PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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PsychExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. Exam style questions : explanations of why people conform1. Explain the terms ‘informational social influence’ and ‘normative social influence’ (3 + 3)2. Outline one study that demonstrated normative social influence (4 marks)3. Outline one research study that demonstrated informational social influence (4 marks)4. Janet is concerned that her son David is mindlessly following the orders of one of the bullies at his school. Explain why David might have become willing to do this (4 marks)5. Describe and Evaluate explanations of why people conform (12 marks)
  2. 2. Why do people conform? (some other explanations) Tajfel Teenage boys aged 14-15 What was found? What was done? Social Identity explanations (Hogg, 2003)Why do people conform according to the Social Identity explanation?
  3. 3. Obedience WHAT IS OBEDIENCE?What are the differences between Conformity and Obedience? CONFORMITY OBEDIENCE EXAMPLES OF REAL LIFE OBEDIENCE
  4. 4. KEY STUDY: MILGRAM (1963) Describe the Milgram study (6 marks)AimProcedureFindingsConclusion
  5. 5. Understanding the Milgram studyWhat was the aim of Milgram’s research?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………What is the German’s are different hypothesis?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….The experimenter used prods to encourage the participants to continue. Identify one of theseprods:…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How did Milgram recruit his participants?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………What type of sample is this?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How many ‘learners’ were there in the experiment?
  6. 6. Participants were paid for taking part in the experiment. What effect might this have had on levelsof obedience?…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………What percentage of participants continued to give shocks up to 300 volts?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………What percentage continued to give shocks up to the maximum of 450 volts?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………How did Milgram try to make the experiment as realistic as possible?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………Where did the experiment take place?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………What signs were there that participants were distressed?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………What conclusions did Milgram draw from his results about what makes people obey?……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  7. 7. Variations on Milgram’s original procedure Milgram carried out many variations of his original experiment, changing some aspect of the procedure each time, in order to investigate which factors make people more likely to obey (explanations for obedience). Consider each variation, and produce a ‘guesstimate’ of the percentage of P’s who continued to give ‘shocks’ up to the full 450 volts. Your teacher will then reveal the actual percentage of people who obeyed in each variation. Copy this into the last column.Variation Your guesstimate Actual obedience rateThe original experiment 65%Venue moved to seedy offices in anearby townTeacher and learner are in the sameroomTeacher had to force learner’s handonto the plate to receive the shockTeacher given support from twoother ‘teachers’ (confederates) whorefuse to obeyExperimenter left the room andinstructed the teacher by telephonefrom another roomTeacher paired with an assistant(confederate) who threw theswitches that gave the shocks
  8. 8. EVALUATING RESEARCH INTO OBEDIENCE: Page 170-171 of text bookMilgram’s research has received a lot of criticism. Some question the ethics ofthe study and others have questioned the validity as real-life obedience.Evaluate research into obedience( 6 marks ): ETHICAL ISSUSES IN OBEDIENCE RESEARCH Argument against Milgram In defence of MilgramDeception andlack ofinformedconsentRight towithdrawProtectionfrom harmWas Milgram’s study ethical or unethical?
  9. 9. VALIDITY IN OBEDIENCE RESEARCH REALISM Generalizability: The obedience alibi:
  10. 10. EXAM STYLE QUESTIONS:1. Outline how Milgram investigated obedience (4 marks)2. Explain why people described the results of Milgram’s research as surprising (3 marks)3. Explain why some psychologists have criticised Milgram for conducting unethical research (3 marks)4. Milgram defended his research and claimed it was not unethical. Give one way he may have justified his research (3 marks)5. Outline and evaluate research studies relating to obedience (12 marks)
  11. 11. Explanations for obedienceWhy do people obey so readily? Obedience research has led psychologists to suggest a number ofpossible explanations. Use your textbook (p. 199-201) to help you describe and/or give an example ofeach of the explanations listed below: Legitimate authority The agentic state Gradual commitment (the foot in the door technique) Buffers
  12. 12. Exam style questions: 1. Outline two explanations of why people obey (3 + 3) 2. Give one criticism of why people obey (3) 3. Describe two factors that explain high levels of obedience (4) 4. Outline one or more explanations of why most of the participants did obey (6) 5. Validity is an important issue in psychological research. In the context of Milgram’s study, explain why validity is important (6 marks) 6. Outline one factor that enhanced the validity of the study and one way in which the study lacked validity ( 3 + 3 ) 7. Discuss explanations of why people obey (12 marks)

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