible. You are going to be charging a huge amount of money for your services, because your day care centre is based on the most up to date psychological research, so your leaflet should make this clear. However, you should remember that the parents who will be reading your leaflet will probably not understand psychological terms, so any use of these should be clearly explained. When designing your ‘perfect’ day care centre, you should consider:  What is the age range of the children you will care for (and how this will affect the type of care offered?)  Who will look after the children (what personal characteristics should carers have?)  How many children will there be per member of staff?  Will each child be looked after by lots of different carers?  What sort of training will the staff receive?  How will you ensure that staff turnover is low?  How will the transition into day care be dealt with?  How will the potentially negative effects of day care be minimised?  How will the potentially positive effects of day care be maximised?  What facilities (e.g. toys and books) will be available to stimulate the children? 50
  51. 51. Attachment word search s t r a n g e s i t u a t i o n s j k n r m c g g h r e t r o s p e c t i v e g c o n d i t i o n i n g i u x b s q w g c e w e e r i n n a t e g h d q e x t r i v m i e o c n o i t a v i r p h e o e r o b n r w c e l k b i r v v i t m v b t l e e u s t h r g s e b o b h o y a n n u l g c n z e n f t q i n q o p d n e e t s u e i n o i t a r a p e s y u i n c i k d s a e k u o p t t y t f h t j o o o y d r s r r i t n m g m n v y s z o n n z e u k o h n a i o h j a b t e e r h a c r f j l e d r l n f e t o i s n k t r m a h j m i e o r o f v s w u a d u e y l c f h o p h k g t n s i l n c o j j d d y c v q t v b p r z o s b i b o j q k i a a f e o n y q o w y e y t x r c l l t d g n i t n i r p m i r w n x n c n t e t a r u d i c s y s e g d o h q q a l e a r n i n g p t i z a r d c s k h • attachment • day-care • ethology • Bowlby • strange situation • learning • secure • privation • Lorenz • resistant • separation • Belsky • avoidant • conditioning • Genie • Hodges • evolutionary • Case study • Tizard • monotropy • Van Ijzendoorn • Rutter • retrospective • Kroonenberg • imprinting • continuity • ethnocentric • Ainsworth hypothesis • innate 51

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