Problem recognition or question Make predictions Hypothesis supported? Educated guess Test and Control groups Test one variable at a time Peer review Reproduce results Identify gap in knowledge to be filled Most wrong Hypothesis development Experimentation Analysis Share knowledge YES NO Other scientists New knowledge
What can we do to be good stewards of the environment?
Five Steps for Addressing Environmental Problems (ideal situation) Scientific Assessment Scientific Method Formulation of Models Probability of Harm – do nothing or intervene? Remediation options Explain Problem Present Alternatives Report Costs Elected officials look at the Scientific, Economic, Political and Social considerations of a particular Course of action Post-implementation follow-up. Risk Analysis Public education and involvement Political action Evaluation
How has the northern spotted owl come to symbolize the conflict between the economy and the environment?
Describe the impact of environmental incidents in Central and Eastern Europe.
Learning Team 2
Compare and contrast biocentric preservation and utilitarian conservation.
Describe contributions of 3 key individuals to the US environmental movement.
Describe the impact of 2 specific pieces of national environmental legislation.
Learning Team 3
Define environmental worldviews.
Compare the Western and Deep Ecology worldviews.
What is your worldview?
Additional Learning Teams
Refer to “Discussion Topics for Week 1” slide; one topic per Team
Environmental History of U.S. 1600 1700 1800 1900 Dominated by the frontier attitude – by 1900, an area the size of Europe had been deforested Conquer Exploit
Environmental History of U.S. 1750 1800 1900 Some conservationists were influential in raising environmental concerns later in this period. Artist: generated interest in wildlife through his painting of birds Writer: wrote Man and Nature, man as an agent of environmental change Writer: wrote Walden, man in harmony with natural world, simplicity John James Audubon Henry David Thoreau George Perkins Marsh
Environmental History of U.S. 1850 1900 1950 Several presidents, particularly Theodore Roosevelt , used this Act to establish 43 million acres of forest reserves. In 1907 he designated 21 new national parks as a response to congressional opposition General Revision Act (1891) 1 st National Park: Yellowstone (1872) Yosemite and Sequoia (1890) National Parks American Forestry Association formed(1875)
Environmental History of U.S. 1850 1900 1950 Different Worldviews John Muir (founded the Sierra Club) • Biocentric Preservationist -protect nature (pristine state) -respect all life forms Theodore Roosevelt and Gifford Pinchot (1 st head of Forest Service) • Utilitarian Conservationist -viewed forests in terms of their usefulness to people
Environmental History of U.S. 1900 1950 2000 Aldo Leopold A Sand County Almanac published posthumously Man’s relationship with nature and need to conserve Franklin Roosevelt Civilian Conservation Corps Soil Conservation Service in response to The American Dust Bowl National Park Service Founded (1916) in response to Hetch Hetchy
Environmental History of U.S. 1900 1950 2000 Rachel Carson published Silent Spring Pesticide DDT. Heralded beginning of the environmental movement.
Environmental History of U.S. 1900 1950 2000 Paul Ehrlich published The Population Bomb (1968) -Raised awareness of the environmental damage caused by humans -3.5 billion people, 1968 Wilderness Act of 1964, spurred on by Wallace Stegner and signed by President Johnson (1964) – set aside land that cannot be trampled on by humans - no roads, permanent structures etc. First Earth Day (1970) -widespread environmental movement begins -Global warming -Alternative energy Environmental Protection agency is formed (1970)
Addressing New Environmental Problems with Government Policies
Problem identified Regulations implemented / enforced by states (usually) OMB (office of Mgmt and Budget) reviews / approves funding US congressperson drafts legislation Legislation passed, signed by president Full-cost accounting evaluation Pros and cons of various alternatives EPA develops regulations – allowable levels of pollution Public comments
Study of how we use limited resources in an attempt to satisfy unlimited wants .
Price determined by supply and demand
Economists try to predict consequences of economic actions.
Economics and the Environment Economies depend on the natural environment • Sources for raw materials • Sinks to receive waste Sources + Sinks = Natural Capitol Economic future threatened by resource degradation and pollution • Overuse of resources • Overuse of Sinks Source Raw Materials Economy Production Consumption Products Money Sinks Waste