Implementing Food Safety Principles In Sm Es
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Implementing Food Safety Principles In Sm Es

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  • 1. Implementing Food Safety Principles in SMEs: an Engineer’s Perspective P. Sunjka, V. Orsat, and G.S.V. Raghavan
  • 2. OUTLINE  SMEs? Are they important?  Food Safety for dummies  Does a B.Eng. make a difference?  Hurdles to jump over  Conclusion (if there is one)
  • 3. SMEs Small to Medium-sized Enterprises Au Canada, une "petite ou moyenne entreprise" (PME) ne doit généralement pas employer plus de 500 personnes, ne pas avoir un actif supérieur à 25 millions de dollars et ne doit pas être détenue à plus de 25 % de son capital par une entreprise de plus grande importance.
  • 4. SMEs Small to Medium-sized Enterprises SMEs are defined as enterprises with fewer than 500 employees. However, firms range from one-person consulting shops to larger, publicly traded companies. Moreover SMEs are present in almost every industrial sector.
  • 5. SMEs
  • 6. SMEs
  • 7. SMEs
  • 8. Food Safety There is an increased concern about food safety in the agri-food sector. • Customer concerns • Government regulations • Client-driven
  • 9. Food Safety Food Safety is not a trend, it’s a necessity
  • 10. We can be killers 2009 : •Salmonella in peanuts, 9 dead, 700 hospitalized 2008 : •Salmonella in salsa, 1 dead, 1400 hospitalized •Listeria in cold cuts, 26 dead, 57 hospitalized •Listeria, Ravine Mushroom Farms inc., ON (no hospitalized persons since CFIA acted quickly)
  • 11. Food Safety Food Safety management is usually organized through HACCP principles Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point
  • 12. Food Safety • HACCP is not an exact science, it is based on exact science • It is a logical and common sense approach to food control • The step-by-step approach makes it very powerful
  • 13. Food Safety Originated in the early 1960s by the Pillsbury Company working with NASA and the US army laboratories. Based on the engineering concept of failure, mode, and effect analysis (FMEA). FAO & WHO: HACCP is the most effective means of controlling food-borne diseases.
  • 14. Food Safety 1. Conduct a hazard analysis 2. Determine the Critical Control Point(s) 3. Formulate critical limit(s) 4. Set up a monitoring system for CCPs 5. Determine a corrective action(s) 6. Designate verification procedures 7. Establish record keeping
  • 15. Who should use it? HACCP is applicable throughout the food supply chain: Primary producer Processor(s) Caterer Retailer Consumer
  • 16. Who writes the HACCP plan? The multidisciplinary team with knowledge in: 1. Quality Analysis/technical: microbiological, chemical, and physical hazards 2. Operations or production 3. Engineering
  • 17. HACCP team 1. Hired professionals (expensive) 2. From within the company (requires appropriate training)
  • 18. How is HACCP written? Stage 2 Studies and plan development Stage 1 Preparation Stage 3 Implementation and planning Stage 4 Verification and maintenance
  • 19. HACCP plan • Process flow diagrams • HACCP control chart • HACCP team list • Product(s) description • Hazard analysis charts
  • 20. HACCP plans • Linear: Small companies, simple production line(s) • Modular: Big companies, multiple products with several basic processes • Generic: For similar operations carried out at different locations
  • 21. Managing Food Safety Who should be in charge of HACCP? • Engineer • QC/QA technician • Dietician • Epidemiologist • Food scientist • Microbiologist •___?_______
  • 22. Managing Food Safety What degree is required? • High school • DEC/AEC • B. Eng • B. Sc. • M. Sc. •___?___________
  • 23. Managing Food Safety Increased concern among engineers as well…
  • 24. Managing Food Safety Someone was faster…
  • 25. Managing Food Safety The advantages of having an engineering background: • Thorough understanding of the complete production process • Systematic approach • Developed analytical thinking • Easiness of acquiring new information and adapting to new situation
  • 26. Managing Food Safety Food safety is usually managed by food-only experts, lacking multi-disciplinary strengths, and/or are linked to a specific commodity group.
  • 27. Managing Food Safety None of the university-based food safety centers include engineering as an essential component.* *Center for Food Safety Engineering
  • 28. Managing Food Safety Engineering is necessary to develop physical and chemical mechanisms for detection of microbial and chemical hazards to the food supply. For example, the non-engineering scientist may understand what biological agent is present and at what level the agent needs to be detected in a food system. However, the non-engineering scientist may need collaboration with engineers to build the most effective and accurate system of measurement.
  • 29. Managing Food Safety The expertise of engineers also becomes critical in process control. All foods are subject to several different processes from the farm gate to consumption. Each process affects food safety and quality. Engineers help to measure important parameters of process control and predict and/or control the effect of the processes on food safety and quality.
  • 30. Managing Food Safety in SMEs SMEs are usually understaffed, and hire multitalented candidates •engineering •food safety •QC/QA •OHS •managerial skills •personnel training •repairs/maintenance
  • 31. Problems Management/ owners Engineer Inspectors/auditors Employees
  • 32. Problems Management/owner commitment in SMEs? Problematic at least. “Just do your job, don’t interfere with production, take care of CFIA inspector, and you’ll do just fine” “Why should I send water for analysis if I never had any problems with it?” “Of course that I can smoke in my office, it’s my company…” “HACCP? It’s just a form-filling, you copy the same completed form every day and just change the date…”
  • 33. Problems Experienced or not, an engineer will be the only one knowledgeable in this area External inspectors/auditors will assume you have a complete control of food safety issues in your company, an assumption that is not always correct
  • 34. Problems Employees are reluctant to accept any novel ideas or suggestions, even if they are mandatory
  • 35. Conclusion… • All levels of government should encourage food safety in SMEs through tax cuts, rigorous inspections, etc. • Having an engineering degree is a definite asset • Being a good communicator is often more important than being knowledgeable
  • 36. Questions