Api iufro seoul august 2010

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  • 1. The World Agroforestry Centre’s interest in an
    Agroforestry Policy Initiative
  • 2. Policies effect everyone and everything
    ( by their presence, absence, suitability, congruence)
    Tony Simons, PhD
    World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Kenya
  • 3. What’s a Policy?
    • plan of action
    • 4. statement of commitment
    • 5. a governing principle
    • 6. used to guide decisions
    • 7. a set of rules
    Can emanate from:
    Intergovernmental body
    National Government
    Municipal Authority
    Private Company
    Institution
    Consumer Group
    Association
    Village
    Individuals
  • 8. Protecting national grain reserve – by government control
  • 9. Fertiliser subsidy by donor grants
  • 10. Investing in tobacco infrastructure versus fruit processing by private sector
  • 11. Water access rights by community group
  • 12. Investing in forestry education by a University
  • 13. Fairtrade standards by certifying agency
  • 14. Why an Agroforestry Policy Initiative?
    1. Growing recognition of and interest in agroforestry
    Agroforestry practiced on roughly half of all agricultural lands globally
    Agroforestry recognized as a critical land use for climate change adaptation and mitigation
    Increased promotion of agroforestry by development organizations and calls for its upscaling, e.g. by the African ministers of agriculture, and through a new regulation law passed in Kenya
  • 15. Prevalence of Agroforestry
    Recent studies show that:
    There are about 1 billion ha of agricultural land globally with at least 10% tree cover, representing 46 % of agricultural land
    Of this area, some 374mi ha have more than 30% tree cover
    National studies in several countries have found trees on farms to be increasing over time
    NB: Not all trees outside forests (TOFs) are necessarily in agroforestry formations. The purpose of planting/retaining trees and their use is an important consideration
  • 16. Opportunities
    Urbanization and industrialization is opening new vistas for tree-based products
    Potential to reduce pressure on forests by planting trees that produce sought after products (e.g. timber)
    Rising awareness of the role of trees in livelihoods and environmental improvement
    Renewed interest to regenerate degraded lands
    Climate change mitigation and adaptation
    Increased policy recognition and interest
  • 17. Why an Agroforestry Policy Initiative?
    Evidence of strong policy effects with respect to the adoption of agroforestry, the policy arena for agroforestry is complex, and collaboration and coordination would seem to enhance likelihood of success
    Some key policy areas for agroforestry include:
    • unintended adverse effects of forestry regulations
    • 18. property rights laws or arrangements that may discourage agroforestry
    • 19. fragmentation of agroforestry related mandates across ministries
    • 20. incentives favoring short term over long term investment
    • 21. Inadequate recognition, valuation, and reward of environmental services from agroforestry
    • 22. poor information and germplasm systems in agroforestry
  • Potential of Policy Change for Agroforestry Development: The Case of Niger
    Restrictive forest codes in the Sahel were beginning to be relaxed in Niger so that trees planted or managed on farmers’ fields could remain the property of the farmer and not revert to the government. The change in three decades, was dramatic.
    Galma, Niger in 1975 and 2003
    Source: World Vision Australia
  • 23. Multi-sectoral approach to an improved policy environment for agroforestry
    Rural development – providing rural conditions conducive for promoting investment, growth, and prosperity in agroforestry and other enterprises (e.g. infrastructure, electricity)
    Agriculture – providing needed information services in agroforestry and catalyzing growth opportunities where private sector is absent or inefficient
    Forestry – creating incentives that conserve priority natural forest habitats while not discouraging planting, management, and harvesting of trees elsewhere in the landscape
    Environment (water, soils) – including agroforestry as an option to be used in appropriate conditions to address water and soil problems
    Commerce – including tree products among the opportunities analyzed for potential growth areas and support
    Lands – enhancing long term rights to communities and smallholders
    Energy, water etc
  • 24. So the Concept of an Agroforestry Policy Initiative was hatched within ICRAF
    Explored by the ICRAF board in 2008 and became a formal research area in 2009
    Internally, an API is useful to help coordinate and prioritize our research and knowledge to action efforts in the area of policy – e.g. help to clarify our major impact/outcome pathways
    But for an API to have significant outcomes or impact, ICRAF would ideally have a supportive research role within a wider demand driven process also involving partnership with FAO and other organizations closer to direct policy and development support
  • 25. Scope of the agroforestry policy initiative
    Cover the wide scope of agroforestry as practices on fields, farms and landscapes by rural users
    Change at all levels (e.g. climate change conventions, NEPAD strategies, promotion by RECs, and supportive policy change by national governments) may all be needed for major transformation
    However, we see the national level as most critical in policy documents such as:
     
    • Strategies
    • 26. Planning documents
    • 27. Laws, acts, & other legislation
    • 28. Regulations, rules, procedures, guides
    • 29. Programmes
  • Purpose of a collaborative partnership on Agroforestry Policy from an ICRAF perspective
     
    The purpose of an Agroforestry Policy Initiative could be to:
    stimulate awareness and discussion of the importance of agroforestry and its mainstreaming into policy planning
    identify key policy constraints that impinge on the incentives for farmers to invest in agroforestry and the rationale for policy reform
    provide information, tools, and other technical assistance to policy stakeholders to support policy and programmatic decision making about agroforestry (including formulation and implementation)
  • 30. ICRAF role in an Agroforestry Policy Initiative
     
    To provide scientific leadership and evidence to the API in the following areas:
     
    (1) assessing the multiple domains of contributions of agroforestry to livelihoods and ecosystem services and quantifying them where possible,
    (2) identifying the nature of various policy constraints to agroforestry and measuring their extent and magnitude,
    (3) providing evidence on good policy practices that enhance agroforestry impacts on livelihoods and ecosystem services,
    (4) providing guidance on successful processes and approaches for policy reforms and implementation in agroforestry, and
    (5) providing a forum for learning and sharing knowledge within the API. 
    And, with others, to catalyze and champion progress in improved
    polices for agroforestry
  • 31. World Agroforestry Centre Progress in this area: 2009-2010
     
    Presentations to raise awareness of agroforestry policy issues at the World Agroforestry Congress, August 2009, World Forestry Congress, October 2009 and now IUFRO 2010
    Consultations with potential partners and users at the Agroforestry Congress
    Engaged in policy discussions at global and national level
    Undertaking various research activities of relevance to the initiative
    In process of hiring a policy scientist to join the initiative
    Joining the FAO led collaboration on ‘Agroforestry guidelines for national policy and decision making’ with CATIE and CIRAD.
  • 32. In conclusion,
    We welcome thoughts and ideas on how we can forge partnerships and collaborative actions to:
    Stimulate greater awareness of the policy importance of agroforestry
    Identify best ways of supporting policy making processes that are relevant to agroforestry
    And especially to explore how our efforts can effectively reach to national levels, where policy changes can have the most profound impacts