U Of P Week 4


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U Of P Week 4

  1. 1. Tonight <ul><li>Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Go over EnvironNews Topics </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss resources – pros and cons </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Power Point </li></ul><ul><li>BREAK </li></ul><ul><li>“ An Inconvenient Truth” segments and discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Practice presentations </li></ul>
  2. 2. Preserving Earth’s Biological Diversity Chapter 17
  3. 3. Activity <ul><li>In groups, use the flipchart paper and markers to write down why you think biodiversity is important </li></ul><ul><li>Also brainstorm ways in which biodiversity is at risk and write that on the paper </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Loss / destruction of habitat. . . . . . . . . . .73% </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of exotic (non-native) </li></ul><ul><li>species or their diseases . …………. … .68% </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants. . . . . . . . …………………… ...38% </li></ul><ul><li>Hybridization with sub-species </li></ul><ul><li>or other species . . . . . . . . ……….. . . . . 38% </li></ul><ul><li>Exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>(over-harvesting and over-hunting). . . . . .15% </li></ul><ul><li>(Note: total exceeds 100% because multiple factors sometimes apply to one species in decline) </li></ul>Causes of Species Decline
  5. 5. Importance of Diversity <ul><li>We are dependent on organisms for food and raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the world’s species have not yet been studied for their potential benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of species begins a chain reaction whose effects could be felt worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Missing bees </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Genetic assortment – species do better when their lineage is not closely linked </li></ul><ul><li>ex. Cross pollination of crops </li></ul><ul><li>Spiritual, ethical and aesthetic value </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Species are becoming extinct at an alarming rate leading to a decrease in biological diversity!!! </li></ul>
  8. 8. Extinct Species <ul><li>Background Extinction vs. Mass Extinction </li></ul>Continuous, slow rate of extinction over millions of years Numerous species disappear over geologically short time frame. -Major climate change
  9. 9. Extinct Species • Today, extinction rate is 100x - 1000x the background rate • In U.S., 250 species gone extinct since 1980
  10. 10. <ul><li>Endangered species </li></ul><ul><li>• Could become extinct soon without human intervention </li></ul><ul><li>• At risk are species with: </li></ul><ul><li>Small range </li></ul><ul><li>Island locale </li></ul><ul><li>Low reproductive success </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized breeding areas </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized feeding habits </li></ul>Threatened species • Population declining rapidly • Likely to become endangered
  11. 11. <ul><li>Human Causes of Species Endangerment </li></ul>#1 threat to biodiversity is loss of habitat - destruction - fragmentation - degradation
  12. 12. <ul><li>Biotic Pollution: </li></ul><ul><li>introduction of a foreign species into an ecosystem it did not evolve in </li></ul>Invasive Species
  13. 13. Human Causes of Species Endangerment <ul><li>Pollution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Acidification of soil and water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone depletion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Increased UV radiation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Warming due to CO 2 increases </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Endangered and Extinct Species <ul><li>Human Causes of Species Endangerment </li></ul><ul><li>Overexploitation </li></ul>Illegal hunting: snow leopards Unregulated parrot trade
  15. 15. What Can We Do About Declining Biological Diversity? <ul><li>Increase Awareness of Public </li></ul><ul><li>Support Research in Conservation Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Economic Incentives to Landowners and Other Local People </li></ul><ul><li>Establish International System of Parks </li></ul><ul><li>Control Pollution </li></ul>
  16. 16. Discussion <ul><li>Think about the area in which you live: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it biologically diverse? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What factors contribute to the diversity of the area in which you live? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What factors inhibit biological diversity where you live? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Air Pollution Chapter 20
  18. 18. The Atmosphere as a Resource <ul><li>Atmospheric composition: </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen = 78% </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen = 21% </li></ul><ul><li>Argon = 0.93% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide = 0.04% </li></ul>
  19. 19. Types and Sources of Air Pollution <ul><li>Major Classes of Air Pollutants </li></ul><ul><li>Particulate matter </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen oxides </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur oxides </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon oxides </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone </li></ul>Ozone damage
  20. 20. <ul><li>Primary Air Pollutants </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Primary and Secondary Air Pollutants </li></ul>Chemical reactions generate secondary pollutants
  23. 23. Effects of Air Pollution <ul><li>Air Pollution and Human Health </li></ul>Respiratory track, eyes, blood
  24. 24. Air Pollution Around the World <ul><li>Long-Distance Transport of Air Pollution </li></ul>
  25. 25. Regional and Global Atmospheric Changes Chapter 21
  26. 26. Global Climate Change Mean annual global Temperature, 1960-2003 Causes of Global Climate Change CO 2 in the atmosphere
  27. 27. <ul><li>The Causes of Global Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Effect </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>The Causes of Global Climate Change </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Effects of Global Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels </li></ul>Melting permafrost 1957 1998
  30. 30. Effects of Climate Change <ul><li>Rising sea level </li></ul><ul><li>Salinity differences – loss of marine diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Melting ice – loss of habitat for polar bears etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Melting permafrost – leads to increased insect population </li></ul><ul><li>Changing weather patterns </li></ul>
  31. 31. Discussion <ul><li>After viewing portions of “An Inconvenient Truth”, discuss in your groups which part of the information given was the most compelling </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere <ul><li>Stratospheric ozone layer </li></ul>Normal levels of ozone Reduced levels of ozone
  33. 33. Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere <ul><li>Ozone thinning </li></ul>Antarctica <ul><li>Causes </li></ul><ul><li>Main problem: CFCs </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Effects of Ozone Depletion <ul><li>Potentially, increased incidence of skin cancers </li></ul>Melanoma Some features • Irregular borders • Uneven color • Raised areas
  35. 35. Acid Deposition <ul><li>A.K.A. Acid rain </li></ul><ul><li>In US, damage from acid deposition is estimated at $10 B </li></ul>
  36. 36. Acid Deposition <ul><li>The Effects of Acid Deposition </li></ul><ul><li>Acid Deposition and Forest Decline </li></ul>• Damage to leaves - reduced photosynthesis - more susceptible to stress - death of tree • Damage to soil : acidification - Ca, K readily wash out - damage to fungi that aid in root uptake - death of tree
  37. 37. Acid Deposition <ul><li>Acid deposition not limited to locations where it originates. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>• IL, IN, MO, OH, PA, TN, WV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- produce 50-75% of acid deposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>• New England and Southeastern Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- contaminated </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Water Pollution Chapter 22
  39. 39. Types of Water Pollution <ul><li>Sewage </li></ul>↑ Enrichment Explosion in algal, bacteria, & decomposer populations ↑ Biological oxygen demand ↓ Oxygen levels in water Fish kills
  40. 40. Water Quality Today <ul><li>Water Pollution from Agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>72% of water pollution in rivers attributed to agriculture (largest polluter of rivers) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides may leach into soil; then water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sediment pollution in rivers from soil erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal waste from runoff </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Water Quality Today <ul><li>Other sources of Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>• Urban runoff </li></ul><ul><li>• Leakage </li></ul><ul><li>- gasoline storage </li></ul><ul><li>- sewage </li></ul><ul><li>- landfill </li></ul><ul><li>- industrial surface </li></ul>
  42. 42. Solid and Hazardous Waste Chapter 23
  43. 43. Solid Waste <ul><li>US produces most per capita solid waste = 4.4 lbs per person per day </li></ul><ul><li>229 million tons per year (and increasing!) </li></ul>Solid waste produced by av. family of four in one year in US
  44. 44. Solid Waste <ul><li>Types of Solid Waste Where it goes </li></ul>Note: most of the solid waste can be recycled but is not
  45. 45. Hazardous Waste <ul><li>Types of Hazardous Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Dioxins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Byproduct of combustion of chlorine compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions from incinerators; industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-accululation in fatty tissues ( affecting ALL humans ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-amplification in food webs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carcinogen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooling and hydraulic fluids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acute toxicity; birth defects; endocrine disruption; possible carcinogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-accululation in fatty tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bio-amplification in food webs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radioactive material </li></ul>
  46. 46. Tomorrow’s World Chapter 25
  47. 47. A Strategy for Sustainable Living <ul><li>Living Sustainably </li></ul><ul><li>Improve living conditions while maintaining a healthy environment </li></ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>economic growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>environmental conservation </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science <ul><li>Principle 1: Building a Sustainable Society </li></ul><ul><li>• Preserve Earth’s biological diversity </li></ul><ul><li>• Live within Earth’s carrying capacity </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Use renewable resources at a rate </li></ul><ul><li> which they can be renewed </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Conserve non-renewable resources </li></ul>
  49. 49. A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science <ul><li>Principle 2 : Respecting and Caring for the Community of Life </li></ul>• We evolved within and depend upon the web of life • Need to protect ecosystems; species Endangered sea turtle
  50. 50. A Review of the Central Themes of Environmental Science <ul><li>Principle 3 : Improving the Quality of Human Life </li></ul>Challenges of under developed countries - Distribution of resources - Economic growth - Scientists and Engineers
  51. 51. Addressing the Goals of Sustainability <ul><li>Principle 4 : Conserving Earth’s Vitality and Biological Diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Restore ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Control agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>- Control pollution </li></ul>
  52. 52. Addressing the Goals of Sustainability <ul><li>Principle 5: Keeping within Earth’s Carrying Capacity </li></ul>Family planning discussion Carrying Capacity of an ecosystem determined by its ability to - absorb wastes - renew itself
  53. 53. Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels <ul><li>Principle 6: Changing Personal Attitudes and Practices </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone learns; everyone contributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable consumption </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels <ul><li>Principle 7: Enabling Communities to Care for Their Own Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Provide communities with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunities for their input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right to help make decisions </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels <ul><li>Principle 8: Building a National Framework </li></ul><ul><li>• Integrate Development and Conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Most governments have single department overseeing environmental concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Need integrated approach across all government levels to promote sustainability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Law, Science, Taxation </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. Implementing Environmental Sustainability at Various Levels <ul><li>Principle 9: Creating a Global Alliance </li></ul>Global alliances for global problems - U.N. Fish Stocks Agreement - Kyoto Protocol (Global Warming) - Montreal Protocol (Ozone Depletion)
  57. 57. What Kind of World Do We Want? <ul><li>Which Principle you give top priority? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think the probability is that these Principles would be implemented in the US today? </li></ul><ul><li>What prevents their consideration? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think that if the US fails to adopt these principles that there were be any real serious consequences? </li></ul>