DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE & LOW-COST INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR REAL TIME VOLCANO MONITORING Copyright IJAET
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DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE & LOW-COST INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR REAL TIME VOLCANO MONITORING Copyright IJAET

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An instrumentation which is used to monitoring of volcano activities usually has a complex structure and expensive. This, may difficult not only in procurement of the device but also in terms of ...

An instrumentation which is used to monitoring of volcano activities usually has a complex structure and expensive. This, may difficult not only in procurement of the device but also in terms of maintenance. Aim of this research is to develop a simple and inexpensive instrumentation system for online volcano monitoring. For this purpose, the instrumentation system is built upon two main units, i.e. Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) and Master Terminal Unit (MTU). The RTU is sensing unit, which includes seismic sensor module and weather sensor module. Both the sensor modules are equipped with a microcontroller based data acquisition system. The MTU is control and data logger unit. It is built based on PC, and installed application’s software for data logger and interface to the internet network, allowing users to access the volcano activity that was monitored by real time, from anywhere. The connection between MTU and RTU performed wirelessly using a digital radio transceiver. The RTU’s work function is fully controlled by the MTU. This system has been tested on laboratory scale and work well.

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    DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE & LOW-COST INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR REAL TIME VOLCANO MONITORING Copyright IJAET DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE & LOW-COST INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR REAL TIME VOLCANO MONITORING Copyright IJAET Document Transcript

    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 DEVELOPMENT OF A SIMPLE & LOW-COST INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM FOR REAL TIME VOLCANO MONITORING Didik R. Santoso, Sukir Maryanto and A.Y. Ponco Wardoyo Department of Physics, BrawijayaUniversity, Jl. Veteran 2 Malang 65145, IndonesiaABSTRACTAn instrumentation which is used to monitoring of volcano activities usually has a complex structure andexpensive. This, may difficult not only in procurement of the device but also in terms of maintenance. Aim of thisresearch is to develop a simple and inexpensive instrumentation system for online volcano monitoring. For thispurpose, the instrumentation system is built upon two main units, i.e. Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) and MasterTerminal Unit (MTU). The RTU is sensing unit, which includes seismic sensor module and weather sensormodule. Both the sensor modules are equipped with a microcontroller based data acquisition system. The MTUis control and data logger unit. It is built based on PC, and installed application’s software for data logger andinterface to the internet network, allowing users to access the volcano activity that was monitored by real time,from anywhere. The connection between MTU and RTU performed wirelessly using a digital radio transceiver.The RTU’s work function is fully controlled by the MTU. This system has been tested on laboratory scale andwork well.KEYWORDS: Volcano monitoring, Instrumentation, Seismic Sensor, Weather sensor I. INTRODUCTIONIn country, that has many volcanoes such as Indonesia (see Figure 1), continuously monitoring ofvolcano activity becomes very important. There are at least two reasons, first is to monitor the level ofvolcano hazard, relates to mitigation and management of natural disasters particularly those caused byvolcanic eruptions to reduce losses and damages. Secondly is to understand the physical processesthat occur inside the volcano, such as magma migration and the mechanisms that exist within thevolcano, this is more toward advancing the science of volcanoes (volcanology) itself [1].There are many physical phenomena resulting from the internal behaviour of volcanoes, includingexternal signs that can be measured with instruments when the magma moves or its chemicalcomposition changes, or when its pressure or temperature varies. Then, many methods have beenutilized for observing and monitoring the volcano activity and the efforts for establishing a good andreliable system for monitoring and predicting the volcano eruption is never ended. Instruments willnever replace the expertise of the volcanologists in charge of the surveillance, but they definitely canhelp them in taking swift decisions in case of a crisis such as an eruption [3].The study of earthquakes is one of the most common methods in order to monitor the volcanicactivity, with a great success. The whole idea is based on the theory saying that magma causes smallearthquakes during trying to find an exit to the surface [4]. Earthquake activity beneath a volcanoalmost always increases before an eruption because magma and volcanic gas must first force theirway up through shallow underground fractures and passageways. 532 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 Figure 1. Major volcanoes in Indonesia [2]Currently, the development of earthquakes sensor (i.e. seismic) leads to technology of MEMSaccelerometer. The technology of very small mechanical device driven by electricity or vice versa,and packaged in Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Advantages of using MEMS for seismic sensor aresmall size and compact, sensitive, mild, and relatively cheap. MEMS accelerometer is also availablein 3-axis sensing (xyz), so it can be used to measure seismic vibrations in three different directionssimultaneously [5,6,7]. Earthquake recorders typically record data at 100 sps and 200 sps, meaningthat frequencies above 50Hz or 100Hz are not recorded. More can be learnt about earthquakes byusing MEMS accelerometers and recorders capable of sampling at up to 2000 sps [8].Temperature is one of the physical parameters of a volcano that register characteristic increase duringreactivation periods. Thermal monitoring is so one of the most important elements of an integralmonitoring system. The monitoring of the surface temperature of volcanoes is one of the essentialelements to know the state of their volcanism. The surface temperature distribution of a volcano canbe observed by using many kinds of temperature sensor, and also with various methods [9,10,11].On the other hand, in view of the instrumentation system, the use of a microcontroller to build of thesystem has been widely applied. Implementation of a microcontroller into the hardware design will beable to increase the capabilities and simplify the system. The advantages of using a microcontrollerare small dimensions, programmable, simple, reliable and relatively cheap [12]. A sensor can beinterfaced to the others functional devices using a low-cost microcontroller and few resources, as infieldbus sensors [13]. To realize a web sensor, Internet Protocols must be provided and most of thecost is in full-compliant implementation of these high-level protocols (TCP/IP or HTTP). Thisapproach allows access to the sensor from everywhere with a commercial browser instead of aproprietary interface [14].Usually, the instrumentation system for volcano monitoring has a complex structure and expensive,this may make difficulties not only in device procurement but also in terms of maintenance. So that,building the system in the simple form and low-cost in budget is a challenge for researchers in thefield of volcanology. This paper discusses the design and construction of a simple and low-costinstrumentation system for monitoring seismic activity of the volcano and the surrounding weather byonline and real-time based on internet network.II. PROPOSED INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMIn general, an instrumentation system consists of four main elements; they are sensor, signalconditioning, signal processing, and display [15]. In this research, block diagram of the proposedinstrumentation system can be seen in Figure 2. The system is built upon two main units, namelyRemote Terminal Unit (RTU) and Master Terminal Unit (MTU). The RTU is made from severalmodules, i.e. seismic sensor module, weather sensor module, data acquisition (DAQ) module, anddata communication module (i.e. RF-transceiver). While the MTU built based on PC, and installed 533 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963application’s software for data logger and network interface. Communication between RTU and MTUperformed wirelessly by using radio tranceiver. The system is built based on internet network,allowing users to access the volcano activity that was monitored by online and real time, fromanywhere. S e is m ic W e a th e r S ensor S ensor D a ta A c q u is itio n R E M O T E T E R M IN A L U N IT (R T U ) R a d io T r a n s c e iv e r R a d io T r a n s c e iv e r M A S T E R T E R M IN A L U N IT (M T U ) I n t e r fa c e C ir c u it IN T E R N E T W eb NETW ORK S e rv e r Figure 2. Block diagram of the proposed instrumentation system2.1 Seismic SensorThe seismic sensors was developed using MMA7260QT MEMS accelerometer as main component. Itis triaxial acceleration sensor, packaged on IC’s chip, and produced by Freescale. The MMA7260QTis low-cost capacitive accelerometer, features temperature compensation and g-select which allowsfor the selection among 4 sensitivities (1.5, 2, 4 and 6 g). Characteristics of this device, in stationaryconditions (no motion), output voltage of the sensor is issued a certain volt; depend on position of thesensor placement [16].For application as seismic sensor, a static voltage is not required and need to be removed. Thus, if thesensor is in static condition, output of the sensor is 0 volt -for all channels (xyz). Then the output ofthe sensor will correspond to the seismic vibrations only. For the purpose of signal filtering,amplifying, and level adjustment, it is necessary to build a suitable signal conditioning circuit. Thesignal conditioning consists of a band pass filter (BPF), voltage amplifier and buffer, and voltage leveladjustment (DC-offset). BPF circuit serves to eliminate the static DC output voltage of the sensor andblocks high frequency noise. Circuit of the seismic sensors that have been developed given in Figure3. Transfer function of the circuit is given by:      R2  Cin   1  Vout =      Vin + Voffset (1)     R1  C f   (1 + ( jω / ω ) ) 1 + 1   H   ( jω / ω )      L  where, 1 1 ωL = then fL = Low frequency cut-off (2) Rf C f 2πR f C f 1 1 ωH = then fH = High frequency cut-off (3) Rin Cin 2πRin Cin 534 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 Figure 3. Circuit of 3-axis seismic sensor circuitPrototype of the sensor in a printed circuit board (PCB) is given in Figure 3. In this figure, left andmiddle pictures are looked top and bottom sides of the sensor, while the right is a picture of the sensorafter casing assembled. Figure 4. Photos of 3-axis seismic sensor2.2 Temperatur and Humidity SensorMeasurement of air temperature and air humidity is important in volcano monitoring. This carried outto determine the environmental changes resulting from the volcanos internal processes. For thispurpose, we develop temperature and humidity sensors in simple form by using SHT11. The SHT11is produced by Senserion, it has double function i.e. as temperature sensor and humidity sensor. TheSHT11 has small dimension, high accuracy, and output in digital logic [17]. Another advantage of thissensor is can be directly connected to the I/O port microcontroller without any other additionaldevices. For temperature functionality, output of the sensors is 14 bits digital data. While for humidityfunctionality, output of the sensor is 12 bits digital data. Figure 5 shows a picture of this sensor and itsconnection to the microcontroller. Figure 5. Temperature and humidity sensor 535 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-19632.3 Wind Direction and Wind Speed SensorWind direction sensor is made using standard mechanical vane system, as shown in Figure 6. Winddirection coded to 4 bits combinational binary code from ‘0000’ to ‘1111’ (Figure 6a), and each bitperformed by optocouple circuit (Figure 6b). From these codes, it can be determined of 16 stagesdifferent direction, by resolution of 22.5 degrees. Wind speed sensor is created using an anemometercub system. Magnitude of the wind speed is determined by counting the number of cycles per unittime. The cycle counter performed by optocouple circuit. Prototype of wind direction and wind speedsensor is given in Figure 7. Figure 6. Optocouple circuit Figure 7. Prototype of (a) wind-direction, (b) wind-speed sensor2.4 Data Acquisition (DAQ) SystemData acquisition system, built upon hardware and software. The hardware of DAQ system is made bythe use of PIC 16F876 microcontroller as main component. PIC 16F876 is midrange microcontrollermanufactured by Microchip Company [18]. The advantages of using this device are cheap, has 5-channels internal ADC, and widely available in the commercial market. Figure 8 shows hardware ofDAQ system and its connection to the sensors system and the RF transceiver. RF transveiver is radiocommunication device to perform wireless communication between RTU and MTU. In this researchwe use YS-320H RF-transceiver from Shenzhen Yishi Electronic Ltd. This is 5 watt (range up to 10km) wireless data modem [19]. Figure 9 is implementation hardware of (a) DAQ system in PCB and(b) YS-320H RF-transceiver.Furthermore, the system software of DAQ was made for two purposes, i.e. to hardware system drivingand to make display for user interface application. Microcontroller software (i.e. firmware) isconstructed by using assembly language MPLAB-IDE, while the display for the user interface wasdeveloped using Delphi programming language. Procedure of communication between the RTU(sensing unit) and the MTU (control unit) arranged by program procedure that has been installed bothin the microcontroller and PC. C PIC16F876 Rx Temp. & RADIO Humidity RAM USART Tx TRANSCEIVER Sensor Wind Speed & Direction Software procedure Sensor Ch0 A 3C-Seismic Ch1 D TIMER1 Sensor Ch2 C Figure 8. Block diagram of DAQ (in RTU) 536 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 Figure 9. (a) DAQ, (b) RF-transceiver2.5 Data Logger Device and WEB InterfaceDevice of data logger is part of the MTU. The data logger serves to store the results of monitoringdata come from RTU. Hardware of the data logger is a PC equiped by additional hardware andsoftware interface. In addition, software of the data logger created by using MySQL databaseapplication. It’s internet based database software to aim that monitoring data can be displayed throughthe application site, or converted into a spreadsheet.The acquisition software works by capture the monitoring data in PC’s memory that passed on bydoing a query insert into the database. The results of acquisitions that have been stored in MySQLdatabase will be processed by components of the application site to real-time concept. Test of datastorage prepared to ensure that the data acquisition software can forward the data received by theMTU into the MySQL database table in accordance to sensing time. There is no data queue, data stack(accumulation) or data loss.Web interface software for application site built by using a combination of client side scripting(JavaScript) as an interpretation of real-time programming, server side scripting (PHP) as an API(Application Programming Interface) and Scalable Vector Graphic (SVG). This combination producesprogramming called PHP-AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) to SVG format chart plotter.AJAX is a technique to control the use of JavaScript in communication with the server and thenrefresh (update) the existing data in a web page without undergoes a refresh an entire Web page as inthe usual method.III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONIt is very important to make sure that the proposed instrumentation system work well by carry outsome tests. Purposes of test is to knows funcionality and performance of the sensors, DAQ, andoverall of the instrumentation system.To determine performance of the seismic sensors, it was tested by comparing the sensor output with acommercial geophone. In this case, a comercial geophone placed nearby the developed seismicsensors, then performed vibration test and record both output signal of the sensors. Figure 10 showssignal of the sensor and the geophone. In this figure, upper side signal i.e a small amplitude signal isoutput of the developed sensor, whereas lower side signal i.e. a large amplitude signal is output of thegeophone. Result of experiment show that both signals have same trend. The difference amplitude iscaused by deferent amplification in signal conditioning circuit, and it can be handed by chosingsuitable amplification. So, from these experimental results can be concluded that the developed sensorhas been functioning properly. 537 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 Figure 10. Comparation between developed sensor and geophoneValidation test of the temperature and humidity sensors is carried out by using standard laboratoryequipment for calibration i.e. HHF11. Results of calibration are given in Figure 11 for temperaturesensor and Figure 12 for humidity sensor. In Figure 11, it appears both sensors have same temperaturevalue for several conditions by R2 = 0.99. In figure 12, there are differences in measurement resultsbetween the two sensors especialy in high humidity values. This is due to the SHT11 humidity wasmeasured by calculating the compensation of room temperature. However, these differences need tobe further analyzed, even necessary recommendations for using other types of humidity sensors.Validation test of the wind speed sensor is carried out also by using HHF11 calibrator. Calibration isperformed by comparing the rotation speed of anemometer cup (developed device) with speed of thecalibrator. Graph of calibration is given in Figure 13. The resulting equation is y = 2.302x, with R2 =0.99, will be used to convert the rotational speed of the anemometer cup to wind speed value. Forseveral experimental data, the error of the resulting wind speed sensor is ± 5% of HHF11. While themeasurement of wind direction by using developed sensors, the results of measurement are given inTable 1. Figure 11. Temperature sensor – calibration Figure 12. Humidity sensor - calibration 538 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 Figure 13. Wind speed sensor – calibration Table 1. Determination of wind direction Input Direction (o) Input Direction (o) (Digital Code) from North (Digital Code) from North 0000 0 - 22.5 1000 180 - 202.5 0001 22.5 - 45 1001 202.5 - 225 0010 45 - 67.5 1010 225 - 247.5 0011 67.5 - 90 1011 247.5 - 270 0100 90 - 112.5 1100 270 - 292,5 0101 112.5 - 135 1101 292.5 - 315 0110 135 - 157.5 1110 315 - 337,5 0111 157.5 - 180 1111 337.5 - 360Furthermore, in case of RTU-MTU communication procedure, it is necassary to do test performanceof the telemetry system. For that, seismic signal from sensor in the RTU recorded by using digitalosciloscope, and for the same time it’s transmit wirelessly to the MTU by YS-320H RF-transceiver.Figure 14 shows result of the test. Image (a) is the transmitted signal (RTU), and image (b) is thereceived signal (MTU). It can be seen that both signal have same shape, it’s mean that the telemetrysystem function properly.Performance test of web based system purposes to find out whether the signal pattern of the graph inMTU’s PC (PC’s server) corresponds to the pattern shown in the browser client computer. Result ofthe test shown in Figure 15. It can be seen that is a comparative look between MTU’s PC and webbrowser. However, the signal on the browser client has small delay compare to MTU’s PC. Thisoccurs due to distance and wide network connections owned by the PC’s client to the server (MTU).In addition, real-time system is defined as a system that not only oriented towards results (outputs)issued, but also required for the system can work well within a certain time as needed.Finally, Figure 16 shows block diagram of the overall instrumentation system for real time volcanomonitoring. The system was designed low-cost in budget and as simple as possible, with the purposeof facilitating the modification if desired, and can be integrated with other systems to improve thequality and quantity of monitoring. According to the some tests that have been done on the overallsystem, the system is functioning properly. However, field validation still needed to determineperformance of the instrumentation system in the real application. 539 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 (a) (b) Figure 14. Performance test of the telemetry system (a) transmitting signal, (b) receiving signal (a) (b) Figure 15. Performance test of the web based application (a) MTU’s PC (b) browser client’s PC Sensors System Figure 16. Block diagram of the overall instrumentation systemIV. CONCLUSIONSIn this research, a simple and inexpensive instrumentation system for online volcano monitoring hasbeen developed. Some projects have been successfully tested: (1) seismic sensors and weathersensors, (2) data acquisition and telemetry systems, and (3) logger data and software for web-basedmonitoring systems. The prototype of seismic sensors offers good results; although still need to dofield validation. Weather sensors i.e. air temperature sensor, air humidity sensor, wind speed sensorand wind direction sensor also offer good results. Telemetry system for RTU to MTU wirelesscommunications has been functioning properly. For internet based monitoring system, has been 540 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963successfully designed Web-based software applications using MySQL. The monitoring data ofseismic activity and the surrounding weather can be recorded and analysed for scientific purposes ormitigation of natural disasters.ACKNOWLEDGMENTSThe research is financed by The Directorate General of Higher Education, Ministry of National Education,Republic of Indonesia, on the scheme of “Hibah Penelitian Strategis Nasional” through DIPA UB No.0174.0/023-04.2/XV/2009, and “Hibah Kompetensi” No. 342.4/UN10.21/PG/2011.REFERENCES[1]. McNutt S. (1996). Seismic monitoring and eruption forecasting of volcanoes: A review of the state of the art and case histories. In Scarpa and Tilling, Monitoring and Mitigation of Volcano Hazards, Springer- Verlag: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 99-146.[2]. http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Volcanoes/Indonesia/Maps/map_indonesia_volcanoes.html[3]. McGuire B; Kilburn C.R.J.; Murray J. (1995). Monitoring Active Volcanoes, UCL Press Limited, London. pp.421.[4]. Panagiotopoulos D; Dimitriadis I.; Vamvakaris D. Seismic Monitoring. Institute for the Study and Monitoring of the Santorini Volcano. Available on http://ismosav.santorini.net[5]. Albarbar A.; Mekid S.; Starr A.; Pietruszkiewicz R. (2008). Suitability of MEMS Accelerometers for Condition Monitoring: An experimental study. Sensors, 8, 784-799.[6]. Rahim I.A.; Miskam, M.A.; Sidek, O.; Zaharudin, S.A.; Zainol, M.Z.; Mohd, S.K.K. (2009). Development of a Vibration Measuring Unit Using a Micro-electromechanical System Accelerometer for Machine Condition Monitoring. European Journal of Scientific Research, 35, 1, 150-158.[7]. Aizawa T; Kimura T; Matsuoka T; Takeda T; Asano Y. (2008). Application of MEMS accelerometer to geophysics, International Journal of the JCRM , 4, 2, pp.1-4.[8]. Pascale A. (2009). Using Micro-ElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) accelerometers for earthquake monitoring. Environmental Systems & Services Pty Ltd, Hawthorn, Australia. Available on http://www.esands.com[9]. Gurrieri S; Madonia P; Giudice G; Inguaggiato S. (2007). Contemporary total dissolved gas pressure and soil temperature anomalies recorded at Stromboli volcano (Italy). Geophysical Research Letters, 34 pp 5.[10]. Vougioukalakis GE; Fytikas M; Kolios N. Thermal Monitoring. Institute for the Study and Monitoring of the Santorini Volcano. Available on http://ismosav.santorini.net[11]. Wright R; Flynn LP; Garbeil H; Andrew JL; Harris; Eric Pilger. (2004). MODVOLC: near-real-time thermal monitoring of global volcanism, Hawaii. Institute of Geophysics and Planetology, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA[12]. Al-Dhaher. (2001). Integrating hardware and software for the development of microcontroller-based systems. Microprocessors and Microsystems, 25, 317-328.[13]. Pal, S; Rakshit A. (2004). Development of network capable smart transducer interfaces for traditional sensors and actuators. Sensor and Actuator A, 112, 381-387.[14]. Flammini A; Ferrari P; Sisinni E; Marioli D; Taroni A. (2003). Sensor integration in industrial environment: from fieldbus to web sensors. Computer Standards & Interfaces 25, 183–194.[15]. Bentley, J.P. (1995). Principles of Measurement System, 3th.ed. Prentice Hall.[16]. MMA7260Q, Three-Axis Low g Acceleration Sensor. Available on http://www.freescale.com.[17]. SHT1x/SHT7x Humidity & Temperature Sensor. Available on http://www.sensirion.com.[18]. PIC16F876 datasheet. Available on http://www.microchips.com.[19]. YS-320H, 5W RF-transceiver, wireless data modem. Available on http://szyishi.bossgoo.comAuthors Didik R. Santoso, received B.Sc. degree from Brawijaya University (UB), Malang-Indonesia (1992); M.Sc. degree from Gadjah-Mada University, Yogyakarta-Indonesia (1997), both in Instrumentation Physics; Dr.Eng. degree in Sructural Safety System from Hiroshima University, Hiroshima-Japan (2005). At present, he is a senior lecturer and researcher in the Department of Physics, UB. His research field is the smart sensors and instrumentation systems. Sukir Maryanto, received B.Sc. degree in Physics from Brawijaya University, Malang- Indonesia (1995); M.Sc. degree in Geophysics from Gadjah-Mada University, Yogyakarta- Indonesia (2000); Ph.D degree in Volcano Seismology from Kyoto University, Kyoto-Japan 541 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542
    • International Journal of Advances in Engineering & Technology, Jan 2012.©IJAET ISSN: 2231-1963 (2007). At present, he is a senior lecturer and researcher in the Department of Physics, UB. His research field is the Volcano Seismology. AY Ponco Wardoyo, received B.Sc. degree in Physics from Gadjah-Mada University, Yogyakarta-Indonesia (1988); M.Sc. degree in Astro Physics from University of Tasmania, Hobart-Australia (1995); Ph.D degree in Environmental Physics from Queensland Univ. of Tech., Brisbane-Australia (2007). At present, he is a senior lecturer and researcher in the Department of Physics, UB. His research field is the Environmental Monitoring. 542 Vol. 2, Issue 1, pp. 532-542