Sociology of Mental Illness

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Sociology of Mental Illness

  1. 1. The Tyranny of Psychiatry Carmela Amankwaah University of Maryland, Baltimore County Fall 2009
  2. 2. Clip ~ Violence Teaser Introduction CCHRint. Psychiatry's Prescription for Violence Teaser
  3. 3. “Anti - Psychiatry”
  4. 4. The Age of Enlightenment The Congress of the Dialectics of Liberation ~ 1967, London Psychiatrists Marxist Intellectuals Anarchists Political leaders Thomas, Philip & Bracken, Patrick (2004)
  5. 5. Dr. David Cooper {1931 - 1986} South African Psychiatrist  Coined the term “anti-psychiatry”  Marxist Revolutionary  Wrote numerous essays against psycho-  politics Encouraged revolution against orthodox  psychiatry “Madness” and “Psychosis” were products  of society “Knowing what ain’t so” – Thomas Szasz (2005)
  6. 6. Dr. Ronald D. Laing {1927 - 1989} Scottish Psychiatrist  Critic of psychiatric diagnoses as  biological phenomena Co-founded a community based  psychiatric facility for schizophrenics (Kingsley Hall) Author of numerous books on  mental health “Knowing what ain’t so” – Thomas Szasz (2005)
  7. 7. Dr. Leon Redler & Dr. Joseph Berke “Knowing what ain’t so” – Thomas Szasz (2005)
  8. 8. “The trouble with people, is not what they don’t know but that they know so much that ain’t so.” - Josh Billings, American humorist
  9. 9. Citizens Commission on Human Rights CCHR Conference - Dr. Szasz CCHRint. Thomas Szasz, Professor of Psychology Emeritus.
  10. 10. Dr. Thomas Szasz
  11. 11. Dr. Thomas Szasz Born on April 15, 1920 in Budapest – Hungary.  1944 - Medical Degree from University of Cincinnati.  Chicago Institute for Psychoanalysis, certificate, 1950.  Member: American Psychiatric Association (fellow), American  Psychoanalytic Association. The Myth of Mental Illness (1961)  Law, Liberty, and Psychiatry  The Theology of Medicine  Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry -State University of New York.  www.szasz.com
  12. 12. The Myth of Mental Illness Part One:  Hysteria: Differences between body illnesses from their  imitations. Psychiatry is a pseudo-science.  Nonsensical to treat behaviors using a medical approach  Mental Illness as a fallacy.  Part Two:  Man’s Responsibility  Development of Moral Thinking  Moral Issues in psychiatry and psychology  Szasz, Thomas (1961). The Myth of Mental Illness
  13. 13. “Mental Illness” The Convenient Myth Age of Faith:  Religion mimics Science Age of Science:  Psychiatry mimics Science Szasz, Thomas (2006). The Pretense of Psychology as Science
  14. 14. “Mental Illness” Does not Exist! The Implications of Semantics
  15. 15. What is an Illness? Biological deviation from the norm  Cancer  Body Temperature  Hypertension  Szasz, Thomas. The Myth of Mental Illness
  16. 16. “It takes one person to develop a real disease. But it takes two people to develop a mental illness” - Dr. Thomas Szasz Thomas Szasz. cchr.org
  17. 17. What is a “Mental Illness”? Psychological deviation from the Norm?  Psychological Norms - tied to cultural, social,  ethical, and legal contexts. Depression  Anxiety  Divorce  Vengeance  Szasz, Thomas. The Myth of Mental Illness
  18. 18. Diagnosing “Mental Illness” Psychiatrist/Psychotherapist  is an “active participant”. Diagnoses are subjective.  Influenced by psychosocial  and ethical constraints. Szasz, Thomas. The Myth of Mental Illness
  19. 19. Treating “Mental Illness” Assumptions Problems with daily living – pathological.  “Patients” are not responsible.  Claims objective and value-free diagnoses.  Behavioral deviations are biological/neurological  conditions. Existing biological tests.  Szasz, Thomas. The Myth of Mental Illness
  20. 20. “Mental Illness” -- Behavioral Maladjustment If not Nature, then Nurture.  Lose term for describing the manifestation of  mankind's struggle to live. Szasz, Thomas. The Myth of Mental Illness
  21. 21. On Obscenity “ . . . I know it when I see it . . .” -- Justice Potter Stewart - 1964
  22. 22. Becoming Real Doctors Diagnoses (Labels)  Manual ~  The DSM Treatment  (Psychotropic drugs) Thomas Szasz. cchr.org
  23. 23. Psychiatry and Pharmaceutical Companies “Conjoined twins joined at the wallet” -Kay Carlson former drug rep. cchr.org
  24. 24. “Effects” of Psychotropic Drugs Dry mouth Hypomania   Dizziness  Suicide  Increase in appetite  Seizures  Agitation  Aggressive attention-seeking  Sedation - lethargy  behavior Photosensitivity  Involuntary dizziness,  Rash  Lightheadedness  Insomnia  Psychosis  Activation of mania  Gastrointestinal complaints  cchr.org
  25. 25. Breeding Violence
  26. 26. Breeding Violence School Shooters on Drugs Illinois – February 14, 2008: 27-year-old Steven Kazmierczak killed 5 ~ Xanax  Nebraska – December 5, 2007: 19-year-old Robert Hawkins killed 9 ~ Valium  Jokela, Finland – November 7, 2007: 18-year-old Finnish gunman Pekka-Eric Auvinend killed 8 ~  antidepressants Cleveland - October 10, 2007: 14-year-old Asa Coon killed 1, wounded 4 ~ Trazodone  Blacksburg, Virginia – April 16, 2007: The psychiatric drug history of Seung-Hui Cho in the Virginia  Tech Massacre was never made public.~ “depression medication” Lake, Minnesota – March 2005: 16-year-old Jeff Weise, killed 10 ~ Prozac.  New York – February 2004: 16-year-old Jon Romano opened fire on school mates ~ “medication  for depression”. CCHR.org. List of School and Teen Shooters
  27. 27. Breeding Violence School Shooters on Drugs Idaho – April 16, 1999: 15-year-old Shawn Cooper, opened fire in school ~ SSRI  antidepressant and Ritalin Springfield, Oregon – May 21, 1998: 15-year-old Kip Kinkel, killed 4 ~ Prozac  El Cajon, California – March 22, 2001: 18-year-old Jason Hoffman, opened fire on  classmates ~ Celexa and Effexor Pennsylvania – March 7, 2000: 14-year-old Elizabeth Bush shot fellow students ~ Prozac  Georgia – May 20, 1999: 15-year-old T.J. Solomon, shot and wounded 6 ~ andti  depressants Columbine, Colorado – April 20, 1999: 18-year-old Eric Harris, Dylan Klebold, killed 13~  Luvox (Harris) CCHR.org. List of School and Teen Shooters
  28. 28. The Facts 100 million people worldwide are on psychotropic  medications. As of 2009 17 million children are prescribed  psychotropic drugs. 580% increase (from 1995) in anti-depressant  prescription for children under 6 yrs old. 3000 psychotropic-related deaths per year (world wide).  http://www.fightforkids.org/facts.html
  29. 29. Cui Bono? (Who Benefits?) Dissonance between the nature of Mental  Disorders (behavioral) and their Treatment (biological). Pharmaceutical Companies  Psychiatrists/Psychotherapists  Families?  Patients? 
  30. 30. WHY???
  31. 31. Conclusions ~ So What? Effect of Psychiatry  on Psychology Paradigm Shift  Critical Psychiatry 
  32. 32. Instrumental Sources Citizens Commission on  Human Rights Survivors Speak Out  National Self-Harm  Network The Hearing Voices  Network, Mad Pride and  Mad Women
  33. 33. Depressed Parrot on Prozac telegraph.co.uk
  34. 34. References Biley, Francis C. (2009). Review: Critical Psychiatry: The Limits of Madness.  Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. Vol 16, 214 - 223 CCHRint. Psychiatry's Prescription for Violence Teaser. September 05, 2008.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Z-9aYvTtIw&feature=channel. CCHRint. Thomas Szasz, Professor of Psychology Emeritus. February 16, 2008.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQegsqYhuZE&feature=related. Retrieved April, 25, 2009. CCHR.org. List of School and Teen Shooters. White Papers. Retrieved April 25,  2009. Duncan B. Double (2004). Biomedical Bias of the American Psychiatric  Association. Ethical Human Psychohgy and Psychiatry, Vol. 6, 2. Fight for Kids. http://www.fightforkids.org/facts. Retrieved April 25, 2009.  John A. Vernon Joseph H. Golec, Randall Lutter and Clark Nardinelli (2006). FDA  New Drug Approval Times, Prescription Drug User Fees, and R & D Spending. Szasz, Thomas. (2005) Knowing What Ain't So - R.D Laing and Thomas Szasz.  Existential Analysis 16.1.
  35. 35. References Szasz, Thomas. www.szasz.com Retrieved April 25, 2009.  Szasz, Thomas (1961). The Myth of Mental Illness: Foundations of a Theory of  Personal Conduct Szasz, Thomas (2006). The Pretense of Psychology as Science:The Myth of  Mental Illness in Statu Nascendi Telegraph News (November 2008). Parrot Given Prozac After Owner Dies.  http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/howaboutthat/3487321/Parrot- given-Prozac-after-owner-dies.html Thomas, Philip and Bracken, Patrick (2004). Critical Psychiatry in Practice.  Advances in Psychiatric Treatment. vol. 10, 361 - 370.

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