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Self-Disclosure in Ethics Education


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By Don McAleer, John Lemoncelli, and Molly Cowan

By Don McAleer, John Lemoncelli, and Molly Cowan

Published in: Health & Medicine

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  • It applies to verbal and also to other deliberate actions, such a placing a certain family photo in the office, office décor or an empathic gesture, such as touch or a certain sound (Barnett, 1998; Gutheil & Gabbard, 1998; Mahalik, Van Ormer & Simi, 2000 ; Zur, 2007). There are two types of deliberate self-disclosures. The first one is self-revealing, which is the disclosure of information by therapists about themselves. The second type has been called self-involving, which involves therapists' personal reactions to clients and to occurrences that take place during sessions (Knox, Hess, Petersen, & Hill, 1997). Natural: age, handicap, SES, marital status, perhaps religious affiliation Accidental: Unplanned outside the office, grocery stores, restaurants (company), sporting events
  • Small group someone in perceived authority disclosure How did it impact Are there themes that hold true
  • Transcript

    • 1. Self Disclosure in Ethics Education Pedagogical Tool Or Educational Philosophy
    • 2. Overview
      • Background on self disclosure
      • Use of self disclosure in therapy
      • Self disclosure in education
        • Student
        • Faculty
      • Educational Context Philosophy
        • Professional Development
        • Self Awareness / reflection
        • Factors that inhibit / enhance
    • 3.  
    • 4. Therapist Self Disclosure
      • Key element - based on the client or therapist?
      • Deliberate
        • Self Revealing
        • Self Involving
      • Naturally Occurring
      • Accidental
    • 5. Disclosure in therapy
      • Effectiveness of peer models (AA)
      • Normalizes experience
      • Alleviates embarrassment
      • Positive modeling of coping strategies
      • Provides hope
      • Increase rapport, compliance
      • Enhances positive client expectations
      • Strengthens the relationship
      • Normalizes client reactions
      • Models appropriate interpersonal functioning
    • 6.
      • Are these factors / benefits the same or different from, our experience…in teaching
    • 7. Disclosure in Supervision
      • Serve as didactic learning
      • To improve supervisor alliance
      • Facilitate trainee disclosure
      • Something to ponder: Are the what’s of self disclosure less important then the how's of self disclosure?
    • 8. Disclosure in the Classroom
      • Generally one sided: Student -> Faculty
        • Self awareness is critical to development of professional skills
          • Counter-transference, diversity, personal sense of mastery/confidence, professional identity, comfort level working with the process of self revelation
        • Self reflection / disclosure common in supervision and training
        • How much is up to the student
    • 9. Research on Faculty Disclosure
      • ?
    • 10. Disclosure in the classroom
      • Student writing assignments
      • Therapy / Clinic supervision
      • Professional development seminars
      • Class discussions
    • 11. Disclosure in the Classroom
      • Fear of failure / embarrassment
      • Lack of disclosure skills
      • Desire to collaborate
      • Reflects interest in the subject
      • Deepens understanding and learning
      • Enhances students idea of role identity “what it means to be a psychologist”
    • 12. Group Exercise
      • Does self disclosure have a place in ethics education?
      • Have you ever had an experience where someone in a perceived authority self disclosed as a response to your situation or dilemma?
      • How did this impact you?
      • Themes?
    • 13. Student Experience The James Madison Approach
    • 14. Discussions with our students
      • Infrequent
        • Hierarchy
          • “ closes the gap”
        • Limited common ground
      • Types
        • Personal
        • Reflective on similar experiences
        • Casual
    • 15. Discussions with our students
      • Too much in either direction
        • Stiffness breeds avoidance, fear to approach, don’t want to appear stupid
        • “ Buddy” turns off, leads to unwanted sharing, uncomfortable
      • Role Model
        • Requires disclosure
        • How to become a professional
          • Learning from mistakes
          • Seeking consultation
    • 16.
      • “ it can’t happen to me”
      • “ I don’t think less of the professor”
      • “ This is just a regular guy. If he can do it (become a professional), so can I.”
    • 17. Discussions with our students
      • “ Who is it for”
      • Growth oriented
        • Faculty don’t always know
      • Contained within making a point
      • War Stories
      • Inadvertent learning:
    • 18.
      • Acculturation Model
        • Talks of stresses associated with developmental identity
        • Needs
          • Training, role modeling
          • Suggests utility of sharing own personal ethical models, issues
    • 19.
      • Acculturation Tasks
        • Communication Ability
        • Responsibility and Accountability
        • Time management/ self care
        • Self understanding / self reflection
        • Personal and professional identity
        • Critical thinking / analysis
      Professional Development: Training for Professionalism as a Foundation for Competent Practice in Psychology. By Elman, Nancy S.; Illfelder-Kaye, Joyce; Robiner, William N. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 2005 Aug Vol 36(4) 367-375
    • 20. Ethical Code re: Student Disclosure
      • 7.04 Student Disclosure of Personal Information Psychologists do not require students or supervisees to disclose personal information in course- or program-related activities, either orally or in writing, regarding sexual history, history of abuse and neglect, psychological treatment, and relationships with parents, peers, and spouses or significant others except if (1) the program or training facility has clearly identified this requirement in its admissions and program materials or (2) the information is necessary to evaluate or obtain assistance for students whose personal problems could reasonably be judged to be preventing them from performing their training- or professionally related activities in a competent manner or posing a threat to the students or others.
    • 21. Ethical Code re: Faculty / Supervisor Disclosure
      • ?
      • 4. Privacy And Confidentiality
      • 3.08 Exploitative Relationships
      • 3.05 Multiple Relationships
      • 3.04 Avoiding Harm
      • 2.06 Personal Problems and Conflicts
    • 22.  
    • 23. Questions for the Groups
      • What is needed to create an atmosphere conducive to disclosure in the classroom?
      • Should faculty self disclose? What is the role or utility of Faculty disclosure? Are there special considerations / cautions? Is this a true self disclosure or simply a “war story”?
      • What methods can be used to enhance self reflection and learning that do not require disclosure or is disclosure a necessary component of training?
    • 24. Questions for groups
      • What differences exist between training programs and internships that would affect disclosure and how?
      • Are there fundamental differences between therapist disclosure / disclosure in therapy vs. faculty disclosure / educational settings ?
      • What are the effects of disclosure on classroom dynamics / peer interactions / student teacher interactions and how can these be managed?
    • 25.