EMERGE Public Leadership Framework for Sustainable Development


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E – Exploring the Leadership System; M – Mapping the Institutional Context for Leadership; E – Embedding Vision, Values and Norms; R – Releasing the Energy of Yourself and Followers; G – Guiding Improvements in Organizations and Society; E – Enabling Good Judgment through Strategic Navigation

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  • Xin Chao bui chieu. I am pleased have this opportunity today to introduce our new EMERGE Framework for Public Sector Leadership in Vietnam. I want to thank the Australian Awards Network for inviting me. I have a voice that sounds funny. And let me reassure you that it does not hurt me to talk. I am sorry if it hurts you to listen. And we are lucky. The EMERGE Framework is a “co-production” of our Hatfield School and the HCM National Academy (HCMA). And so several of your Alumni Network members including Dr. Dinh, Ms. Thuc and Mr. Dang can help me to explain the EMERGE concepts and tools if I get into trouble. I ask them to please assist me throughout!!
  • EMERGE Public Leadership Framework for Sustainable Development

    1. 1. The E MERGE Public Leadership Framework for Sustainable Development in Vietnam Sponsored by The Australia Awards Alumni Program in Vietnam August 15, 2010 Ho Chi Minh Academy, Vietnam
    2. 2. WELCOME to our PRESENTATION on <ul><li>Ho Chi Minh National Academy for Politics and Public Administration (HCMA), Hanoi, Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>in collaboration with </li></ul><ul><li>Mark O. Hatfield School of Government, Portland State University (PSU), Portland, Oregon, USA </li></ul><ul><li>With the generous support of the Ford and Miller Foundations </li></ul>EMERGE: Our New Public Leadership Framework for Sustainable Development in Vietnam Professor Marcus Ingle, Ph.D (with assistance of Dr. Bui Phuong Dinh )
    3. 3. Please take a moment to reflect on this saying from one of my graduate students… Every interaction – with each other, our families and our physical surroundings – is an opportunity for leadership. -- Phyusin Myint, 2009
    4. 4. A Key Premise of EMERGE Each of us can play an important leadership role – as effective and ethical leaders or as responsible and proactive followers – in Vietnam’s public institutions, and in our everyday lives…
    5. 5. EMERGE Presentation Topics <ul><li>Alumni will understand why it is both urgent and important for public officials to improve their leadership knowledge and practice as Vietnam continues its domestic transformation and global integration. </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni will understand the EMERGE public leadership framework rationale, elements, core definitions, and the learning sequence. </li></ul><ul><li>Alumni will (time permitting) be able to apply one EMERGE tool -- the Smart Power Tool – in order to better understand one part of the new Framework. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Topic 1 Alumni will understand why it is both urgent & important for public officials to learn new leadership knowledge & practice contained in EMERGE as Vietnam continues its rapid domestic transformation & global integration
    7. 7. Vietnam’s Contemporary Context -- Change * Source: Ho Chi Minh Academy Workshops, 2007-2009 1. Continuation of State policy of “Market Reform with Socialist Characteristics” 2. Deeper economic, political and administrative integration between Vietnam and regional/global partners 3. Shift to a knowledge-based global market with decrease in trade barriers related to goods and services (including entry into WTO in 1997) 4. Continuing opportunity for Vietnam to access -- if correctly positioned -- foreign capital, markets for goods and services, and global best practices 5. Impending transition to a Middle-Income country status characterized by rapid urbanization
    8. 8. Vietnam’s Leadership Challenges: Is There A Common Theme? Summary of Leadership Challenges in Vietnam 1. Establish trust with growing disparities 2. Handle anticipated labor redundancies 3. Mobilize resources for hi-tech education 4. Resolve social and environmental issues 5. Improve consistency and effectiveness of State leadership and management <ul><li>A Common Theme </li></ul><ul><li>All Post-WTO challenges </li></ul><ul><li>are shifting from “complicated” to “complex” – or wicked - in nature </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Wicked’ means these challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>are dynamic and polycentric with no easy definition </li></ul><ul><li>are difficult to address without adverse consequences </li></ul><ul><li>involve interdependent stakeholders within and across hierarchical and networked organizations </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Rise of Wicked Problems: An Illustration * Source : Morgan, G., 2006, Electrical Power, p. 269 Polycentric - Is there one clear center from which one can define the problem or obtain traction to address it? Interrelated - If one part of the problem is acted on, will it have positive and negative effects on other parts? Borderless - How many different stakeholders are interested in this problem? What authorities & powers do they have for influencing the outcome of actions?
    10. 10. Wicked Problems: A Leadership Challenge There is a new set of problems facing public leadership They are NOT just problems for leaders in different parts of the world They ARE wicked problems for Vietnamese Leadership at all levels of government, especially as Vietnam strives to transform itself into a middle-income country Leaders must be able to identify the wicked nature of the leadership problems they are addressing
    11. 11. In Vietnam, the emergence of wicked problems is leading to several responses <ul><li>Vietnam understands that globalization and internal developments are placing serious and urgent new demands on the State’s governance system as evidenced by an increasing number of “hot spots” in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Vietnam recognizes that “responsive and adaptive public management and leadership with Vietnamese characteristics” is needed to address persistent and emergent wicked problems. </li></ul><ul><li>The State recognizes the high value associated with an immediate re-examination and re-invention of its management and leadership governance mechanisms to ensure that the country can continuously adapt and thrive in a manner that balances and integrates economic, social and environmental considerations to foster sustainable development for Vietnam. </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>Major investments in public management reform (PAR) since 2000 are yielding substantial results in the reducing government red tape and increasing efficiency. </li></ul><ul><li>More recently, and as a matter of urgent priority, the Ho Chi Minh National Academy (HCMA) is directing a State-sponsored effort to </li></ul><ul><li>co-produce a robust leadership discipline of public leadership with Vietnamese characteristics, and </li></ul><ul><li>disseminate knowledge and skills in this leadership discipline to State officials in all levels across all sectors </li></ul><ul><li>The HCMA, with generous Ford Foundation support, collaborated with the Hatfield School of Government in the United States to co-produce the EMERGE Leadership Framework -- suitable for Vietnam </li></ul>In Vietnam, the emergence of wicked problems is leading to several responses (continued)
    13. 13. The EMERGE Framework Meets the Requirements for Robust Public Leadership in the Context of Vietnam’s Wicked Problems <ul><li>Robust Public Leadership Requires </li></ul><ul><li>A perspective that mirrors the complexity and uncertainty inherent in the problems it seeks to address </li></ul><ul><li>A conceptual model that is grounded in the unique “regime” public sector characteristics of Vietnam </li></ul><ul><li>A learning approach that is practice-centered and relevant to the workplace needs of leading officials </li></ul><ul><li>The EMERGE Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Embodies a “dynamic systems approach” appropriate for the shared exploration and action related to wicked public problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Embeds Vietnam’s characteristics via our Vietnamese-U.S. co-production process </li></ul><ul><li>Allows officials to practice new leadership behaviors via our active-learning pedagogy </li></ul>
    14. 14. Wicked Problems Require Different Approaches: Criteria for Success New and different ideas “ You cannot solve a problem from the same consciousness that created it. You must learn to see the world anew.” Albert Einstein Innovative practice, constant learning & adaptation Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results . Albert Einstein Precautionary Principle Act cautiously Watch carefully and learn Be quick to adapt Start the cycle over
    15. 15. See the whole while working with the parts Think in both the present and the future Balance equally important but sometimes competing values and roles Manage tradeoffs Recognize unintended consequences and surprises Wicked Problems Require Different Approaches: Criteria for Success
    16. 16. <ul><li>Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>is paradigm comprised of values, principles & strategies designed specifically to address the challenges of Wicked-Problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development is a critical paradigm for Leadership success when working with Wicked Problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development addresses all of the success criteria, and these are integrated into the EMERGE Public Leadership Framework. </li></ul>Sustainable Development: A Validated Approach for Resolving Wicked Problems
    17. 17. Topic 2 The EMERGE Public Leadership Framework rationale, main elements, core definitions and the learning sequence
    18. 18. The Emerge Leadership Framework is unique in that it is gounded in a Leadership Systems perspective in a Wicked Problem Context
    19. 19. Releasing the Potential of Followers: Leading Inward
    20. 20. Benefits of EMERGE: Personal Outcomes Modules Outcomes: Knowledge, Skills & Tools I: Introduction Define of a work related leadership problem IIA: Leadership Perspectives Discern which of your commonly held views about leadership are evidence-based IIB: Concise History Understand commonalities of Eastern and Western leadership thought III: Sustainable Development Define sustainable development attributes of a wicked problem IV: Learning Apply the adult learning dialectic thinking process to a case V: Leadership System Develop a Leadership Role Profile for your leadership problem VI: Context Apply the Contextual Intelligence Mapping tool to a case VII: Vision & Values Learn how to embed inspirational values through norming VIII: Followers Be able to use smart power in a leadership case scenario IX: Society Develop coalitions of stakeholders who are acting in alignment with the organizational vision X: Judgment Be able to make good judgments as a strategic navigator in wicked problem situations
    21. 21. EMERGE Leadership Framework Modules and Tools Module Module Descriptions EMERGE Tools MI Introduction to Public Leadership Leadership Problem & Project MII Perspectives on Leadership & Concise History of Leadership Studies Evidence-Based Leadership & Lessons from History MIII Public Leadership for Sustainable Development Diagnosing Wicked Problems MIV Learning About Leadership Through Reflective Practice Developing a Learning Plan MV Exploring the Leadership System Leadership Role Profile MVI Mapping the Institutional Context for Leadership Contextual Intelligence Mapping MVII Embedding Vision, Values & Norms Vision & Values Norming MVIII Releasing the Energy of Yourself & Followers Smart Power MIX Guiding Improvements in Organizations and Society Convening Stakeholder Coalitions MX Enabling Good Judgment through Strategic Navigation Strategic Navigation
    22. 22. EMERGE: Public Leadership for Sustainable Development
    23. 23. Topic 3 Brief illustration of one new EMERGE tool: -- Smart Power
    24. 24. A Story: Releasing the Full Potential of One’s Self & Followers <ul><li>Several months ago, one of our PSU interns was living in an apartment house in Hanoi. The room next to hers caught fire and smoke was everywhere. Panic was in the air. The apartment residents shared a vision – to get everyone out without loss of life!! </li></ul><ul><li>With this collective purpose, everyone pitched in and collaborated to find the elderly and children, and to lead all out in the darkness of the night before emergency help arrived. The grandfather made it out safely assisted by the cooperation of family members and strangers. Tragically, he died later at the hospital from smoke inhalation. </li></ul><ul><li>During the fire, the full energies of the residents were mobilized which saved many lives and minimized property damage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What powers do leading officials have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as they ‘lead inward’ to release this kind of energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in themselves and followers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in their everyday leadership situations ? </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. The Importance of Power for Leadership <ul><li>Leadership is a relationship-based process of releasing energies and realizing potential for the purposeful advancement of the human and ecological condition, e.g., the public good. </li></ul><ul><li>Power is required to release energies and realize potential for purposeful advancement toward the Vision. There are different types of power and different ways to use it. </li></ul><ul><li>In EMERGE, leadership power is embodied in a shared and inspirational process. This requires: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>understanding the needs and demands of ourselves and our followers (see Leadership Role Profile); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>using the right type and balance of power for each specific leadership situation. </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Leadership and Power <ul><li>Power can be defined as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the capabilities to affect the behavior of others to make things happen or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the ability to influence the behaviors of others to achieve a common purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leadership involves influencing one’s self and others in a shared and inspirational manner to achieve Vision aligned with Values. </li></ul><ul><li>There are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 major sources of power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 major types (hard and soft) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The contextually application and use of these sources and types of power is what the literature refers to as “Smart Power”. Are you using your power smartly?? </li></ul>*Adapted from French, J. & Raven.B., 1959.
    27. 27. Sources of Public Leadership Power* *Adapted from French, J. & Raven.B., 1959. Category Major Sources Operational Description Position Power 1. Legitimacy Others recognize and accept authority associated with the position 2. Reward Position allows control over provision of rewards 3. Coercive Position allows capacity to control punishments 4. Informational Position allows access to privileged data or knowledge Personal Power 5. Rational Persuasion Person relies on logical augments or factual evidence to convince others 6. Referent Power Person is liked or respected by others in important positions 7. Expert Power Person has superior knowledge and experience in a certain field 8. Charisma Person’s personality is engaging & magnetic with clear visions that inspire trust
    28. 28. Sources of Leadership Power: Lessons <ul><li>Leadership Power is Situational </li></ul><ul><li>What and how one can influence an outcome in one leadership system may not help in another leadership system </li></ul><ul><li>Having Power does not Assure Desired Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>US was more powerful militarily than Vietnam in the 1960’s and 1970’s, but lost the war </li></ul><ul><li>America was the only superpower in 2001, but failed to prevent the terrorist attack of 9/11 </li></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>Leadership is Exercised Through Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders need to influence themselves and others to take Vision-directed and Values-based action. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two types of power available for influencing action in relationships * : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard Power - the use of authority, coercion, threats and payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soft Power - the use of co-optation and attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-- the appropriate combination of 1 & 2 is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart Power - the most suitable balance of both hard and soft power for a specific leadership situation </li></ul></ul>Power Types: Energizing Action in Relationships *J. Nye, 2008.
    30. 30. Hard Power Categories and Dimensions J. Nye, 2008. Category Dimensions Description Organizational Capacity Manage the Reward and Information Systems Understand information flows, i.e., top down and bottom up as well as horizontally amongst the followers, and how to monitor them. Implement systems that provide good information leading to valuable input. Make sure that unfiltered news can reach the leader. Manage Inner and Outer Circles (direct and indirect leadership) Manage the inner circle to ensure an accurate flow of information and influence. Understand the importance of empowering the followers by allowing them to speak out. Construct teams and hire subordinates who can compensate for any deficiencies. Machiavellian Skills Ability and Authority to Bully, Buy, and Bargain. Bully or repeatedly humiliate and dominate others in order to force others to behavior a certain way. Buy or provide economic incentives to followers to stimulate their performance. Bargain or cut deals with followers to get them on the ‘right’ track. Ability to Build and Maintain Winning Coalitions Build successful partnerships and stabilize the partnerships though time. Politically engage followers and involve them in participatory roles, i.e., inclusion.
    31. 31. Soft Power Categories and Dimensions J. Nye, 2008. Categories Dimensions Description Emotional IQ Relationships and charisma. Effectively understand and display empathy. Control and display confidence and optimism. Emotional self-awareness and control. Emotional Intelligence involves the awareness and control of such signals. It also involves self-discipline that prevents personal psychological needs from distorting policy. Communi-cations Persuasive words & symbols Tailoring nuances of the language used to reinforce the direction in which the leader wants to lead. Symbolic communications such as Ghandi’s simple dress depicted that his actions spoke louder than his words. Using symbolic events or public stunts to convey an image. Persuasive to followers (near and distant) The ability to successfully attract and manage both an inner circle of followers and a large audience. Using narratives and other forms of oratory skill e.g. using well-selected anecdotes or proverbs. Vision Attractive to followers Shaping an idea or vision and adding attributes attract the interests of followers. Choosing a vision that followers can relate to or desire to accomplish e.g. Workplace Safety as the new CEO because this is a commonality between all workers and because once followers improve in one are they begin to improve in others as well. Effective -balance ideals & capabilities. The combination of inspiration and feasibility. The effective combination of inspiring follower’s with your vision while paying close attention to the details and feasibility of whether or not the dream can realistically be accomplished.
    32. 32. An Illustration of Smart Power… 1. Let’s use the establishment and operation of your Australian Alumni Network as a simple case illustration. 2. What types of Hard and Soft Power are being used in the Network, and what is the appropriate Smart Power balance for your leadership team? 3. Please apply the Smart Power Tool to your network at each of your tables, and be prepared to share some illustrations of Hard, Soft, and Smart Power.
    33. 33. <ul><li>EMERGE defines leadership in relation to Wicked-Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Wicked-Problems are characterized by complexity, dynamic & changing interrelationships, nonlinearity, intractability, discontinuity & hence unpredictability. </li></ul><ul><li>Wicked-Problems require the ability to: see the whole & the parts; think in the present & the future; balance equally important but sometimes competing values; manage tradeoffs; recognize unintended consequences & surprises; learn & adapt; & act with precaution. </li></ul><ul><li>Wicked-Problems require thinking ‘ outside the box ’, creating, articulating & inspiring visions, transforming values into actions & collaborating across boundaries to move step-by-step toward the common good. </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development is paradigm comprised of values, principles and strategies designed specifically to address the challenges of Wicked-Problems. It is a critical paradigm for Leadership success. </li></ul>
    34. 34. References: Introduction to Public Leadership Bennis, W., & Nanus, B. (1985). Leaders: The Strategies for Taking Change . New York, NY: Harper & Row. Brookes, S. (2008). Responding to the New Public Leadership Challenge. Paper presented at the Herbert Simon 2nd Annual Conference Manchester, NH. Bryson, J., & Crosby, B. (2005). Leadership and the Creation of Cross-Sector Regimes of Mutual Gain . Paper presented at the 8th National Public Management Research Conference. Crosby, B and Bryson, J (2008). Leadership for the Common Good. Hames, R. (2007). The Five Literacies of Global Leadership . West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (1987). The Leadership Challenge: How to get Extraordinary Things Done in Organizations . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Inc. MacGregor Burns, J. (1978). Leadership . New York, NY: Harper & Row. Morgan, D. (2009). Public Service Leadership and Sustainable Development The Legacy Leadership Model: Leading for the Common Good. Unpublished Working Paper. Hatfield School of Government, Portland State University. Morgan, G. (2006). Images of Organizations . Thousand Oaks: Sage. Nye, J. (2008). The Powers to Lead . New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Packard, V. (1962). The Pyramid Climbers . New York, NY: McGraw Hill. Rittel, H., & Webber, M. (1973). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sciences, 4 , 155-169. Tainter and Zimmerman, B., (2010). Complicated and Complex , NY Times. Wheatley, M. (1992). Leadership and the New Science: Learning About Organization From an Orderly Universe . San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler Publishers.