Week 2


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Week 2

  1. 1. Tonight: <ul><li>Collect Succession Paper, Pendulum Lab, Topic Selection Paragraph, and Critical Essay Discussions (if not sent electronically) </li></ul><ul><li>Go over EnvironNews Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Begin PowerPoint and Activities </li></ul>
  2. 2. Ecosystems and Energy Chapter 3
  3. 3. Ecology <ul><li>Interaction between the living and non-living environment </li></ul><ul><li>Bio tic A bio tic </li></ul>Living Non-living
  4. 4. Earth’s Four Realms (Abiotic Factors) Soil and rock Water-liquid and frozen Gasses
  5. 5. Levels of Organization Individual Same species Different species Biotic and Abiotic All ecosystems on earth put together
  6. 6. Energy <ul><li>Ability to do work </li></ul><ul><li>Forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radiant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrical </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Thermodynamics <ul><li>Study of energy transformation </li></ul><ul><li>2 laws: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 st law – energy cannot be created or destroyed, it just changes form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 nd law- during energy transfer, some energy is converted to heat (disorganized, high entropy) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Energy Transfer in Living Things <ul><li>Photosynthesis – turning energy into food </li></ul><ul><li>Cell respiration – turning food into energy </li></ul>photosynthesis Energy
  9. 9. Autotrophs vs Heterotrophs <ul><li>Autotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most undergo photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain their energy from the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the producers in an ecosystem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not undergo photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain energy from eating other organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These are the consumers in an ecosystem </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Flow of Energy
  11. 11. Energy Pyramid Only 10% of energy is moved from trophic level to trophic level
  12. 12. Demonstration <ul><li>How much energy is available from one trophic level to the next? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Activity <ul><li>Create an energy pyramid for your environment. Be sure to figure out how much energy moves up to each trophic level. Begin with producers at </li></ul><ul><li>1,000,000 C </li></ul><ul><li>How much energy will be left for each subsequent trophic level? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Notice direction of arrows
  15. 15. Activity <ul><li>Create a food web for at least 10 organisms in your ecosystem </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ecosystems and Living Organisms Chapter 4
  17. 17. Natural Selection <ul><li>Mechanism of evolution </li></ul><ul><li>The strongest survive and pass traits to offspring </li></ul>
  18. 18. Benefits and Problems with Pesticides (from chapter 23) <ul><li>Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a pesticide treadmill </li></ul>Pesticide application Kills most pests Resistant survive Numbers increase New population genetically resistant EVEN MORE INCREASE
  19. 19. Species Interactions <ul><li>Coevolution- response to predation and competition </li></ul><ul><li>Symbiosis – long term relationship between two or more species in which at least one species benefits </li></ul>
  20. 20. Three types of symbiosis <ul><ul><li>Mutualism – both species benefit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commensalism – one benefits, the other is unaffected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parasitism – one species benefits, the other is harmed </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Succession <ul><li>How communities change over time </li></ul>
  22. 22. Primary Succession e5 fig. 4.4 e4 fig. 5.4 Rocks Lichens Mosses Grasses Shrubs Trees
  23. 23. Secondary Succession
  24. 24. Niche <ul><li>Role of an organism in its environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fundamental niche – potential, idealized niche </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Realized niche – actual niche of the organism because of things like competition, predation etc </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Limiting Factors <ul><li>Any factor in the environment that can limit the amount of organisms that can be sustained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Density dependent – amount of organisms (population density) in the environment determines if something is limiting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density independent – population density plays no role in whether or not something is limiting </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Discussion <ul><li>What are some limiting factors in your environment? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Activity <ul><li>Complete the density dependant versus independent activity </li></ul>
  28. 28. Keystone Species <ul><li>Species that have a disproportionate influence on an </li></ul>krill Prairie dog wolf
  29. 29. Discussion <ul><li>What are the keystone species in your environment? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Ecosystems and the Physical Environment Chapter 5
  31. 31. Basics of Biogeochemical Cycling Energy passes through ecosystems Matter recycles
  32. 32. Water Cycle
  33. 33. Carbon Cycle
  34. 34. Nitrogen Cycle
  35. 35. Major Ecosystems of the World Chapter 6
  36. 36. Terrestrial Biomes
  37. 37. Temperate Deciduous Forest <ul><li>Leaves change and fall </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly broad leaves to absorb sun </li></ul><ul><li>Average rainfall 75-125 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperatureSummer: 28 ºC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter: 6ºC </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Coniferous Forest <ul><li>Consists mainly of evergreen trees </li></ul><ul><li>waxy needles to prevent water loss </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds in cones </li></ul><ul><li>Not a lot of plants grow in the under </li></ul><ul><li>story because of limited light </li></ul><ul><li>Average rainfall 35-75 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer: 14 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter: -10° C </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Temperate Grasslands <ul><li>Grasses and some flowering plants </li></ul><ul><li>Seed-eating mammals and herbivores </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass is manly underground, deep roots – this allows plants to live through grazing and fires </li></ul><ul><li>Average rainfall 25-75cm </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer 30°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter 0°C </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Savannas <ul><li>Tropical grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Clumps of trees </li></ul><ul><li>Deep roots </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuate between rainy season and </li></ul><ul><li>drought </li></ul><ul><li>Average rainfall 150 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry season: 34 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet season: 16°C </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Deserts <ul><li>Plants are succulent and grow </li></ul><ul><li>far apart </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals are nocturnal </li></ul><ul><li>Many animals have ways of conserving water and cooling themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Average rainfall less than 25cm </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature can vary greatly between night and day </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer: 38 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter: 7°C </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Tundra <ul><li>No trees because </li></ul><ul><li>cannot make deep roots </li></ul><ul><li>Permafrost - frozen soil </li></ul><ul><li>Soggy area because of </li></ul><ul><li>poor drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Average rainfall 30-50 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Summer: 12 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter: -26°C </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Tropical Rain Forest <ul><li>Most biologically diverse </li></ul><ul><li>Most animals live in the canopy </li></ul><ul><li>Soil nutrient poor </li></ul><ul><li>Rain forest quickly disappearing through farming and clear-cutting, and development </li></ul><ul><li>Average rainfall up to 400cm </li></ul><ul><li>Average temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Daytime:34 °C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nighttime: 20°C </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Discussion <ul><li>You come across an animal that you have never seen before. The animal has leathery skin, lays hard shelled eggs has extremely long ears and is nocturnal. This animal also likes to burrow a great deal. </li></ul><ul><li>Which biome would this animal be best suited to? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Marine Ecosystems <ul><li>Salty water </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 75% of the earth is covered in salt water </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton are the most abundant producers (perform photosynthesis) </li></ul><ul><li>Zooplankton feed on phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><li>Both phytoplankton and zooplankton for the base of the ocean’s food web </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean is divided into zones </li></ul>
  46. 47. Aquatic Ecosystems <ul><li>Human Impacts on the Ocean </li></ul>Look for dolphin safe label on tuna can:
  47. 48. Population Change Chapter 8
  48. 49. World Population Clock <ul><li>Monthly World population figures: </li></ul><ul><li>07/01/07 6,602,274,812 </li></ul><ul><li>08/01/07 6,608,818,475 </li></ul><ul><li>09/01/07 6,615,362,139 </li></ul><ul><li>10/01/07 6,621,694,717 </li></ul><ul><li>11/01/07 6,628,238,381 </li></ul><ul><li>12/01/07 6,634,570,959 </li></ul><ul><li>01/01/08 6,641,114,623 </li></ul><ul><li>02/01/08 6,647,658,287 </li></ul><ul><li>03/01/08 6,653,779,780 </li></ul><ul><li>04/01/08 6,660,323,443 </li></ul><ul><li>05/01/08 6,666,656,022 </li></ul><ul><li>06/01/08 6,673,199,685 </li></ul><ul><li>07/01/08 6,679,532,264 </li></ul>6,625,066,058 U.S. Census Bureau, the total population of the World, projected to 10/16/07
  49. 50. Population Density <ul><li>Number of organisms in a given area at a given time </li></ul><ul><li>Is dependant on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Births </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deaths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emigration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immigration </li></ul></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>• Name factors that prevent it from doing so? </li></ul>S-shaped curve E4 fig. 8.4 Exponential growth cannot occur forever…
  51. 52. Factors that Affect Population Size <ul><li>Density-Dependent Factors- </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that influence population growth when its density is high. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for food and space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Density-Independent Factors- </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of population density, influences population growth. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul>
  52. 53. The Human Population <ul><li>Projecting Future Population Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>When will zero population growth occur? </li></ul>In 2004 = ~6.4 billion 9.3 billion most likely in 2050 J-S curve:end of 21st century?
  53. 54. The Problems of Overpopulation Chapter 9
  54. 55. Population and Quality of Life <ul><li>Environmental degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Economic stagnation </li></ul><ul><li>Urban deterioration </li></ul><ul><li>Health issues </li></ul>Primary problems with overpopulation:
  55. 56. Activity <ul><li>Watch Population Movie and Discuss </li></ul>
  56. 57. For Next Time <ul><li>Individual: </li></ul><ul><li>Read chapters 11, 12, and 13 </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Shortage Paper (on page 10) </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting Factors reading and questions </li></ul><ul><li>Team: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Outline (on page 7) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Essay Discussions (environNews) </li></ul></ul></ul>