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THE CIGARETTE FACTORY WASTE VERMICOMPOST EFFECT OF CUCUMIS MELOL

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Target research to determine the effect of tobacco cigarette industry waste vermicompost on the growth and production of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma varieties. Randomized block design (RBD) research …

Target research to determine the effect of tobacco cigarette industry waste vermicompost on the growth and production of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma varieties. Randomized block design (RBD) research methods repeated three times with 4 treatments: S1 = vermicompost dose of 1000 kg / ha; S2 = vermicompost dose of 2000 kg / ha; S3 = vermicompost dose of 3000 kg / ha; S4 = vermicompost dose of 4000 Kg / ha, plus S0 = control without treatment vermicompost; observation variable length of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit weight per fruit, fruit volume and fruit brix; statistically analyzed with ANOVA F test. Tools used, meter, scales and refractometer. Materials used vermicompost tobacco waste, Aroma Red Cucumis melo seed varieties. The results turned out tobacco cigarette factory waste can be used as organic fertilizer. It is shown to affect the growth and yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties, namely: plant length, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit weight, fruit volume and sugar content in fruit.

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  • 1. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013. ©IJAET ISSN: 22311963 THE CIGARETTE FACTORY WASTE VERMICOMPOST EFFECT OF CUCUMIS MELOL Abu Talkah Kadiri Islamic University, Kediri, Indonesia ABSTRACT Target research to determine the effect of tobacco cigarette industry waste vermicompost on the growth and production of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma varieties. Randomized block design (RBD) research methods repeated three times with 4 treatments: S1 = vermicompost dose of 1000 kg / ha; S2 = vermicompost dose of 2000 kg / ha; S3 = vermicompost dose of 3000 kg / ha; S4 = vermicompost dose of 4000 Kg / ha, plus S0 = control without treatment vermicompost; observation variable length of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit weight per fruit, fruit volume and fruit brix; statistically analyzed with ANOVA F test. Tools used, meter, scales and refractometer. Materials used vermicompost tobacco waste, Aroma Red Cucumis melo seed varieties. The results turned out tobacco cigarette factory waste can be used as organic fertilizer. It is shown to affect the growth and yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties, namely: plant length, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit weight, fruit volume and sugar content in fruit. KEYWORDS: vermicompost, tobacco cigarette industry waste, Cucumis melo L. I. INTRODUCTION In the process of production in the industrial sector can produce more than one form of waste, and for the sustainable development of the waste industry should be assessed although resources requires, time, and costs, in accordance with the rules of the environment: adopted an idea [1]. Environmental Assessment provides a rational approach to sustainable development. Development have led to an adverse impact on the environmental in view of the deteriorating environmental Industrial condition in and araund Industrial township It has become necessary to account for the environment while planning for the such areas [1]. Waste if managed properly can provide benefits. Cigarette factories in their production processes impacting waste plant called tobacco cigarette waste, every day throw away more than 20 tons of waste. The alleged waste can be processed into vermicompost. Based on the results of laboratory research cigarette factory warehouse salt [2], sewage plant tobacco cigarettes contain Organic Carbon 50.97%, 1.83% total nitrogen, phosphorus as P2O5 0.41%, and Potassium as K2O 1.89%. Nitrogen Carbon phosphorus and potassium is an essential element for plant growth, Cucumis melo L is supposedly a response to vermicompost from sewage treatment plant tobacco cigarettes. Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties is very preferred consumers for its taste, so it is appropriate efficacy trials conducted tobacco cigarette factory waste vermicompost on growth and yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties. With the aim to determine the effect of vermicompost on growth and yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties. 1.1 Tobacco Waste Tobacco cigarette industry waste is the remains or waste tobacco mixing with sauce in cigarette production process and smooth shape (powder), derived from the leaves of tobacco and clove that can not be used as a cigarette [2]. Tobacco waste nutrient value analysis [4] containing pH 4.69; Eugenol 4.37%, 0.87% nicotine; Nitrogen total as N 1.83%, 0.41% phosphorus as P 2O5; Potassium as K2O 1.89%, organic carbon as C 50.97 %, C / N ratio 27.85 and Arsenic (As) 24.19 ppm. Expected waste 1942 Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947
  • 2. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013. ©IJAET ISSN: 22311963 tobacco cigarette industry after being processed by the method of vermicompost can be beneficial and useful for the future of organic fertilizer on all plants. 1.2 Earthworms Lumbricus has flattened body shape, and body segments around 90-195. Klitelum lies in the 27th32th segment. Lumbricus rubellus has relatively small body size with a length of 8-14 cm; the body color, especially the back, is light beige to reddish purple. Most part of the belly is beige, and tail is yellowish; the shape of dorsal is rounded and vertically flat; the number of segment on the klitelum are around 6 - 7 segments; the male sex hole lies in the 13th segment; its movement is slow; and its body contains 70-78% of water [5]. 1.3 Tobacco Waste Vermicompost Vermicomposting is in the same page with the principle of healthy environment because it has the value of resource conservation and sustainable practices, as a process for handling organic residue which is an alternative approach in waste management, which is not dumped or incinerated but recycled [6]. Vermitechnology is a system in which earthworms are utilized for the bio-conversion of organic waste into vermicompost. Vermicompost has wide applications in organic waste management and has been proven to be an efficient method to manage organic waste materials with diminutive complexity and economic feasibility [7] Vermicompost is a process to convert organic waste into fertilizer [8] Taking into account that the organic waste and compost application in agriculture has many positive effects [9]. Cigarette factory waste can be processed vermikomposting using earthworms (Lumbricus rubellus), [10] Nutrient content of vermicompost containing cigarette factory waste : Nitrogen (N) content 1,05 %; Total P2O5 content 0,71 %; K2O content 0,25 %; C-Organic content 14,28 %; pH (10% In water) 6,99; C/N ratio 13,58 %; Moisture content 7,66 %; Iron (Fe) content 1,72 %; Zinc (Zn) content 0,02 %; Manganese (Mn) content 0,06 %; Boron (B) content 38,73 ppm; Copper (Cu) content 74,41 ppm; Leed (Pb) content < 1,00 ppm; Cadmium (Cd) content < 1,00 ppm; Cobalt (Co) content 12,44 ppm; Molybdenum (Mo) content < 1,00 ppm; Arsenic (As) content 0,02 ppm; Mercury (Hg) content 0,09 ppm (Sucofindo, 2009). 1.4 Cucumis Melo Cucumis melo L is the fruit of plants from annuals and valleys Persian, Mediterranean spread to central and eastern Europe in the 14th century, Columbus brought the plant to America and then grown in many areas of California, Texas, Colorado who subsequently experienced growth melon types in Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Spanish, Uzbekistan and Iran and the fruit of Cucumis melo L. enter Indonesia from intensively cultivated in 1970 and became a prestigious and expensive fruit. Plants taxonomy Kingdom Plantae; Division Spermatophyta; Subdivisions Aglospermae; Class Dikotiledoneae; subclass Sympetalae; Ordo Cucurbitaceae; genus Cucumis; Species Cucumis melo L [3]. II. RESEARCH METHOD Research in January 2010 until May 2010 in Kediri, East Java, Indonesia, sandy loam soil type with 83 m height above sea level, soil organic C containing 0.37 ppm, with a pH of 7 [11]; randomized block design (RBD) research methods is repeated three times with 4 treatments: S1 = vermicompost dose of 1000 kg / ha; S2 = vermicompost dose of 2000 kg / ha; S3 = vermicompost dose of 3000 kg / ha; S4 = vermicompost dose of 4000 Kg / ha, plus S0 = control without vermicompost treatment; variable observation length of plants, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit weight per fruit, fruit volume and fruit brix; statistically analyzed with ANOVA F test. Tools used, meter, scales and refractometer. Vermicompost waste materials used tobacco, melon seed are Red Aroma varieties. III. RESEARCH IMPLEMENTATION The making beds 8-15 feet long, 50 cm wide and 40 cm high, width of beds are used for a single row of plants. Basic fertilizer use vermicompost treatment with appropriate dose, and plus TSP fertilizer, KCL, the dose is 190 g / planting hole, and NPK fertilizer dose of 150 g / planting hole. Mulch 1943 Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947
  • 3. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013. ©IJAET ISSN: 22311963 installation should be done on a hot day, mulch can expand to the maximum so as to cover the full beds, make the planting hole with plastic hole punch tool. Continued installation of bamboo stakes strong in order to support the melon fruit, in addition to facilitate counting the number of leaves and length of plants in the study. Seeds planted in polybags for 15 days seedlings ready to be planted in beds. Each pet is only one plant in fruit. At the age of 75 days after planting melons ready to be harvested, the fruit is harvested by cutting the base of the fruit and each fruit is marked to the research results. IV. RESULT AND DISCUSSION The effect of vermicompost dose treatment towards the length of Cucumis melo L were presented in Table 1 Table 1. The Plant Length (cm) in the Dose Range of Vermicompost The average length plant (cm) at age of 14 dap 21 dap 28 dap 35 dap No Vermicompost 6.10 a 21.37 a 100.90 a 174.00 a Vermicompost 1 t/ha 7.73 b 23.33 b 103.93 b 177.20 b Vermicompost 2 t/ha 8.66 c 23.89 bc 103.96 b 178.96 b Vermicompost 3 t/ha 9.77 d 24.83 c 105.37 b 180.03 b Vermicompost 4 t/ha 10.87 e 26.07 d 107.47 c 183.77 c 5% LSD 1.07 0.94 2.00 3.12 Description The numbers followed by the same letter, in the same column, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting Treatment Test results 5% LSD (Table 1) produced by the plant the longest treatment vermicompost fertilizer 4 tons / ha and significantly different from other treatments, whereas control without vermicompost plants produce most short term growth. Allegedly giving vermicompost effect on soil fertility, because the nutrient content of vermicompost greatly assist in the growth and development of plants, so plant growth is better and faster. Organic fertilizers contain macro and micro elements in small amounts, however, organic fertilizer is superior compared to inorganic fertilizers, because it has the function of improving soil structure, increase soil absorption against a given N elements, raise the living conditions of the ground and food source for plants. Nitrogen contained in each amino acid is a major component of proteins that form the matrix of protoplasm and is required for the synthesis of enzymes, as a component of chlorophyll pigment chlorophyll molecules that are part A and B, the effect of nitrogen in the process and provide fotosontesa pigment chlorophyll green leaves. Results photosynthesis used overall plant growth mainly stems, branches and leaves. Nitrogen has an important role for the plant, which stimulates vegetative growth adds height. Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the number of Cucumis melo leaves were presented in Table 2. Table 2. Number of leaf (blade) in the dose range of Vermicompost The average number of leaf (blade) at the age of 14 dap 21 dap 28 dap 35 dap No Vermicompost 3.78 a 6.85 a 15.57 a 22.50 a Vermicompost 1 t/ha 4.50 b 7.77 b 16.04 b 24.40 b Vermicompost 2 t/ha 4.56 b 8.06 b 17.06 bc 24.57 b Vermicompost 3 t/ha 4.78 b 8.22 b 17.94 c 24.94 b Vermicompost 4 t/ha 4.89 b 8.06 b 17.99 c 25.61 b 5% LSD 0.42 0.71 1.43 1.65 Description The numbers followed by the same letter, in the same column, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting Treatment The test results 5% LSD (Table 2) the number of leaves on the highest dose treatment vermicompost 4 tons / ha, not significantly different from other treatments vermicompost dose and significantly different from the untreated control vermicompost. It is suspected the influence of macro and micro 1944 Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947
  • 4. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013. ©IJAET ISSN: 22311963 nutrients contained in the vermicompost, consequently plants showed better growth and fertile. Organic fertilizers can increase the levels of nutrients N, P and K in the soil, the addition of organic fertilizer can also improve soil physical properties and provide development opportunities microorganisms in the soil. Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the area of Cucumis melo leaves were presented in Table 3. Table 3. leaf area (cm2) in the dose range of Vermicompost The average leaf area (cm2) at age of 14 dap 21 dap 28 dap 35 dap 23.93 a 89.90 a 166.23 a 179.63 a No Vermicompost 29.06 ab 94.40 a 170.67 ab 184.00 ab Vermicompost 1 t/ha 31.25 ab 101.69 b 176.52 bc 190.15 bc Vermicompost 2 t/ha 37.40 bc 103.50 bc 179.53 cd 192.70 cd Vermicompost 3 t/ha 40.57 c 109.37 c 184.40 d 197.90 d Vermicompost 4 t/ha 5% LSD 8.44 7.18 6.16 6.47 Description The numbers followed by the same letter, in the same column, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting Treatment The test results 5% LSD (Table 3) doses of vermicompost treatment 4 tons / ha yield greater leaf area and no significant difference with treatment doses of 3 tons / ha. It is expected the plant will need the macro and micro elements are met by making vermicompost better vegetative growth. Vermicompost to improve soil structure, increase soil absorption of the nutrients are given, raise the living conditions of the ground and food source for plants for metabolic processes. Organic fertilizer can increase the levels of nutrients N, P and K in the soil, the addition of organic fertilizer can also improve soil physical properties and provide development opportunities microorganisms in the soil, this is proved by the results of soil analysis. Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the Weight of Cucumis melo Fruit were presented in Table 4. Table 4. Fruit Weight (kg) in the dose range of Vermicompost The average Fruit Weight Harvest At Age 70 dap No Vermicompost 1.23 a Vermicompost 1 t/ha 1.70 b Vermicompost 2 t/ha 1.93 c Vermicompost 3 t/ha 2.17 d Vermicompost 4 t/ha 2.30 d 5% LSD 0.21 Description The numbers followed by the same letter, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting Treatment The test results LSD 5% (Table 4), highest weight of 2.3 kg melon fruit / fruit produced by treatment vermicompost 4 tons / ha did not differ significantly with treatment doses of 3 tons / ha (2.17 kg / fruit), and significantly different from the untreated control vermicompost (1.23 kg / fruit). It is thought to vermicompost significantly affect plant growth vegetaqtif ie length, number of leaves and leaf area (Table 1, 2 and 3) will further affect the growth of plants generative, so that makes the production of vermicompost treatment melon and weighs more contained compared with no treatment vermicompost. Previous research has the potential to improve the vermicompost plant growth when added to the soil [12]. Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the Volume of Cucumis melo Fruit were presented in Table 5. Table 5. Fruit Volume (liters) in the dose range of Vermicompost The Average Fruit Volume (liters) At Treatment Harvest Age 70 dap No Vermicompost 1.50 a Vermicompost 1 t/ha 2.00 b Vermicompost 2 t/ha 2.37 c Vermicompost 3 t/ha 2.50 cd 1945 Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947
  • 5. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013. ©IJAET ISSN: 22311963 Vermicompost 4 t/ha 2.70 d 5% LSD 0.30 Description The numbers followed by the same letter, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting The test results 5% LSD (Table 5) in the control plots were not fertilized plants produce vermicompost melon volume was the smallest and significantly different from that fostered vermicompost. Vermicompost dose of 4 tons / ha produced the largest volume of 2.70 liters melon fruit / fruit but not significantly different from vermicompost dose of 3 tons / ha. It is thought to implementation in the field vermicomposts improve soil quality by increasing microbial activity and microbial biomass is a key component in nutrient cycling, vermicomposts can boost growth, flowering and yield [13]. Vermicompost dose treatment effect on the Brix of Cucumis melo Fruit were presented in Table 6. Table 6. Fruit Brix in the dose range of Vermicompost The Average Fruit Brix At Harvest Age 70 dap No Vermicompost 7.0 a Vermicompost 1 t/ha 8.6 b Vermicompost 2 t/ha 8.9 bc Vermicompost 3 t/ha 9.5 cd Vermicompost 4 t/ha 9.9 d 5% LSD 0,78 Description The numbers followed by the same letter, are not significantly different at 5% LSD (Little Significant Difference), dap = days after planting Treatment The test results 5% LSD (Table 6) in the control plots were not fertilized plants produce vermicompost brix most small melon and significantly different from that fostered vermicompost. Vermicompost dose of 4 tons / ha produced the largest melon fruit brix 9.90 but not significantly different from vermicompost dose of 3 tons / ha. This is presumably because vermicompost contains elements of K2O were applied which can serve to increase the sugar content (brix) in cucumber fruit, nutrients absorbed by plants to meet the metabolic needs of the body in preparing the framework mainly plants increased levels of sugar and fruit quality [14]. V. CONCLUSION The results turned out tobacco cigarette factory waste can be used as organic fertilizer. It is shown to affect the growth and yield of Cucumis melo L Red Aroma Varieties, namely: plant length, number of leaves, leaf area, fruit weight, fruit volume and sugar content in fruit. REFERENCES [1] Munandir Yodi. 2007. Environmental Impact and Accompanying Analysis. Malang. Indonesia [2] Budiono. 2003. Waste solving twisted Cigarette Factory. PT. GG Kediri. Indonesia. [3] Samadi. 2007. Cucumis melo Cultivation. Pusat Pustaka. Jakarta. Indonesia. [4] Sucofindo. 2004. Report of Analisis Compost. Attechment to Certificate N0 212.37.20/0407/ 04/2004/02. OC : 0016089. Indonesia. [5] Khairuman dan Khairul Amri. 2009. Fortunately dredge of Raising Worms. Agromedia Pustaka. Jakarta. Indonesia. [6] Aalok Asha, A.K. Tripathi and P. Soni. 2008. Vermicomposting: A Better Option For Organic Solid Waste Management. Journal Ecology and Environment, 24(1): 59-64. India. [7] Arun Karnwal and Ravi Kumar. 2012. Effect of Earth Worms on Solid Waste to Get Nutrient Rich Vermicompost for Plants. Journal of Environmental Researt and Protection (JERP), No. 32. Bhojia. India. [8] Punde,B.D. and R.A. Ganorkar. 2012. Vermicomposting-Recycling Waste Into Valuable Organic Fertilizer. International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) Vol. 2, pp.2342-2347. India. [9] Termorshuizen, J. S.W. Moolenaar. A.H.M. Veeken and W.J. Blok. 2005. The value of compost. Reviews in Environmental Science & Bio/Technology. Springer 3: 343-347. Netherlands. [10] Sucofindo. 2009. Report of Analisis Vermicompost. Attechment to Certificate N0 03914/0880AC. Date April 23, 2009. Indonesia. [11] Anonymous. 2009. Institute for Agricultural Technology (BPTP). Malang. Indonesia. 1946 Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947
  • 6. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2013. ©IJAET ISSN: 22311963 [12] Atiyeh, R. M., S. Subler, C.A. Edwards, G. Bachman, J. D. Metzger and W. Shuster. 2000. Effects of vermicomposts and composts on plant growth in horticultural container media and soil. Journal Pedo biologia, 44, 579–590. Ohio State University. USA. [13] Arancon N.Q. and Clive A. Edwards. 2005. Effects Of Vermicomposts On Plant Growth. Soil Ecology Laboratory, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA. [14] Siswanto. 2010. Melon Fruit Sugar Levels increase. Agroteknologi Studies Program. Faculty of Agriculture. UPN Veteran East Java. Indonesia. ISBN 978-602-9372-00-7. AUTHOR BIOGRAPHY Ir. H. Abu Talkah, MM. is the Rector of Universitas Islam Kadiri (Kadiri Islamic University) Kediri, Indonesia. 1947 Vol. 6, Issue 5, pp. 1942-1947