Developed for Science Laboratories September 2002
This training presentation has been created for those who are required to undergo general laboratory safety training and have not taken this training with their supervisor. It is also recommended for those laboratories that do not fall under regulation, but are needing a safety laboratory overview.There are hyperlinks throughout the presentation. Where there is the followingicon additional training is required. Training
IntroductionLaboratory safety is the key to reducing injury andillness. There are many exposures in the laboratorythat pose a hazard to your health and you may havenever considered them as a hazard before. It isimportant to have proper training so you, as theemployee, are aware of the potential dangers that maythreaten your health or life.
IntroductionAs you go through this training module, you will have abetter understanding regarding the concept of safetyand how safety is utilized in every aspect of your life.The University has an obligation to protect eachstudent, assistant, faculty and staff. There are alsoregulations that pertain to ISU to ensure compliance.Let’s take a look at the different agencies that areinvolved!
Agency InformationSeveral agencies are involved in safety compliance atthe University. The following agencies impact ourlaboratories as far as safety is involved. National Institute of Health (NIH) In charge of laboratories that use or contain recombinant DNA (rDNA). They specify the practices for constructing and handling the rDNA.
Agency InformationCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) In charge of laboratories that use or contain infectious agents. They are focused on protecting personnel and the laboratory environmental from exposure to infectious agents. They are also aiming at preventative measures by adhering to strict containment.
Agency InformationOccupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) OSHA primarily monitors Hazardous Materials, Hazard Communication, Bloodborne Pathogens, and Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories at ISU. OSHA is in charge of monitoring work conditions and eliminating physical and health hazards at the work place.
Agency InformationEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) The EPA is in charge of the wastes that ISU generates and stores. Many hazardous wastes are used in research laboratories and they pose a threat to humans, animals, plants, and the environment. There are also biohazardous wastes that are regulated and must be properly decontaminated and disposed of.
Agency InformationEnvironmental Health & Safety Office (EHS) The EHS office plays a large role in overseeing the various activities that take place on campus. They interpret laws and regulations, and maintain up-to-date records of current health and safety standards. The duties range from fire safety and laboratory safety to training and emergency response.
Why Training?Training is by far the most important aspect ofsafety. Training not only reduces illness/injury butalso increases worker efficiency and awareness.Training is required by regulation and ISU has highregard for fulfilling this commitment. Preventinghazards and increasing awareness is the goal forthe EHS office.
Who is in Charge of Training?Everyone on campus is in charge of training. Theindividual is responsible for participation of thetraining, comprehending the information, andutilize the information for the specific duties. Thesupervisor is in charge of providing proper andeffective training. The EHS office providesassistance to departments in achieving regulatorycompliance and developing proactive strategies.
Let’s Get Started!Working in a laboratory can be anexciting experience. It can also posemany threats and hazards that atraditional classroom does not. Thatis why it is important to know yoursurroundings. Know where the exitsto your room are. There may be morethan one exit which could be critical inthe case of an emergency. Yoursupervisor will go over the emergencyaction plan including the escape routeprocedures for your room.
Know Your SurroundingsIt is also recommended to be aware of the fireextinguishers in location to your laboratory. In orderto fight a fire one must undergo the proper training.In the event of a fire, the first response is to evacuatethe area and notify the fire department! Any campusphone will initially direct calls to the ISU Police Dept.and from there the fire dept. will be dispatched. Fromany campus phone just dial 911. Do not wait anylonger than necessary to call, time is of the essence!
Know Your SurroundingsKnow where the fire alarm is in proximity to your laboratory. Is it right down the hall or is it in the stairwell? If there is a fire, a quick response is the best response. Have your supervisor show you the closest alarm. The fire safety training will detail the safety procedures for your lab. Trainin g
Know Your SurroundingsMany laboratories contain hazardous substances.A hazardous substance is defined as amaterial/substance that poses a physical or healthhazard. This includes both chemicals and biologicalagents.A Biohazard is defined as any organism that is capableof replication and is capable of causing disease inhuman, animal or plant.There are differences between a physical hazard and a health hazard. Let’s take a look.
Know Your SurroundingsA health hazard has the followingcharacteristics: Carcinogen Toxic or highly toxic Reproductive Toxins Irritants Corrosives Sensitizers Hepatotoxins Nephrotoxins Neurotoxins
Know Your SurroundingsA physical hazard has the followingcharacteristics: Explosive Flammable Oxidizer Pyrophoric Organic peroxide Compressed gas Combustible liquid Unstable (Reactive) Water-reactive
Know Your SurroundingsWhen physical hazards and health hazardsexist, it is very important to know where theeye wash/safety shower is located.Unexpected accidents do occur andknowing where to go at the time of anemergency can reduce injury/illness.
Know Your SurroundingsFirst aid kits have a variety of quick relief items.If your lab has a first aid kit, find out where it is.If more than first aid is needed, it isrecommended to go to Student Health Servicesfor further treatment. In an event that wouldrequire more than first aid to be treated, report itto the EHS office within the next 24 hours.
Know Your SurroundingsWhen there are chemical, biological, orradioactive agents being used, anemergency spill kit should be available. Ifthere is a spill kit in your lab, find itslocation. Further Spill information will beaddressed later in this presentation.
Know Your SurroundingsEach laboratory has a telephone in adesignated area for use. The emergencycontact numbers are posted near the phonein every laboratory on the ISU campus.
Hazards in your LabChemicals can pose a significant hazard. They should belimited to the use under a properly working fume hood.Chemicals can release hazardous vapors which not onlyharm the environment, but they can be a major healththreat. They must be handled carefully and disposed ofproperly.
Hazards in your LabWhen a chemical is in the laboratory, the hazards ofthat chemical must be communicated to you.According to Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA), a Chemical Hygiene Plan(CHP) is required to relay information regardingprocedures, equipment, PPE, and work practicesthat are capable of protecting employees fromhealth hazards.Your supervisor is in charge of providing theinformation contained in the CHP to you.
Lab SafetyThe following guidelines have been established tominimize the hazards in a laboratory setting. It isimportant to take responsibility for your actionsand to keep in mind that irresponsible acts couldhave lasting future effects.The next portion of the training is simply reviewand is meant to remind you of responsibleconduct in a laboratory setting. As the hazardsincrease, the risks increase, and the responsibilitymust increase.
Lab Attire You should remember the following: No open-toed shoes No shorts unless a lab coat is used Restrain hair when working with hazardous materials Remove protective clothing and gloves in public Use the proper Personal Protective Equipment for the job
Personal HabitsPersonal habits play a large role inminimizing hazards. The following measuresmust be taken: Do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum or apply cosmetics, or remove/insert contact lenses while in the laboratory Do not store food or beverages in the lab or in chemical refrigerator Do not mouth pipette Wash hands before leaving laboratory or after handling contaminated material
Safe Practices These safe practices should be followed to ensure safe working conditions: Do not use chipped or cracked glassware When working with hazardous materials, have a second person nearby Know emergency procedures Keep the laboratory neat and clean Use hazardous chemicals under a fume hood and biohazardous materials under a biosafety cabinet (BSC) Decontaminate as needed All procedures should be performed to minimize aerosol generation
Know details/location of your vital Laboratory Information!
Laboratory InformationEach lab contains an Emergency Action Plan which isrequired for emergency situations. This is used to informfaculty/staff/students of the procedures to follow in theevent of an emergency. This includes the followinginformation:
Laboratory InformationThe Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) is similar to the HazardCommunication Program, but this is specifically for laboratorieswith chemicals. This is to relay information regarding procedures,equipment, PPE, and work practices that are capable of protectingemployees from health hazards. If you are working with acids, itwould be nice to know what personal protective equipment isnecessary and what health hazards are associated with it.
Chemical Hygiene According to the laboratory standard, for those labs that have chemicals the following training topics must be addressed: Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence or release of a hazardous chemicals. Physical and health hazards Measures employees can take to protect themselves from hazards Details of the CHPThis training is covered in the Hazard Communication Training Presentation Trainin
Chemical Hygiene PlanMethods and observations used to detect thepresence or release of chemicals will bespecific to your lab. A good indication of thepresence of a chemical is to rely on yoursenses. Can you see it or smell it? Is amonitoring device needed to detect it? Thiscan be important information if the chemical isan asphyxiant and pushes oxygen out of theroom you are in.
Chemical HygieneProtection against chemicals is a combination ofwork procedures or practices, emergencyprocedures, and PPE. Some chemicals can onlybe handled under certain conditions. It isimportant to use proper handling procedures andpractices as advised. The emergency proceduresfor chemical accidents is to first evacuate the areaand then notify your supervisor, ISU campuspolice and EHS office if necessary.
Chemical HygieneEach lab that has chemicals will have a labspecific Chemical Hygiene Plan. This planwill detail the procedures and practices foryour specific location. It is yourresponsibility to make sure that you reviewthe CHP.
LabelingIt is important to know as much about achemical as possible. The most dangeroussubstance is the one that has no label.Communicating information is essential in thescience field.
MSDSThere are several constituents that arecovered in the Laboratory Standard. Amongthese constituents includes labeling and theMSDS. Let’s look more closely at the contentof the MSDS. MSDS
MSDSIn addition to labeling in a laboratory, thenext most important type of communicationregarding hazards is the MSDS. This is theacronym for Material Safety Data Sheet.This will communicate the informationnecessary regarding hazards associatedwith chemicals and also biological agents.
MSDSSo what is an MSDS? An MSDS is adocument that relays vital information aboutcertain chemicals and biological agents. MSDS Content Click here!
Reading the MSDS Each component of the MSDS is broken down into sections. Each section goes into detail about what precautions to take and the characteristics of the substance. This is for both chemicals and biological agents. See the below links for example MSDSs.http://www.setonresourcecenter.com/MSDSs/comply1.htm
Laboratory InformationWhy is an MSDS important? When you knowcharacteristics about a substance it can aid inprecautionary measure to take when using it.Also, if there is a spill either on a surface or onyour skin, the MSDS can supply you with theinformation needed for first aid.
MSDSThe MSDS to every chemical in yourlab must be available to you. It may bein a notebook in your labor availableover the internet. Make sure you findthe location of the MSDSs in your room. MSDS
What is PPE?PPE is short for personal protective equipment. This is theequipment that is necessary to protect yourself fromhazardous and biohazardous materials. PPE could be gloves,safety glasses, lab coat, shoe covers, respirator or any otheritem that could protect you from dangerous materials that youmay encounter in the lab.
When to use PPEKnowing what to use and when to use it is the key to properlyprotecting yourself. There could be situations that would bemore of a risk and require more PPE than others. The next fewslides will help you in determining what you should be using!
When to use PPEChemical usage poses a variety of hazards.They can be flammable, corrosive, eventoxic just to name a few. Taking allprecautions to avoid physical and/or healthproblems is the number one goal. You cannever be too cautious!
Chemicals & PPEWhen chemicals are being used there isalways the possibility of splashing. The properPPE to use when chemicals are involvedwould include:Safety glassesGlovesRespirator (depending on the chemical and the exposure duration) The Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) for an 8 hr. shift can beobtained from the PEL/BEL reference guide. Contact EHS if questionsarise.
Proper Use of PersonalProtective Equipment (PPE)
Use of PPEKnowing how to properly use PPE can bethe key to adequate protection. Not onlydo you want to make sure it is the propersize for you, but also make sure you arewearing it properly. If it is too big or toosmall, it is not right for you! Let yoursupervisor know if you need a differentsize.
Use of PPEIf you think you need a respirator talk withyour supervisor or contact EHS (438-8325)
Location & Availability of PPEEach Lab should have a designated area for thePPE that is used. The PPE should also be readilyavailable when working with materials that require it. If the proper equipment is not available, you shouldnot proceed with the work. Notify your supervisorwhen you need to order PPE. Give an advancednotice when possible due to shipping time. Alwaysconsider in advance what you will need whenconducting research. PPE
What is a “Sharp”?A sharp is defined as any instrument, tool, oritem that has rigid, acute edges,protuberances or corners capable of cutting,piercing, ripping or puncturing such assyringes, blades, and broken glass. Itemsthat have the potential for shattering orbreaking are also considered sharps. http://www.ehrs.upenn.edu/training/bloodborne/bloodborne.html
Safe PracticesWhen using a sharp there is a risk of being cutby the object and possible infection occurringdepending on what the sharp was used for. Ifhypodermic needles are used, specialprecautions must be taken to reduce the risk ofa needlestick. After use of the needle do notrecap, place directly in the sharp container.
Disposal of SharpsAll sharps must be placed into a rigid,puncture and leak-resistant container thatis also impervious to moisture. Thesharps container must be labeled eitherwith “Biohazard” or “Infectious Waste”. Donot over fill the sharps container. http://www.ehrs.upenn.edu/training/bloodborne/bloodborne.html
Disposal of SharpsWhen the sharpscontainer is full it mustbe collected by the EHSoffice. A waste pick-upform can be completedand a collection can bescheduled. A wastepick-up form can beobtained from the EHSoffice (438-8325).
BSL-1 Laboratory BIOHAZARD All Personal Protective Equipment shall be removed prior to leaving this work area. Eating, drinking, smoking applying cosmetics or lip balm and handling contacts lenses area prohibited in this work area. Name of infectious agent(s): __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Transmission route(s): __________________________________________________________________________________ Special requirements for entering this area: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Emergency contacts Name: ________________________________ Title: ______________ Phone: _______________ ________________________________ _______________ _______________ ________________________________ _______________ _______________ EH&S office (M-F 8-5) 646-3327 (after hours) 911. __________________________________________________________________________________ *Biosafety Level 2 is similar to BSL-1 and is suitable for work involving agents of moderate potential hazard to personnel and the environment. It differs from BSL-1 in that 1.Lab personnel have specific training in handling pathogenic agents and directed to competent scientist; 2. Access to the lab is limited when work is being conducted: 3. Extreme precautions are taken with contaminated sharp items and 4. Certain procedures in which infectious aerosols or splashes may be created are conducted in biological safety cabinets or other physical containment equipment New Mexico State University Date _______ Environmental Health & SafetySigns and Labeling
LabelingChemical labeling has been briefly touched on earlierin the presentation. One must remember that if anychemical is transferred to a secondary container, thiscontainer must be labeled. If the chemical will beused by the end of the work shift, then labeling is notnecessary. Good science practices wouldencourage you to label all containers. So what is included on the Label? Click here
SignsSigns are a way of communicating importantinformation. It is a way to heightenawareness about hazards that exist.There may be signs on laboratoryrefrigerators reminding you that no food ordrink can be stored in it. There may beradioactive or biological materials that couldpossibly be absorbed in food.There may also be signs which denote thatPPE must be used.
SignsLabs which use recombinant DNA BSL-1 Laboratoryand infectious agents must have asign posted on the outside of the BIOHAZARDdoor. Before someone enters the All Personal Protective Equipment shall be removed prior to leaving this work area. Eating, drinking, smoking applying cosmetics or lip balm and handling contacts lenses area prohibited in this work area. Name of infectious agent(s):lab, they will have the information __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Transmission route(s): __________________________________________________________________________________they need to protect themselves. Special requirements for entering this area: __________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________ Emergency contacts Name: ________________________________ Title: ______________ Phone: _______________Always read the signs carefully so ________________________________ _______________ _______________ ________________________________ _______________ _______________ EH&S office (M-F 8-5) 646-3327 (after hours) 911. __________________________________________________________________________________ *Biosafety Level 2 is similar to BSL-1 and is suitable for work involving agents of moderate potential hazard to personnel and the environment. It differs from BSL-1 in that 1.Lab personnel have specific training in handling pathogenic agents and directed to competent scientist;you know what precautions to 2. Access to the lab is limited when work is being conducted: 3. Extreme precautions are taken with contaminated sharp items and 4. Certain procedures in which infectious aerosols or splashes may be created are conducted in biological safety cabinets or other physical containment equipment New Mexico State University Date _______ Environmental Health & Safetytake.
Practices and TechniquesResponsible practices and techniques arerequired when working with hazardousmaterials. This is one very important wayto reduce accidents/injuries. Yoursupervisor will train you in the responsibleuse of hazardous materials specific toyour laboratory.
Safety EquipmentCertain equipment is necessary to achievecompliance and most importantly to provideadequate protection.The safety equipment that is needed isknown as primary and secondary barriers.Let’s take a look at the difference in thebarriers.
Primary BarriersPrimary barriers are referring to protectivemeasures including engineering controls. Thisincludes not only PPE that has already beencovered, but it also includes safety cabinets, fumehoods, vaccines and autoclaves. It is important to know when this equipment is to be used and how to properly use it.
Primary BarriersLet’s look at the following barriers: (Besides PPE) Fume hood Biological Safety Cabinet (BSC) Autoclave
Fume HoodThe fume hood is used with chemicals. Themain function is to exhaust the vapors andgases that are generated in the hood to theoutside. The hood is designed to minimizeyour exposure to airborne contaminants. Thisis not to be used with biohazardous materials.
Fume Hood UseWhen using the fume hood you first need to makesure the exhaust blower is operating and air isentering the hood.Remember, do not put your face inside the hood!Minimize storage of chemicals in the hoodClean spills immediatelyWork with the sash at the proper operating levelas indicated by the arrows
Biological Safety CabinetThe biological safety cabinet (BSC) is used asa containment for infectious agents. The BSChas a HEPA filter in the exhaust system toprotect the environment and yourself.The (HEPA) filter is a high efficiencyparticulate air filter. It is able to removeparticles at a size of 0.3 µm with an efficiencyof 99.97%. It is also able to remove bothsmaller and larger particles.
BSCThere are 3 classes of BSC that are used.The higher the risk group and biosafetylevel, the higher the class of cabinet that isused.If there is an infectious agent being used,whether it is used in research animals orcultured, it must be manipulated inside theBSC.
PPEWhen using this containment device, remember to alsouse the proper personal protective equipment. Thefollowing PPE should be considered depending on theBSL that is required for the organism that you use. Gloves Lab Coat Shoe Covers Safety Glasses Respirator
Use of PPEAlways make sure that the BSC has beendecontaminated both before and after use.Decontamination methods vary depending on theinfectious agent being used. Once thedecontamination of the cabinet is complete, placethe waste in a biohazard bag for autoclave.
Use of BSCDo not bring contaminated materials out of thecabinet until they have been surfacedecontaminated. If you are unable todecontaminate, place the material into aclosed container to transfer it to the autoclave
Work Practices for the BSCRemember to follow the work practices: Work in such a way that your face is above the front opening Wait for 1 minute after placing hands/arms inside the cabinet to stabilize the air flow Work at least 4 inches from the inside edge of the front of the grille
Work Practices for the BSCRemember to place all materials as farback in the cabinet as possibleLimit the storage within the cabinet
AutoclaveAn autoclave is used to treat infectiousmaterial and recombinant DNA. As astandard for the University, all material of thisnature must be autoclaved as a safetyprecaution. The autoclave is able to renderthe material as non-infectious.
AutoclaveThe autoclave is able to reach a hightemperature to sterilize the agent. It isimportant to know the standard operatingprocedures (SOP) for the autoclave. TheSOP is located next to each autoclave. If thetemperature or pressure is inadequate, thebag is overfilled, or the peak time is not longenough the material will not be properlydecontaminated.
AutoclaveThe autoclave is sensitive totime, temperature, pressure,water content, type of containerbeing used and the type ofwaste being sterilized. Whenusing the autoclave there are afew important point toremember in order for theprocess to be effective.
ProceduresThe material being autoclaved must be placed insidean autoclave red bag or in a pan (Do not overfill thebag).Add ~250-500ml water to the bag or pan for steam togenerate and properly circulateA spore strip or other approved tape must be placed onthe outside of the bag or pan to verify that the heattreatment was successful. You will have to verify that acolor change took place.
ProceduresThe autoclave must reach a temperature of 121°C(250 °F) for at least ½ hour at a pressure of 15psiAfter successfully being autoclaved, the material canbe placed in regular trash.Sharps must be incinerated. When the container isfull, a pick up can be scheduled through EHS andfrom there Student Health Services will incinerate thesharps container for proper disposal
Autoclave LogEach time the autoclave is used, the log mustbe completed by the individual using it. The logis to be located at the site of the autoclave.The information contained within the log is asfollows: Date Generator Name (P.I.) Location Time the autoclave reached 121 °C Max Temp. Pressure Type of waste If spores or tape were used Weight Person using autoclave
Autoclave LogThe log is required by EPA and it must bemaintained for 3 years by the department.The purpose of the log is to ensure that properdecontamination is taking placeIf a new log is needed at the autoclave,contact the biology department or EHS.
Secondary BarriersSecondary barriers are the facility designand construction. These barriers are toprovide protection for the individualsoutside the lab, the community, and theenvironment.
Secondary BarriersAn example of a Secondary barrier would be alaboratory. It is separate from the classroom andhas limited access. The animal room has limited access and isonly available to authorized personnel. The autoclave is set away from the normaltraffic. The handwashing facilities are located within the lab and not accessible by the outsidestudents.
DecontaminationDecontamination is the removal orneutralization of toxic agents or the use ofphysical or chemical means to remove,inactivate, or destroy living organisms. Thisincludes both sterilization and disinfection.
DecontaminationDecontamination is the responsibility of alllaboratory workers. Failure todecontaminate can result in exposure toinfectious agents which can cause greatillness. Most decontamination can bedone by chemicals. This technique isused only when autoclaving is notpossible. Continue on to see what wouldbe best for your lab.
ChemicalsThere are a variety of chemicals that can beused as an effective method ofdecontamination. Depending on the agentbeing used, the method to use may vary alongwith the contact time. For most organisms, a1:100 chlorine solution for 10-30 minutes isadequate. The Biosafety Manual has a list ofsterilizers/ disinfectants that can be used.
AutoclaveThe autoclave is the most effective method touse for decontamination purposes. As ageneral rule of thumb, autoclave all materialsthat are considered infectious agent,recombinant DNA, or resemble components ofthis nature. When in doubt, AUTOCLAVE! If amaterial is not capable of autoclave because ofits size, material, or it is stationary, then rely onchemical disinfectant as a second option.
SOPSpills and accidents can pose a serious healthand safety threat. When a spill occurs, anaerosol can be created which can make thematerial several times more potent. The bestmeasure to take in order to protect yourself is tobe prepared. There should be standardoperating procedures for this type of situation inyour lab.
What to Do?Being able to recognize the hazards, mitigate the spill,and notifying response authorities can be your bestdefense. The first response to a spill should be toevacuate the immediate area until the scope of thehazard has been addressed. Seek medical attention ifnecessary. Allow sufficient time for the aerosol to settlebefore considering entering the room. If you areresponsible for clean up, proper training shall beaddressed.
How to ReportWhen a spill occurs, it must be reported.Report to your supervisor all spills. If medicalattention is needed, it is suggested to go toStudent Health Services. All injuries that area result of a spill must be reported to EHS.
WasteHazardous and biohazardous waste hasspecial guidelines for proper disposal. It isimportant to properly dispose of waste toensure human and environmental health.EPA regulates the waste that is generatedat ISU.
WasteWaste can be classified as either hazardous orbiohazardous. Let’s take a closer look at the differences.Hazardous Waste- This is a waste which contains thecharacteristics of being any of the following: Toxic Corrosive Ignitable Flammable Oxidizer
WasteA biohazardous waste is any waste that isconsidered infectious and/or because of itsbiological nature it can cause physical orhealth hazards in humans, animals, plants orthe environment. This includes recombinantDNA and other genetically altered organismsand agents.
Proper DisposalWaste that is considered biohazardous can bedisposed of in regular trash once it has beenrendered non-infectious. If a biohazard labeledbag is used, make sure it is either placed in asecondary bag or a completely new bag that is notred. http://www.lbl.gov/ehs/Medical/html/biohazardous.htm
Proper DisposalHazardous waste must be disposed ofthrough the Environmental Health & Safetyoffice. If you need to have hazardouswaste picked up, contact EHS for a pick-upform. EHS 438-8325
You have now completed the General LabSafety Training presentation. If you haveany questions please take the time to askyour supervisor or call EHS.