Psychological Investigations Experiments<br />AS Psychology<br />
Learning outcomes<br /><ul><li> Discuss what is a science?
 Participate in a psychological investigation
 Identify independent and dependent   variables
 Write alternative and null hypotheses in the standard format</li></li></ul><li>What is an experiment?<br />An experiment ...
The Stroop Experiment<br />	With the person sitting next to you number yourselves 1 and 2.<br />	Number 2’s arm yourself w...
The Stroop Experiment<br />Practice Run: Say the words you see<br />		  Purple		<br /> Orange<br />Brown<br />
The Stroop Experiment<br />Easy!<br />Number 1’s will read the word list first and number 2’s you will <br />time them!<br...
The Stroop Experiment<br />Green<br />Black<br />Red<br />Blue<br />Purple<br />Orange<br />Pink<br />Yellow<br />Brown<br...
Variables<br />When conducting a simple experiment you will need to have two variables.<br />	A variable is ... 	<br />	In...
Independent & Dependent Variables<br />Before you panic...!<br />IV – non-conflicting colours or conflicting colours<br />...
Independent & dependent variables<br />	Try it for yourself .<br />Either by yourself or with the person sitting next to y...
Answers<br />Do students recall more words in the morning or evening?<br />        IV = morning or evening	<br />	   DV = ...
Answers continued...<br /><ul><li>Will football fans be able to remember a list of football scores better than a group on ...
Still stuck?<br />When you conduct a psychology experiment you usually have two groups:<br />For example; a study looking ...
What is a hypothesis??????<br />A hypothesis is a statement or prediction of what results you expect to find after your ex...
A FURTHER EXAMPLE<br />Let’s take one of the examples you looked up for identifying IV’s and DV’s and let’s look at anothe...
Hypothesis writing practice<br />	Using your second worksheet, write hypotheses the research briefs.<br />MUST<br />SHOULD...
Null-Hypotheses<br />	As well as writing an ‘experimental’ hypotheses when carrying out research, you will also need to wr...
Null Hypothesis writing practice<br />	YOU KNOW WHAT’S COMING NEXT....<br />MUST<br />SHOULD<br />COULD<br />2 null hypoth...
Directional Vs. Non-Directional Hypotheses<br />Directional hypotheses are predictions that state the <br />direction the ...
Directional Vs. Non-Directional Hypotheses Activity<br />directional and nondirectionalhypotheses.notebook<br />
Plenary: Key word Bingo<br />Draw a 9 square grid like the one to the left.<br />Write 9 of these 12 terms you have come a...
Types of experiments see accompanying handout<br />Laboratory Experiment<br />Field Experiment<br />Quasi/Natural Experime...
Types of experiments<br />types of experiments.notebook<br />
Lesson 2<br />
Learning Outcomes<br />Recap on hypotheses and variables<br />Types of experiments<br />Identify types of experimental des...
TABOO<br />VOLUNTEERS NEEDED!<br />
Types of experiments if not completed in lesson 1<br />
Experimental DESIGN<br />There are 3 main types of experimental design that psychologists use to conduct their research – ...
EXPERIMENT 1- music v. no music<br />You are going to take part in two experiments to demonstrate how each of these design...
Repeated Measures Design<br />This design uses the same participants in both conditions<br />Each of these participants ex...
EXPERIMENT 2 - words v. pictures<br />You have one more experiment to take part in.<br />Independent measures design <br /...
Independent measures designs<br />Each participant only takes part in one condition, e.g. Words or pictures<br />(particip...
MATCHED PAIRS DESIGN<br />Halfway house between independent measures and repeated measures designs. <br />Design is rarely...
Strengths and Weaknesses of Experimental Design<br />Before a psychologist carries out an experiment he/she needs to weigh...
Plenary <br />Answer the questions on the word search to find the 10 hidden concepts.<br />
Lesson 3<br />
Starter <br />EXPERIMENTS<br />
Learning Outcomes<br />Recap on key concepts from last two lessons<br />Strengths and weaknesses of different types of exp...
Strengths and Weaknesses of Types of Experiments<br />In your groups complete the A3 grid looking for strengths and weakne...
Origami<br />Get yourself into pairs and number yourselves 1 and 2.<br />Number 1’s you need a piece of yellow paper and n...
Origami continued<br />Swap your written instructions with your partner<br />You both have 5 minutes to make your partners...
Origami feedback<br />How successful were you at making your partners origami animal?<br />Were the instructions clear?<br...
Tips for Writing Psychology Procedures<br />In psychology it is extremely important that each piece of research has a well...
Tips for Writing Psychology Procedures<br />What<br />When<br />Who<br />Writing procedures<br />Where<br />How<br />
The Stroop Test Procedure<br />25 participants were selected from the AS Psychology class at 9am on Monday 16th September....
Controls<br />Controls are used by the researcher to make sure the experiment is reliable.  A control is something that is...
Extraneous Variables<br />Extraneous variables are variables that if not kept the same for every participant, may affect t...
Identify the extraneous variables controlled in the procedure below...<br />25 participants were selected from the AS Psyc...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

853 views
800 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
853
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
11
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. Psychological Investigations Experiments<br />AS Psychology<br />
  2. 2. Learning outcomes<br /><ul><li> Discuss what is a science?
  3. 3. Participate in a psychological investigation
  4. 4. Identify independent and dependent variables
  5. 5. Write alternative and null hypotheses in the standard format</li></li></ul><li>What is an experiment?<br />An experiment involves the manipulation(changing) of an independent variable to see what effect it has on the dependent variable, while at the same time trying to control other variables which might affect the results. <br />Eeeek!!!!!!<br />What does all this mean?<br />Take part in The Stroop Experiment to find out! <br />
  6. 6. The Stroop Experiment<br /> With the person sitting next to you number yourselves 1 and 2.<br /> Number 2’s arm yourself with something you can use to tell the time, e.g. watch or clock (as you will be timing your partner)<br /> Number 1’s make sure you are sitting facing the interactive whiteboard. You will be shown a list of ten words, which you must read out loud to your partner. You will be timed for how quickly you read the list from top to bottom.<br />
  7. 7. The Stroop Experiment<br />Practice Run: Say the words you see<br /> Purple <br /> Orange<br />Brown<br />
  8. 8. The Stroop Experiment<br />Easy!<br />Number 1’s will read the word list first and number 2’s you will <br />time them!<br />After number 1’s have finished, you will swap over and number <br />two’s will read the word list.<br />No. 1’s get ready to look at the screen and read the list of words <br />to your partner as soon as they appear on the screen...<br />
  9. 9. The Stroop Experiment<br />Green<br />Black<br />Red<br />Blue<br />Purple<br />Orange<br />Pink<br />Yellow<br />Brown<br />Grey<br />Green<br />Black<br />Red<br />Blue<br />Purple<br />Orange<br />Pink<br />Yellow<br />Brown<br />Grey<br />Word List 1<br />Word List 2<br />
  10. 10. Variables<br />When conducting a simple experiment you will need to have two variables.<br /> A variable is ... <br /> In psychological experiments we use two types of variables:<br />Independent Variables– is the variable that you manipulate<br />Dependent Variables– is the variable you measure<br />Things which can vary or change. <br />
  11. 11. Independent & Dependent Variables<br />Before you panic...!<br />IV – non-conflicting colours or conflicting colours<br />DV – time taken to read the word list out loud<br />In the Stroop Test you just took part in - where you had words written in non-conflicting colours or words written in conflicting colours - what would the IV and DV be?<br />
  12. 12. Independent & dependent variables<br /> Try it for yourself .<br />Either by yourself or with the person sitting next to you identify the IV & DV for each of the studies listed on your worksheet.<br />
  13. 13. Answers<br />Do students recall more words in the morning or evening?<br /> IV = morning or evening <br /> DV = recall for a list of words<br /> <br />Do students have better memories for actors faces when asked to watch a film and recall the faces immediately or after a 30 minute delay?<br /> IV = immediately or after 30 min<br /> DV = memory for an event (e.g. car crash)<br /> <br />Does listening to music whilst revising affect A Level exam performance?<br /> IV = music or no music<br /> DV = A level exam result<br /> <br />Are reaction times slower for drivers who have had 4 hours sleep or 8 hours sleep?<br /> IV = 4 hours sleep or 8 hours sleep<br /> DV = reaction time in a driving simulation<br /> <br />
  14. 14. Answers continued...<br /><ul><li>Will football fans be able to remember a list of football scores better than a group on non-football fans?</li></ul> IV = football fans or non-football fans<br /> DV = number of football scores remembered<br /> <br /><ul><li>Do women read other peoples facial expressions better than men?</li></ul> IV = women or men<br /> DV = number of expressions correctly guessed from pictures of faces<br /><ul><li>Will participants complete more press-ups in 2 minutes when in competition with other participants?</li></ul> IV = competition or no competition<br /> DV = number of press-ups completed in 2 minutes<br />
  15. 15. Still stuck?<br />When you conduct a psychology experiment you usually have two groups:<br />For example; a study looking at whether listening to music enables you to <br />remember more words from a list.<br />The IV here is whether participants do not listen to music (condition 1) or whether <br />they do listen to music (condition 2).<br />Remember the DV is the variable which we would like to measure so here the DV is <br />number of words remembered.<br />
  16. 16. What is a hypothesis??????<br />A hypothesis is a statement or prediction of what results you expect to find after your experiment.<br /> For example – what results would you expect to find from the Stroop Experiment you took part in?<br />“Participants will take longer to state the colour of a word when it is written in a conflicting colour than when the word and the colour it is written in are the same.”<br />
  17. 17. A FURTHER EXAMPLE<br />Let’s take one of the examples you looked up for identifying IV’s and DV’s and let’s look at another hypothesis...<br />Do students recall more words in the morning or <br />evening?<br />Students who complete a memory test in <br />the morning will recall more words than <br />students who complete a memory test in <br />the afternoon.<br />What will happen? E.g. More or less, better or worse?<br />The independent variable<br />The dependent variable<br />
  18. 18. Hypothesis writing practice<br /> Using your second worksheet, write hypotheses the research briefs.<br />MUST<br />SHOULD<br />COULD<br />2 alternative hypotheses <br />4 alternative hypotheses <br />6 alternative hypotheses <br />
  19. 19. Null-Hypotheses<br /> As well as writing an ‘experimental’ hypotheses when carrying out research, you will also need to write a null-hypothesis. <br />What is a null-hypothesis?<br />A null-hypothesis is a statement of no difference between the variables.<br />For example: The Stroop Experiment<br />“There will be no difference between the number of words stated in conflicting colours and in non-conflicting colours.”<br />
  20. 20. Null Hypothesis writing practice<br /> YOU KNOW WHAT’S COMING NEXT....<br />MUST<br />SHOULD<br />COULD<br />2 null hypotheses <br />3 null hypotheses <br />4 null hypotheses <br />
  21. 21. Directional Vs. Non-Directional Hypotheses<br />Directional hypotheses are predictions that state the <br />direction the results will go in. This is also known as a <br />one-tailed hypothesis.<br />Non-Directional hypotheses are predictions that do not <br />state the direction the results will go in. This is also<br />known as a two-tailed hypothesis.<br />
  22. 22. Directional Vs. Non-Directional Hypotheses Activity<br />directional and nondirectionalhypotheses.notebook<br />
  23. 23. Plenary: Key word Bingo<br />Draw a 9 square grid like the one to the left.<br />Write 9 of these 12 terms you have come across today in the lesson:<br />Psychology<br />Experiment<br />Hypothesis<br />Variable<br />Independent variable<br />Dependent variable<br />Null - hypothesis<br />Directional hypothesis<br />Non-directional hypothesis<br />Two-tailed hypothesis<br />Controls <br />One-tailed hypothesis<br />Experimenter <br />
  24. 24. Types of experiments see accompanying handout<br />Laboratory Experiment<br />Field Experiment<br />Quasi/Natural Experiment<br />The researcher has strict control over variables and uses standardised procedures in a controlled environment. The researcher manipulates the Independent Variable.<br />The experiment takes place in the subjects own natural environment, but the researcher still manipulates the Independent Variable.<br />The independent variable is already naturally occurring; the researcher just records the effect on the dependent variable. The experiment may take place in a lab or in the natural environment.<br />
  25. 25. Types of experiments<br />types of experiments.notebook<br />
  26. 26. Lesson 2<br />
  27. 27. Learning Outcomes<br />Recap on hypotheses and variables<br />Types of experiments<br />Identify types of experimental design<br />Take part in each type of condition<br />Assess the strengths and weaknesses of each experimental design<br />
  28. 28. TABOO<br />VOLUNTEERS NEEDED!<br />
  29. 29. Types of experiments if not completed in lesson 1<br />
  30. 30. Experimental DESIGN<br />There are 3 main types of experimental design that psychologists use to conduct their research – each have they’re own strengths and weaknesses.<br />The 3 types of experimental design we will look at are;<br />Independent measures design<br />Repeated measures design<br />Matched pairs design<br />
  31. 31. EXPERIMENT 1- music v. no music<br />You are going to take part in two experiments to demonstrate how each of these designs work in practice.<br />Repeated measures design <br />Learn the items on the paper in front of you. You have 1 min to study the items, after this time turn the sheet over and write down as many of the items as you can remember.<br />You have 1 minute to do this.<br />Repeated measures design <br />You will be given one more word list. 1 minute to memorise and then 1 minute to write down as many words as you can remember<br />
  32. 32. Repeated Measures Design<br />This design uses the same participants in both conditions<br />Each of these participants experiences both the real words condition and nonsense words condition. So what we are doing is comparing each participants performance in condition 1 with their performance in condition 2.<br />
  33. 33. EXPERIMENT 2 - words v. pictures<br />You have one more experiment to take part in.<br />Independent measures design <br />You will ALL be a given a piece of paper for which you must memorise the ten items for 1 minute and then you will be asked to write down as many items as you can remember in 1 minute.<br />
  34. 34. Independent measures designs<br />Each participant only takes part in one condition, e.g. Words or pictures<br />(participant involved in either words or pictures condition - not both!).<br />Participants: Tola, Pierre, Jade, Hibo, Ifrah, Karima, Linda, Luqman, Nicole, and Sharlie.<br />For an independent measures design – we would allocate 5 of these participants in each <br />condition.<br />Each of these participants only experiences one condition!<br />
  35. 35. MATCHED PAIRS DESIGN<br />Halfway house between independent measures and repeated measures designs. <br />Design is rarely used, and quite often uses twins<br />Matched Pairs design involves the use of independent measures, but each participant in Group A is paired with one in Group B. <br />This is done by finding participants who can be matched on key characteristics, e.g. IQ, memoryability, gender and so on. ... <br />
  36. 36. Strengths and Weaknesses of Experimental Design<br />Before a psychologist carries out an experiment he/she needs to weigh up the pro’s and con’s for which will be the best EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN to use.<br />In your groups complete the A3 grid looking for strengths and weaknesses for the experimental design you have been given.<br />Be ready to present your grid back to the class.<br />
  37. 37. Plenary <br />Answer the questions on the word search to find the 10 hidden concepts.<br />
  38. 38. Lesson 3<br />
  39. 39. Starter <br />EXPERIMENTS<br />
  40. 40. Learning Outcomes<br />Recap on key concepts from last two lessons<br />Strengths and weaknesses of different types of experiments<br />Procedure writing<br />Different types of controls in experiments<br />
  41. 41. Strengths and Weaknesses of Types of Experiments<br />In your groups complete the A3 grid looking for strengths and weaknesses for the experimental design you have been given.<br />Be ready to present your grid back to the class.<br />MUST<br />SHOULD<br />COULD<br />1 strength & 1 weakness<br />2 strengths & 2 weaknesses<br />3 strengths & 3 weaknesses<br />
  42. 42. Origami<br />Get yourself into pairs and number yourselves 1 and 2.<br />Number 1’s you need a piece of yellow paper and number 2’s you need a piece of pink paper<br />Take your A4 piece of rectangular coloured paper and turn it into a square (see me if unsure).<br />You have 5 minutes to make your animal<br />After 5 minutes your instructions will be taken away<br />You will then be asked to write a set of instructions for how to make your animal for another 5 minutes (without diagrams)<br />You will now be given a set of instructions to make an animal out of your piece of coloured paper<br />
  43. 43. Origami continued<br />Swap your written instructions with your partner<br />You both have 5 minutes to make your partners origami animal, without any help from your partner and using only the instructions they have written for you.<br />
  44. 44. Origami feedback<br />How successful were you at making your partners origami animal?<br />Were the instructions clear?<br />Why is it important to have clear instructions?<br />In your pairs please take one of the instructions you have written and add what you both think is missing or what might make the instructions clearer.<br />
  45. 45. Tips for Writing Psychology Procedures<br />In psychology it is extremely important that each piece of research has a well written procedure.<br />There are some key elements that should be included in all of your procedures whilst on this course that examiners will be looking out for.<br />
  46. 46. Tips for Writing Psychology Procedures<br />What<br />When<br />Who<br />Writing procedures<br />Where<br />How<br />
  47. 47. The Stroop Test Procedure<br />25 participants were selected from the AS Psychology class at 9am on Monday 16th September. <br />Students were allocated to either the conflicting words condition or the non-conflicting words condition by partnering them up and asking them to number themselves 1 and 2. Students who were numbered 1 were in the non-conflicting words condition and students who were numbered 2 were in the conflicting words condition.<br />Students were tested in the classroom next to their partners. Number 1’s went first, while their partners timed them using a mobile phone.<br />A list of 10 colour names were projected onto the whiteboard. The colour names were all written in black ink and presented at the same time.<br />Number 1 participants were asked to read the colour names out loud to their partners, who timed how long it took them in seconds to read from the first colour to the last one on the list.<br />
  48. 48. Controls<br />Controls are used by the researcher to make sure the experiment is reliable. A control is something that is kept the same for each participant doing the experiment.<br />Researchers try and keep all variables (which are not IV’s and DV’s) the same for all participants, so they do not affect the results?<br />The variables that need to be controlled in research are called Extraneous variables.<br />
  49. 49. Extraneous Variables<br />Extraneous variables are variables that if not kept the same for every participant, may affect the results.<br />For example, in the origami activity you did - if I gave some of you a demonstration of how to make the models, it would affect how well some of you were able to make your models (i.e. some would be better).<br />Extraneous variables<br />Situational Variables<br />Participant Variables<br />
  50. 50. Identify the extraneous variables controlled in the procedure below...<br />25 participants were selected from the AS Psychology class at 9am on Monday 16th September. <br />Students were allocated to either the conflicting words condition or the non-conflicting words condition by partnering them up and asking them to number themselves 1 and 2. Students who were numbered 1 were in the non-conflicting words condition and students who were numbered 2 were in the conflicting words condition.<br />Students were tested in the classroom next to their partners. Number 1’s went first, while their partners timed them using a mobile phone.<br />A list of 10 colour names were projected onto the whiteboard. The colour names were all written in black ink and presented at the same time.<br />Number 1 participants were asked to read the colour names out loud to their partners, who timed how long it took them in seconds to read from the first colour to the last one on the list.<br />
  51. 51. Confounding variables<br />If extraneous variables are not controlled, such as testing participants at different times of the day, in different environments etc, then these variables can become what we call confounding variables.<br />A confounding variables is<br />A variable that is not controlled throughout the experiment and has an effect on the results (DV).<br />Remember the only variable that should be having an effect on the results (DV) is the independent variable.<br />
  52. 52. Exit questions<br />Please answer the following questions on your post-it and stick it on the door on your way out<br />Give one strength and one weakness of a field experiment.<br />What are the 5 components to include in any procedure?<br />What are the two types of extraneous variables and give one example for each. <br />

×