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Sociology Of Mental Illness Presentation Sociology Of Mental Illness Presentation Presentation Transcript

  • Sociology of Mental Illness Dalia Al-Mansy UMBC PSYC 493
  • Overview History of mental illness   Stigma of mental illness  Culture & mental illness
  • History – Prehistoric Times Limited evidence prior to written  records  Related behavioral abnormalities have been found in non-human great apes  Evidence from Neolithic times of the practice of trepanation ◦ An attempt to cure ailments related to mental disorders
  • History – Ancient Civilizations Egyptian & Mesopotamian  ◦ Ebers papyrus – describes disordered states of concentration and attention, and emotional distress in the heart or mind ◦ Somatic treatments included applying bodily fluids while reciting magical spells ◦ Hallucinogens used as part of healing rituals ◦ Religious temples as therapeutic retreats  Facilitate sleep & interpret dreams Early Navajo Indians  ◦ Many common techniques that are used today were also used then ◦ No records of killings or sending away of the mentally ill
  • History – Ancient Civilizations Indian  ◦ Ramayana & Mahabharata: fictional descriptions of depression and anxiety states ◦ Mental disorders were thought to reflect abstract metaphysical entities, supernatural agents, sorcery or witchcraft ◦ Caraka Samhita, circa 600 BC: ill health is a result of imbalance among 3 kinds of bodily fluids/forces ◦ Suggested causes: inappropriate diet; disrespect towards the gods, teachers or others; mental shock due to excessive fear or joy; faulty bodily activity ◦ Treatments: herbs & ointments, charms & prayers, moral/emotional persuasion, shocking the person
  • History – Ancient Civilizations Chinese  ◦ Treatment under Traditional Chinese Medicine  Herbs  Acupuncture  Emotional therapy ◦ Emphasis on the connections between bodily organs and emotions ◦ Conditions thought to comprise 5 stages/elements ◦ Imbalance between Yin and Yang Hebrew and Israelite  ◦ Mental disorders caused by problems in the relationship between the individual and God ◦ Mood disorders in Biblical figures in the Hebrew Bible/Old Testament
  • History - Ancient Civilizations Greek and Roman  ◦ Diseases caused by an imbalance in 4 humours of the body ◦ Hippocrates: proposed a triad of mental disorders termed melancholia, mania, and phrenitis ◦ Plato: 2 types of mental illness  Divinely inspired – person has prophetic powers  Physical disease ◦ Aristotle: all mental illness caused by physical problems ◦ Stereotypical madness – aimless wandering and violence ◦ Treatments – ranged from drugs to beatings and religious rituals
  • History – Middle Ages Persia, Arabia and the Muslim Empire  ◦ Greek texts were translated, analyzed, and integrated with religious thoughts ◦ Links were made to the brain in various ways, as well as to spiritual/mystical meaning ◦ Persian & Arabic scholars  Al-Balkhi, Al-Tabari, Al-Razi (Rhazes), Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), Al- Ghazali, Ibn-Sina (Avicenna), Al-Majusi (Haly Abbas), Abu al- Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), and Averroes ◦ In Islam, the mentally ill were considered incapable yet deserving of humane treatment & protection ◦ Mental disorders thought to be caused by possession by a djin that was either good or demon-like ◦ The first psychiatric hospitals ◦ Benevolent treatments – baths, drugs, music & activities
  • History – Middle Ages Christian Europe  ◦ Concept of madness as a mixture of divine, diabolical, magical & transcendental ◦ Theories of the 4 humors ◦ Arnaldus de Villanova: promoted trepanning as a cure to let demons and excess humours escape the body ◦ Madness seen as moral issue – either a punishment for sin or a test of faith/character ◦ Episodes of mass mania – dancing in a way that gives the appearance of insanity ◦ Care of the mentally ill was the responsibility of the family
  • History – Modern Period 16th to 18th Centuries  ◦ Many mentally ill were victims of witch-hunts, however, those judges insane were admitted to local workhouses, poorhouses, and jails ◦ End of 17th century: madness seen as an organic physical phenomenon – no longer involving the soul or moral responsibility ◦ New terminology for mental disorders and the mentally ill ◦ End of 18th century: Moral Treatment Movement  Notable figures: Vincenzo Chiarugi, Phillipe Pinel, Quakers in England led by William Tuke, and Dorothea Dix in the US
  • History – Modern Period 19th Century  ◦ “the Great Confinement” – massive expansion of the number & size of insane asylums ◦ Laws introduced to deal with the insane by the family and the hospital ◦ It was argued that the mad also has physical/organic problems, so that moral and medical treatments were implemented ◦ Classification schemes and diagnostic terms developed ◦ 1870s in North America – Lunatic Asylums renamed Insane Asylums ◦ Increased diagnosis of mental disorders
  • History – Modern Period 20th Century  ◦ Development of psychoanalysis, and later cognitive behavioral therapy ◦ Kraeplelin’s classification – separating mood disorders from schizophrenia ◦ “Inmates” became “patients, “asylums” became “hospitals” ◦ “Mental Hygiene” movement in the US ◦ Development of clinical psychology and social work ◦ Need for a psychiatric manual for categorizing mental disorders led to the firs DSM and the ICD ◦ New treatments ◦ Anti-psychiatry movement of the 1960s
  • Stigma of Mental Illness Generally when people hear of mental illness  they think of severe cases that are associated with bizarre behavior, violence, and a lack of caring about themselves.  People with mental illness are dehumanized in this sense.  Mentally ill often labeled as weak, fearful, violent, or flawed  Stigma also encompasses the family of the mentally ill, as well as the individual themselves  Video on personal experience with stigma http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F2r8aXyCO5Q
  • Stigma of Mental Illness Study by Lauber, C. & Rossler, W. in  2007 on stigma towards people with mental illness ◦ Fear of people w/ mental illness ◦ General attitudes towards people with mental illness ◦ Attitudes towards treatment of mental disorders ◦ Stigma among those affected ◦ Stigma towards families of people with mental illness
  • Stigma of Mental Illness Study by Magliano et. al. (2004) on the  beliefs about schizophrenia in Italy ◦ Lay respondents recognized the case in vignette as a pathological disorder and that it required psychiatric treatment – although not recognize it as schizophrenia ◦ General public believed that persons with schizophrenia can recover from it, with little to no drugs given ◦ Belief that psychiatric patients are unpredictable ◦ General public cannot discriminate between different psychiatric disorders
  • Stigma of Mental Illness Stigma is also effected by culture and how  each culture deals with its mentally ill Vietnamese: person is punished for a wrong  doing in a previous life or b an angry ancestor who has returned to possess them. India: women are sent away to less-than-  adequate asylums by their families Japan: mental illness is weakness of  character China: mentally ill source of humiliation for  families
  • Culture & Mental Illness In addition to stigma that can be different  from one culture to another, there are mental disorders that are only specific to that culture  Culture bound disorders are disorders that are seen only within a specific culture ◦ Could have psychotic or somatic symptoms Causes of these disorders are mostly related  to spiritual/religious beliefs Treatments often take the form of religious  ceremonies and rituals – mostly carried out by religious/spiritual Healers
  • Culture & Mental Illness In a study by Ally & Laher (2008) the perceptions  of mental illnesses were seen from the South African Muslim faith healers’ point of view on the understanding and treating mental disorders Belief in witchcraft and sorcery – Sihr  Ill will or the jealous intentions of others can  cause a person to become ill – nazr Demonic possession – jinn  Treatments involve either sangoma (traditional  African healers), or Moulana’s, Sheikh’s, or Matawaa’s (traditional Islamic healers) The Zaar 
  • Culture & Mental Illness Culture bound disorders & descriptions  Amok: Malaysia & SE Asia, Phillippines, Ploynesia, New Guinea, Puerto Rico & Native Americans (Navajo)  Ataque de Nervios: Caribbean Latinos, Latin American & Latin Mediterranean groups  Falling Out: Ethnic groups in SE US, especially Miami – primarily African Americans & Afro-Caribbeans  Hmong Sudden Death Syndrome: Laos  Susto: Hispanic cultures in both the Old and New Worlds
  • Conclusion Mental illnesses have been around since  prehistoric times  Stigma of mental illness  Causes of mental illnesses among different cultures  Despite the many medical advancements that have been made to treat mental illness, many still believe that mental illness is caused by spiritual or religious reasons and that rituals are still used as the means to treat the individuals
  • References Ally, Y., & Laher, S. (2008). South African muslim faith healers perceptions of mental illness: Understanding, eatiology and treatment. Journal of Religion and Health. 47, 45-56. Flaskerud, J. H. (2000). Ethnicity, culture, and neuropsychiatry. Issues In Mental Health Nursing. 21, 5-29. History of mental disorders. (2009). History of mental disorders. In Wikipedia [Web]. Retrieved April 20, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_mental_illness Lauber, C., & Rossler, W. (2007). Stigma towards people with mental illness in developing countries in Asia. International Review of Psychiatry. 19, 157-178. Magliano, L., Fiorillo, A., De Rosa, C., Malangone, C., & Maj, M. (2004). Beliefs about schizophrenia in Italy: A comparative nationwide survey of the general public, mental health professionals, and patients’ relatives. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 49, 322-330. Shepherd, S. (2004, September 1). MedHunters. Retrieved April 27, 2009, from www.medhunters.com Web site: http://www.medhunters.com/articles/theyrePossessed.html