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INFLUENCE OF SOIL-INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS INTERACTION ON SUBGRADE STRENGTH OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL-A COMPARATIVE STUDY
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INFLUENCE OF SOIL-INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS INTERACTION ON SUBGRADE STRENGTH OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL-A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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The rapid growth in population and industrialization cause generation of large quantities of effluents. The bulk effluents generated from industrial activities are discharged either treated or …

The rapid growth in population and industrialization cause generation of large quantities of effluents. The bulk effluents generated from industrial activities are discharged either treated or untreated over the soil leading to changes in soil properties causing improvement or degradation of engineering behaviour of soil. If there is an improvement in engineering behaviour of soil, there is a value addition to the industrial wastes serving the three benefits of safe disposal of effluent, using as a stabilizer and return of income on it. If there is degradation of engineering behaviour of soil then solution for decontamination is to be obtained. Hence an attempt is made in this investigation to study the effect of certain Industrial effluents such as Textile effluent, Tannery effluent and Battery effluent on the California Bearing Ratio Value of an expansive soil.

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  • 1. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963INFLUENCE OF SOIL-INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS INTERACTION ON SUBGRADE STRENGTH OF AN EXPANSIVE SOIL-A COMPARATIVE STUDY A. V. Narasimha Rao1, M. Chittaranjan2 1 Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, S.V.University, Tirupati, India 2 Senior Lecturer, Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla, Guntur District, IndiaABSTRACTThe rapid growth in population and industrialization cause generation of large quantities of effluents. The bulkeffluents generated from industrial activities are discharged either treated or untreated over the soil leading tochanges in soil properties causing improvement or degradation of engineering behaviour of soil. If there is animprovement in engineering behaviour of soil, there is a value addition to the industrial wastes serving thethree benefits of safe disposal of effluent, using as a stabilizer and return of income on it. If there is degradationof engineering behaviour of soil then solution for decontamination is to be obtained. Hence an attempt is madein this investigation to study the effect of certain Industrial effluents such as Textile effluent, Tannery effluentand Battery effluent on the California Bearing Ratio Value of an expansive soil.KEYWORDS: Expansive Soil-Textile Effluent-Tannery Effluent-Battery Effluent-C.B.R Values I. INTRODUCTIONThe Index and Engineering properties of the ground gets modified in the vicinity of the industrialplants mainly as a result of contamination by the industrial wastes disposed. The major sources ofsurface and subsurface contamination are the disposal of industrial wastes and accidental spillage ofchemicals during the course of industrial operations. The leakage of industrial effluent into subsoildirectly affects the use and stability of the supported structure. Results of some studies indicate thatthe detrimental effect of seepage of acids and bases into sub soil can cause severe foundation failures.Extensive cracking damage to the floors, pavement and foundations of light industrial buildings in afertilizer plant in Kerala state was reported by Sridharan (1981).Severe damage occurred tointerconnecting pipe of a phosphoric acid storage tank in particular and also to the adjacent buildingsdue to differential movements between pump and acid tank foundations of fertilizer plant in Calgary,Canada was reported by Joshi (1994). A similar case of accidental spillage of highly concentratedcaustic soda solution as a result of spillage from cracked drains in an industrial establishment inTema, Ghana caused considerable structural damage to a light industrial buildings in the factory, inaddition to localized subsidence of the affected area has been reported by Kumapley (1985).Therefore, it is a better to start ground monitoring from the beginning of a project instead of waitingfor complete failure of the ground to support human activities and then start remedial actions. 326 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335
  • 2. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963In many situations, soils in natural state do not present adequate geotechnical properties to be used asroad service layers, foundation layers and as a construction material. In order to adjust theirgeotechnical parameters to meet the requirements of technical specifications of construction industry,studying soil stabilization is more emphasized. Hence an attempt has been made by researchers to useindustrial wastes as soil stabilizers so that there is a value addition to the industrial wastes and at thesame time environmental pollution can also minimised.Shirsavkar (2010) have been made experimental investigations to study the suitability of molasses toimprove geotechnical properties of soil. He observed that the value of CBR is found to increase bythe addition of molasses. Kamon Masashi (2001) reported that the durability of pavement is improvedwhen stabilized with ferrum lime-aluminium sludge. Ekrem Kalkan (2006) investigated andconcluded that cement–red mud waste can be successfully used for the stabilization of clay liners ingeotechnical applications.The thickness of Pavement and subgrade strength depends on C.B.R value of soil. Hence an attemptis made in this investigation to study the effect of certain industrial effluents such as Textile effluent,Tannery effluent and Battery effluent on the California Bearing Ratio Value of an expansive soil.Experimental investigations, Results and discussion, Mechanism involved in modification of C.B.Rvalues, summary and conclusions, scope for future work are critically discussed in the followingsections.II. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS2.1. Materials used2.1.1. SoilExpansive soils due to its swelling nature it causes lot of damages to Civil Engineering structureswhich are constructed over them. These type of soils are very sensitive to changes in environmentsuch as change in applied stress, Pore fluid chemistry and its surrounding environmental conditions.Hence expansive soil is considered for investigation.The soil used for this investigation is obtained from CRS near Renigunta, Tirupati. The dried andpulverized material passing through I.S.4.75 mm sieve is taken for the study. The properties of thesoil are given in Table.1. The soil is classified as “SC” as per I.S. Classification (IS 1498:1970)indicating that it is clayey sand. It is highly expansive in nature as the Differential Free Swell Index(DFSI) is about 255%. Table:1 Properties of Untreated soil Sl.No. Property Value 1. Grain size distribution (a)Gravel (%) 3 (b)Sand (%) 65 (c)Silt +Clay (%) 32 2. Atterberg Limits (a)Liquid Limit (%) 77 (b)Plastic Limit (%) 29 (c)Plasticity Index (%) 48 3. Differential Free Swell Index (%) 255 4. Swelling Pressure (kN/m2) 210 5. Specific Gravity 2.71 6. pH Value 9.20 7. Compaction characteristics (a) Maximum Dry Unit Weight (kN/m3) 18.3 (b) Optimum Moisture Content(%) 12.4 8. California Bearing Ratio Value (%) at (a)2.5mm Penetration 9.98 (b) 5.0mm Penetration 9.39 9. Unconfined compressive Strength(kN/m2) 173.2 327 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335 2 Strength(kN/m )
  • 3. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-19632.1.2. Industrial Effluents2.1.2.1 Textile effluent Textile effluent is a coloured liquid and soluble in water. The chemical properties of the effluentare shown in Table 2.2.1.2.2 Tannery effluent Tannery industry effluent is dark coloured Liquid and soluble in water. The chemicalcomposition of Tannery effluent is given in Table.32.1.2.3. Battery effluent Battery effluent is a colourless liquid and soluble in water. The chemical properties of the effluentare shown in Table .4Table.2: Chemical Composition Table. 3: Chemical Composition of Textile effluent of Tannery effluentSl.No Parameter Value S.No. PARAMETER VALUE 1. Colour Yellow 1. Color Black 2. PH 9.83 2. pH 3.15 3. Chlorides 380mg/l 3. Chromium 250 mg/l 4. Alkalinity 2400mg/l 4. Chlorides 200 mg/l 5. Suspended solids 1500gm 5. Sulphates 52.8 mg/l 6. Total solids 13.50 6. Total Hardness 520 mg/l 7. BOD 150mg/l 7. BOD 120 mg/l 8. COD 6200mg/l 8. COD 450 mg/l 9. Suspended Solids 1200 mg/lit Table.4: Chemical Composition of Battery Effluent S.No. PARAMETER VALUE 1. Color White 2. pH 8.45 3. Sulphates 250 mg/l 4. Chlorides 30 mg/l 5. Lead Sulfate 63.08% 6. Free Lead 7.44% 7. Total Lead 75.42% 8. BOD 110 mg/l 9. COD 320 mg/lIII. PROCEDURE FOR MIXINGThe soil from the site is dried and hand sorted to remove the pebbles and vegetative matter if any. It isfurther dried and pulverized and sieved through a sieve of 4.75mm to eliminate gravel fraction if any.The dried and sieved soil is stored in air tight containers and ready to use for mixing with effluents.The soil sample so prepared is then mixed with solutions of different concentrations of Textile,Tannery and Battery effluent. The percentage varied from 20 to 100% in increment of 20%.The soil -effluent mixtures are mixed thoroughly before testing.IV. TESTS CONDUCTED ON TREATED SOIL4.1. Standard Proctor TestThe compaction parameters i.e. optimum moisture content and Maximum dry unit weight play a vitalrole in changing the strength characteristics of an expansive soil. In practice C.B.R. test is alsoconducted at Optimum Pore fluid Content and corresponding Maximum Dry Unit Weight. But thesetwo parameters are strongly influenced by pore fluid chemistry. Hence in this investigation StandardProctor’s compaction tests are carried out on expansive soil treated with Textile effluent, Tanneryeffluent, Battery effluent at various percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% by dryweight of the soil. 328 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335
  • 4. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-19634.2. California Bearing Ratio TestsThe strength of the subgrade is an important factor in the determination of the thickness required for aflexible pavement. It is expressed in terms of its “California Bearing Ratio”, usually abbreviated asCBR. The results obtained by these tests are used in conjunction with empirical curves, based onexperience for the design of flexible pavements. The California Bearing Ratio value is determinedcorresponding to both 2.5 mm and 5.0 mm penetrations, and the greater value is used for the designof flexible pavement.In this investigation California Bearing Ratio tests on Expansive soil treated with Textile effluent,Tannery effluent and Battery effluent varying from 0% to 100% in increment of 20% is carried out.The tests are conducted on remolded soil specimens at their respective Optimum Pore fluid Contentand Maximum Dry Unit Weights and compacted according to I.S. Light compaction. V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS5.1. Standard Proctor’s testStandard Proctor’s compaction tests are carried out on expansive soil treated with Textile effluent,Tannery effluent, Battery effluent at various percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% bydry weight of the soil and the results i.e. Optimum Pore fluid Content and Maximum Dry unit Weightare obtained. The variation of the Optimum Pore fluid Content at different percentages of Textile,Tannery and battery effluents are shown in Table.5.The variation of the Maximum dry Unit Weight atdifferent percentages of Textile, Tannery and Battery effluents are shown in Table.6 Table: 5: Optimum Pore fluid (OPC) Content at different Percentages of effluents Effluent (%): Water (%) O.P.C Textile Tannery Battery 0:100 12.4 12.4 12.4 20:80 12.6 12.1 13.5 40:60 12.9 11.9 13.6 60:40 13.4 11.6 13.7 80:20 14.4 11.3 13.9 100:0 15.4 11.1 14.1 Table.6. Maximum Dry Unit Weight (M.D.U) at different Percentages of effluents Effluent (%): Water (%) M.D.U (kN/m3) Textile Tannery Battery 0:100 18.30 18.3 18.30 20:80 18.27 18.6 17.71 40:60 18.22 18.8 17.51 60:40 18.14 19.1 17.41 80:20 18.09 19.5 17.37 100:0 18.03 19.8 17.2From the Table.5 it is observed that the optimum pore fluid content increases with increase inpercentage of Textile effluent and Battery effluent whereas it decreases with increase in percentage ofTannery effluent. From the Table.6 it is observed that there is reduction in maximum dry density withpercentage increase in Textile effluent and Battery effluent whereas it increases with increase inpercentage of Tannery effluent.5.2. California Bearing Ratio TestThe load – penetration curves of treated and untreated soil obtained from California Bearing Ratiotests at different percentages of Textile effluent are presented in Fig.1. 329 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335
  • 5. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 Fig.1: Load – Penetration curves of treated soil at different percentages of Textile EffluentThe load – penetration curves of treated and untreated soil obtained from California Bearing Ratiotests at different percentages of Tannery effluent are presented in Fig.2.The Top most curvecorresponds to 100% of effluent followed by 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% respectively. Fig.2: Load – Penetration curves of treated soil at different percentages of Tannery EffluentThe load – penetration curves of treated and untreated soil obtained from California Bearing Ratiotests at different percentages of Battery effluent are presented in Fig.3. 330 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335
  • 6. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 Fig.3: Load – Penetration curves of treated soil at different percentages of Battery Effluent5.2.1. CBR Values for 2.5mm penetrationThe variation of the CBR values with different percentages of Textile, Tannery and Battery effluentsare shown in Table.7.The percent increase/decrease in CBR values at different effluent percentagesare also shown in Table.8.From the Table.8 it is observed that the maximum percent increase in CBRvalue at 2.5mm penetration for 100% Textile effluent is about 45% and for 100%Tannery effluent isabout 50%.It is found that the maximum percent decrease in CBR value for 100% Battery effluent isabout 21%. Table.7: C.B.R.Values at 2.5mm penetration at different percentages of effluents Effluent %): Water (%) C.B.R.Values (%) Textile Tannery Battery 0:100 9.98 9.98 9.98 (%) 20:80 10.59 10.38 9.76 40:60 10.93 11.28 9.31 60:40 14.02 12.18 8.84 80:20 14.12 13.58 8.37 100:0 14.43 14.98 7.9 Table.8: Percent increase/decrease in CBR values at 2.5mm penetration at different Percentages of effluents Effluent %): Water (%) C.B.R.Values (%) Textile Tannery Battery 0:100 - - - 20:80 6.11 4.00 -3.57 40:60 9.52 13.02 -11.54 60:40 40.48 22.04 -16.90 80:20 41.48 36.07 -18.91 100:0 44.58 50.10 -20.83 331 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335
  • 7. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963The Variation of CBR values at 2.5mm penetration and different percentages of the three effluents areshown in Fig.4. From the figure it is observed that the CBR value increases with per cent increase ofTextile and Tannery effluent where as it decreases in the case of Battery effluent. The maximumpercentage increase or decrease occurs at 100% effluent in all the three cases.Fig.4: Variation of CBR values at 2.5mm penetration at different percentages of Effluents5.2.2. CBR Values at 5.0mm penetrationThe variation of the CBR values with different percentages of Textile effluent, Tannery effluent andBattery effluent are shown in Table.9.The percent increase/decrease in CBR values at differenteffluent percentages are also shown in Table.10.From the Table.10 it is observed that the maximumpercent increase of CBR value at 5.0mm penetration for 100% Textile effluent is about 39.82% andfor 100% Tannery effluent is about 45.47%.It is found that the maximum percent decrease in CBRvalue for 100% Battery effluent is about 16.50%. Table.9: CBR Values at 5.0 mm penetration at different percentages of effluents Effluent %): Water (%) C.B.R. Values (%) Textile Tannery Battery ater(%) 0:100 9.39 9.39 9.39 20:80 10.24 9.69 9.08 40:60 10.43 10.61 8.46 60:40 10.94 11.22 8.09 80:20 12.77 11.83 7.96 100:0 13.13 13.66 7.84Table.10: Percent increase/decrease in C.B.R values at 5.0mm penetration at different percentages of effluents Effluent (%): Water (%) (%) C.B.R.Values (%) (%) Textile Tannery Battery 0:100 - - - ater(%) 20:80 9.05 3.20 3.30 40:60 11.07 12.9 10.47 60:40 16.50 19.48 13.88 80:20 35.99 25.98 15.22 100:0 39.82 45.47 16.50 332 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335
  • 8. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963The variation of CBR value at 5.0mm penetration and different percentages of the three effluents areshown in Fig.5. From the figure it is observed that the CBR value increases with per cent increase ofTextile and Tannery effluent where as it decreases in the case of Battery effluent. The Maximum percent increase or decrease in C.B.R. Value occurs at 100% effluent in all the three cases. Fig.5: Variation of CBR values at 5.0mm penetration at different percentages of EffluentsVI. MECHANISM INVOLVED IN MODIFICATION OF C.B.R VALUES OF TREATED SOILIn the case of Expansive soils the Engineering behavior of the soil is governed by thickness ofdiffused double layer. The thickness of double layer in turn affected by pore fluid chemistry such asDielectric Constant, Electrolyte Concentration, Ion valence, hydrated ion radius etc., when soilinteracts with industrial effluents, the interaction changes the pore fluid chemistry and subsequentlythe thickness of diffused double layer. These changes are likely to be reflected by variation inengineering properties.6.1. Textile effluentWhen soil is mixed with Textile effluent the dry density decreases and Optimum pore fluid contentincreases. This could be attributed to ion exchange at the surface of clay particle. The chlorides in theadditives reacted with the lower valence metallic ions in the clay microstructure and causes decreasein double layer thickness. The decrease in double layer thickness causes increase in attractive forcesand decrease in repulsive forces leading to flocculated structure. Hence Dry density decreases. Due toretaining of water within the voids of flocculated structure water holding capacity of soil increaseshence optimum moisture content increases. The CBR values of soil treated with Textile effluentincreases at 2.5mm penetration and 5.0mm penetration. This is due to Textile effluent is capable offorming covalent linkages with cellulose, amino, thiol and hydroxyl groups (Srimurali, 2001).AlsoTextile effluent do contain Cl- or O-So3 as leaving group enabling the dyes to form covalent bondswith fibre (Srimurali 2001).The Clay minerals do contain hydroxyls groups at the surface andpossibly a bonding takes place between hydroxyls in the clay minerals and dyes or O-So3Na of dyes.This Chemical bonding may be responsible for increase in CBR Values of soil treated with Textileeffluent.6.2. Tannery EffluentThe CBR values of soil treated with Tannery effluent increases at 2.5mm penetration and 5.0mmpenetration. When soil is mixed with Tannery effluent the dry density increases due to adsorption ofChromium CrO4 ions on to the clay particles present in the Tannery effluent. Due to its highervalence adsorption of divalent or trivalent chromium decreases the double layer thickness. The 333 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335
  • 9. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012. ©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 reduction of the double layer thickness brings the particles closer and increases the mechanical contact between the particles. Increase in dry density and mechanical contacts between the particles increase the inter particle friction that in turn led to high resistance to penetration of the plunger. Hence high CBR values of soil observed for soil treated with Tannery effluent. 6.3. Battery Effluent The CBR values of soil treated with Battery effluent decreases at 2.5mm penetration and 5.0mm penetration. This is attributed to adsorption of sulphates on to the clay particles present in the Battery effluent. Adsorption of divalent negative sulphate ions causes entire clay particles to be negatively charged. If the entire clay particle becomes negatively charged it increases the activity of clay mineral and holds more quantity of water as double layer water and promotes expansion of double layer. Expansion of diffused double layer increases the distance between individual soil grains which may cause decrease in Electro static and Electromagnetic attractive forces which hold the soil particles together. Hence decrease in Maximum Dry Unit Weight and weak chemical bonding that developed between clay minerals with the reactive chemicals present in Battery effluent led to low resistance to penetration of plunger. Hence low CBR values of soil observed for soil treated with Battery effluent.VII. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Industrial activity is necessary for socio-economic progress of a country but at the same time it generates large amounts of solid and liquid wastes. Disposal of solid or liquid effluents, waste by- products over the land and or accidental spillage of chemicals during the course of industrial process and operations causes alterations of the physical and mechanical properties of the ground in the vicinity of industrial plants. If soil waste interaction causes improvement in soil properties then the industrial wastes can be used as soil stabilizers. On other hand if it causes degradation of soil properties then the solution for decontamination of soil is to be obtained. In this investigation, an attempt has been made to study the effect of certain industrial effluents such as Textile, Tannery and Battery effluents on CBR values of an expansive soil. From the results presented in this investigation, the following conclusions are drawn.  Expansive clay considered in this investigation is sensitive when it is treated with industrial effluents.  When soil mixed with Textile and Tannery effluents separately an increase in CBR values is observed. But when it is mixed with Battery effluent CBR values are decreased.  The Maximum improvement in CBR values corresponding to 2.5mm penetration and 5.0 mm penetration are about 45% and 40% respectively when the soil is treated with Textile effluent. The maximum improvement in CBR values occur when the soil is treated with 100% Textile effluent.  The Maximum improvement in CBR values corresponding to 2.5mm penetration and 5.0mm penetration are about 50% and 45% respectively when the soil is treated with Tannery effluent. The maximum improvement in CBR values occur when the soil is treated with 100% Tannery effluent.  The Maximum reduction in CBR values corresponding to 2.5mm penetration and 5.0mm penetration are about 21% and 17% respectively when the soil is treated with Battery effluent. The maximum reduction in CBR values occurs when the soil is treated with 100% Battery effluent.  Textile and Tannery effluents raise the hope of value addition to the industrial wastes where as Battery effluent can be treated as contaminant.VIII. SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK In the present investigation the effect of Textile, Tannery and Battery effluents CBR values have been studied. Studies can also be made to know the influence of these effluents on Plasticity, Swelling, Compaction and Strength Characteristics, pH and Drainage and Consolidation characteristics so that a comprehensive knowledge of the behaviour of expansive soil treated with Textile, Tannery and Battery effluents can be obtained.The work can be extended to other contaminants / pollutants / effluents / industrial wastes namely work shop waste, sugar mill waste, Pharmaceutical plants waste, Dairy waste, Paper and Pulp mill waste, Fertilizer plant waste, Steel mill waste, Oil refineries waste, Petro chemical complex waste, Soap Industry waste etc., 334 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335
  • 10. International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Nov. 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963REFERENCES[1]. Ekrem Kalkan “Utilization of red mud as a Stabilization material for the preparation of clay liners”Engineering, Geology, 87, (3- 4), 220-229. (2006)[2]. I.S. 1498-1970 (First Revision), Classification of soils for General Engineering Purposes.[3]. Joshi, R.C., Pan., and Lohita, P. “Volume Change in Calcareous Soils due to Phosphoric acid,Contamination”, Proc. Of the XIII ICSMFE, New Delhi, Vol.4, 1569- 1574. (1994)[4]. Kumapley, N.K., and Ishola, A., “The Effect of Chemical Contamination on Soil Strength” Proc. of the XIICSMFE, Sanfrancisco, Vol.3, 1199-1201.(1985)[5]. Kamon Masashi GU Huanda, Masahiro “Improvement of mechanical properties of ferrum lime stabilizedsoil with the addition of aluminium Sludge” Materials science research international ISSN1341-1683, vol.7, 47-53(2001)[6].Sridharan, A, Nagraj, T.S., and Sivapullaiah, P.V. “Heaving of soil Due to Acid Contamination” Proc. of theX ICSMFE, Stockholm, Vol.2, 383-386. (1981)[7]. S.S.Shirsavkar, Prof.S.S.Koranne “Innovation in Road Construction Using Natural Polymer”, EIJJE,Journal, Vol.15, Bund.O, 1614-1624. (2010)[8]. Srimurali,M (2001)”Removal of Colour from Dye Wastes By Chemical coagulation” Ph.D. ThesisSubmitted to Dept.of.Civil.Engg. S.V.University, IndiaAUTHORS BIOGRAPHIESA. V. Narasimha Rao presently Professor of Civil Engineering,S.V.U.College ofEngineering,Tirupati having 33 years of Teaching, Research, and Consultancy experience.He obtained his Master of Engineering Degree and Ph.D from IIT Chennai. He held variousadministrative posts in S.V.University like Head of Civil Engineering Department; VicePrincipal etc.He published more than 100 research papers. He has published two books. Hereceived Eminent Engineer Award conferred by the Institution of Engineers (India), Engineerof the year award- 2007 conferred jointly by the Government of A.P. and the Institution ofEngineers (India), and State Teacher award-2012. His interests are Geosynthetics, Groundimprovement techniques, Environmental geotechniques, Marine Geotechnology.M. Chittaranjan is research Scholar working for Ph.D Degree in Civil Engineering. His areaof research is Environmental geotechniques.Presently he is working as a Senior Lecturer inthe Department of Civil Engineering of Bapatla Engineering College, Bapatla, India. He had08 years of experience in the field of academics. He obtained his Master of TechnologyDegree from S.V.University, Tirupati, India. He had successfully published national researchpapers and international research papers. 335 Vol. 5, Issue 1, pp. 326-335